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Full text of "A Gaelic dictionary, in two parts : I. Gaelic and English. - II. English and Gaelic : in which the words, in their different acceptations, are illustrated by quotations from the best Gaelic writers : and their affinities traced in most of the languages of ancient and modern times : with a short historical appendix of ancient names, deduced from the authority of Ossian and other poets : to which is prefixed, a new Gaelic grammar"

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^Jy*^ m^ 



<?rintc!) rtt tijo Scin|)tc <i'nn{mii C?ffficc, 

BV I. MnYER, IlOI'VEUir s'lnEE'l. 










?l^t£itorifal S^jpmtiu- of Stunrnt ilamrg, 












Tha 'm barrachd so agad os-cionn na h-uile neachfuidh sgeith am b' iirrainn 
mi mo Leabhar a chur a mack do 'n t-saoghul, — na 'm bit dàna learn ionnsuidh a 
thoirt air do mholadh, (a dh'aindeoin na dhy'haotainn a radh air mhath mu 'd thimcMoll) 
nach cuireadh duine beb miodul beoil as mo leth; agus, an àite sin, gu 'n uidicheadh 
na h-uile, gun d'thàinig mi fada gearr air an fhlrinn. — Ach tha thu fada nan cian 
an neor-eisiomail mo mholaidh. 

Thog dealradh do Phearsa, agus oirdheirceas do bhuadhannan nàdurra — 
tkog huan-shloinneadh urramach do Shinnsearachd Rioghail, agus mor-fharsuingeachd 
do Thighearnais an ceithir chearnaibh na Cruinne — thog gliocas do Chomhairlean, 
agus Greadhnachas do Riaghlaidh, maille ri buaidh anabarrach d'Fheachd air muir 
is air ùr, — do chUii co ard agus nach ruig mise, no duin' eiV a choidhche air a mhullach, 
le streap caiimte. 

Ach am feadh a tha do Chlih thar chàch uile air sgaoileadh anns gach 
ditthaich mu 'n iadh grian, measaidh Tufein mar d'onoir a 's mo, Thu bhi liaghladh ann 

<iii cridhibli s1oii(lt .shaormil, shona aguf! dlùUs. An sin " O a High mair beh gii hràtli /" 
Agn.s am feadli ii bhios buan-chaithreain buaidh do Ithearta ionmholta ag eh'idh <t>n 
biìiìt-clti'Uìeiribli guch Cùnmhuin 'san Rohm Eorjt ; git robic e ninr uliochuir s/ihriruic/if 
nig tno I.e(d)li(tr-m so, bliith 'g innseadh do 'd GlundheiUbli fein, gu 'n do cheadnic/i 
TliK dim dol (I Didcli, fìàdìi fhasgadh d' Ainni ndihir, (d/'son sior-chnmail suns eolais 
(til Gniligc gridilli. 

Is niise, gu ma toil le do Mìcoridacìid Rioghail, 
fl' lochdamn ro-iimlud, 

Agus do Sheirhheiseach ro-dlrdeas, 



Ma XV of those who cultivate literature will acknowledge, that their exertions are oftener the 
result of accident, or of precipitate resolution, than of long cherished design, or mature reflec- 
tion ; — that their most laborious enterprises are, sometimes, undertaken without due regard 
to the difficulties which stand in the way of their completion ; and that although the possibility 
or likelihood of ultimate success be at intervals contemplated, the ardour of the pursuit is 
kept up by causes independent of such considerations. 

Firmness of purpose is peculiarly requisite in the Lexicographer who has had no precursor 
in his particular walk of compilation ; who has had to encounter, at every step, the ruggedness 
and perplexities of an untrodden path ; to contend with difficulties at every turn ; to find 
barrenness where he hoped for fertility, obscurity where he looked for light, and misappre- 
hension and error, where he expected certainty and truth. His difficulties are, without 
question, of a disheartening character : this I may be allowed to say from my own experience ; 
yet I should be unwilling to utter an expression of dissatisfaction or regret : for I might be 
told that my labour was voluntary ; that he who throws himself into trouble has nothing to 
blame but his own rashness ; and that he who challenges difficulties or misfortune, deserves 
only ridicule for his complaints. 

In undertaking the present task, I did not, perhaps, sufficiently consider the disadvantages 
under which I laboured, nor the odds against which I had to contend ; but I knew that 
formidable obstacles have often yielded to steady resolution, and unremitting diligence. 

It is not easy, in speaking of ones own labours, to avoid the imputation of egotism ; 
I .shall, therefore, leave it to others to form their own estimate of the present publication. I 
can only say that, though my task has been severe, it has not been without advantage ; and 
that though it should never be crowned with great public approbation, it has not been alto- 
gether without its reward. It has pointed my way to various sources of learning which 
otherwise I should not have approached ; it has led me to consult authors whom otherwise I 
should not have known ; it has procured for me patronage which cannot be exalted by my 
praise, and friendship which I shall ever be proud to cherish. 

The first remark which may occur in opening these sheets is, that I have been too lavish 
of quotations in some instances, and too sparing in others. On this subject I shall only 

viii PREFACE. 

observe, that I considered myself as engaged in the double task of instructing the ignorant, 
and of assisting the well-informed ; that a Lexicographer ought not to take for granted the 
knowledge of those who consult him ; and that I had, moreover, the design of throwing 
every facility in the way of future compilers. To the charge of being too sparing, I have 
to answer, that the list of authors in our language is so small, that, for a vast variety of words, 
I could not find, nor does there, I believe, exist, any written authority. 

In the Gaelic-English Dictionary, the different acceptations of the Gaelic words might 
have been arranged with the same precision, and after the same method, as in some other 
dictionaries, but that the size and price of the work would be thereby nearly doubled. 

In translating the Gaelic language, the inflections of nouns and verbs are apt to embarrass 
the young student. On that account I deemed it expedient, in a great variety of instances, 
to insert, as separate articles, the nominatives and datives plural of nouns, and such tenses 
of the verbs as are in most frequent use, and, at the same time, bear the least resemblance to 
the root ; such are the preterite active, the future affirmative active and passive, and the past 
participle. I have also arranged many of the aspirate forms of words, as separate articles, 
and have referred for explanation to the simple form. This will, it is hoped, be found useful. 
Few students would conjecture that they must turn up cliias for ctuasaibli ; tigh for thigh ; dl 
for (Ih'òl ; dìrich for dhìrich ; biiail for buailidli ; heir for fug; ditiiin for chual; thoir, or thabhair, 
for bheirimi. If, in this, I should be considered diffuse by those who already know the lan- 
guage, I feel assured that I shall have the acknowledgment of those who know it not, and 
are desirous to acquire it. 

It will be seen that, in many words, especially in those which I considered primitive, I 
have traced affinities to a considerable extent. In doing so, my object was to leave grounds 
for inferring the common origin of all languages, and to establish the antiquity of the Celtic. 
For, if nations far remote and unconnected, dissimilar in manners and customs, shall have 
preserved the same terms for all such objects as are most familiar to the observation of a 
people in a state of nature, the obvious inference is, that these terms must have been derived 
from a common origin; — from the language of the earliest inhabitants of the earth. Again, if 
the Celtic should be found to contain all such terms as are common to all languages, it 
is evident that it must have derived them from man's primeval tongue. 

it is true that almost every language of antiquity has asserted its title to be considered the 
most ancient ; and men whose erudition cannot be disputed, have supported their respective 
claims. Of these, the Celtic has found an able advocate in Pezron, and other philologists ; the 
Hebrew, in Leibnitz; the Pha;nician, in Bochart ; and the Dutch, in Gor. Becanus. 

The diversity of opinions entertained on this subject, may, perhaps, be accounted for. All 
the languages of antiquity, which are, in truth, but so many dialects of the primeval speech, 
have nearly an equal number of primitives ; and each of them, therefore, in as far as roots 
are concerned, seems to carry, on the face of it, an argument for the earliest existence. There 
is little wonder, then, if a scholar should decide in favour of that with which he is most 


farailiar, and that a great question in philology should be affected by that prejudice which 
intrudes itself into every department of human inquiry. 

With all my admiration of the Celtic, I cannot join with those who ascribe to it an 
antiquity beyond that of many other languages ; for I have not been able to discover, that 
it can be said, with truth, of any language, that it is the most ancient. 

I do not propose to meddle, in this place, with the keenly contested point, whether 
the Gaelic of the Highlands be the parent of the speech of Ireland. However, I may lie 
permitted to observe, that the Scotch Gaelic bears a closer resemblance to the parent 
Celtic, and has fewer inflections than the Welsh, Manks, or Irish dialects. It has this 
circumstance, too, ia common with the Hebrew, and other oriental languages, that it wants 
the simple present tense; a peculiarity which strongly supports the opinion, that the Gaelic 
of Scotland is the more ancient dialect. This question has been long discussed with 
eagerness and ability. The one party draws its opinions partly from history, partly 
from acute hypothetical reasoning, and from the natural westward progress of early migra- 
tion ; the other argues from legends for which credulity itself is at a loss to discover a 

Throughout this work, I have followed the orthography of two writers, who are relied 
on as guides by their countrymen; — ^the one, Dr. Stewart of, the translator of the 
Holy Scriptures into Gaelic ; the other. Dr. Smith of Campbelton, the author of a Gaelic 
metrical version of the Psalms, and other creditable works. These writers spent much of 
their time in settling the orthography of our language; and, as they have a just and acknow- 
ledged claim to be considered authorities, it is much to be desired that they should, hence- 
forth, be regarded in that light. Fluctuations in the Gaelic language are perilous at this 
stage of its existence ; for, if it be not transmitted to posterity in a regular, settled form, 
it is to be feared, that it must soon share the fate of the forgotten Cornish. 

The rule caol ri cuol agia kathan ri kathan, has been carefully observed by the writers 
already mentioned, especially by Dr. Stewart. It directs that two vowels, contributing to 
form two different syllables, should be both of the same class or denomination of vowels, — 
either both broad, or both small. Agreeably to this rule, we ought to write ikanaibh, not 
deanibh ; fò'ìdvan, not fù'uUin ; bioraìì, woi bircni : and so on, with other words. This mode of 
spelling is a modern invention. It was first introduced by the Irish, and adopted by the 
Gael, with, I confess, more precipitation than propriety. It has its advantages and its dis- 
advantages. It mars the primitive simplicity and purity of the language ; but it removes 
from it tliat appearance of harshness which arises from too great a proportion of consonants. 
It not unfrequently, darkens somewhat the ground on which we trace the affinities of Gaelic 
-words with those of the sister dialects, and of other languages ; yet it has infused into our 
speecli a variety of liquid and mellow sounds which were unknown, or at least not so 
perceptible before. It may be asked, why I have adhered to a rule of which I did not 
altogether approve ? I reply, that any attempt at innovation — even at restoring the language 



to its primitive purity, might introduce more iuconveniencies and evils than can result from 
the present settled system of orthography. 

I have bestowed pains on referring derivative words to their primitives — ^in resolving com- 
pound words to their component j)arts — -in affixing to substantives their genitive singular and 
gender — and to verbs their signification, whether active or neuter. The quotations from Gaelic 
writers are translated into English as literally as the idioms of these languages will allow. 

The edition of Stewart's Gaelic Bible, of which I made use, was that printed at Edinburgh 
in 1807, for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The particular 
book of the sacred volumes from which I take a quotation is almost always mentioned. 
Occasionally, however, O. T. or A". T. will be met with, where I could not remember the 
precise part of the Old or New Testament which contained my authority. G. B. occur 
where I could not remember nor ascertain from which of the Testaments the quotation 
was taken. These abbreviations are, I believe, of rare occurrence; and I have here adverted 
to them, in order to explain what, otherwise, might appear a want of precision. 

The Gaelic, like all the languages of early times, does not abound in terms of science 
or art. It will be seen, therefore, in the English-Gaelic Dictionary, that terms in mathe- 
matics, metaphysics, and other sciences, I have been compelled to express by ambiology, 
and often by definition. 

If it be found that, of names of instruments, as in agriculture and mechanics, some are 
rendered, perhaps, imperfectly, and others overlooked, let it be remembered, that no com- 
pilation ever yet recorded every vocable which floated in a spoken language; and that I could 
not, when an uncertainty occurred, transport myself to the proper sources of information, 
to make ii;i for the scarcity of books and the defects of memory. 

The Gaelic vocabularies of Shaw, Macfarlane, and Macdonald, and the Irish dictionaries 
of O'Brien and O'Reilly, were of considerable .service to me. The mere collecting of words, 
however, was but a small part of my labour, compared with the wearisome and almost 
endless pursuit of authorities for different 'acceptations of the same word. 

In tracing affinities, I derived great benefit from the works of Suidas, Cambry, Court 
de Gebelin, Menage, Rostrenen, Bullet, Pezron, Spellman, Lye, and Edward Lhuyd, among 
philologists ; and, in matters of antiquity, from Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Solinus, Tacitus, 
Ammianus, Usher, Toland, Huddleston, Keating, Malcolm, Dr. John Macpherson, Pennant, 
Smith, and a forgotten multitude of other erudite and ingenious writers. 

In the English-Gaelic Dictionary, I have followed the orthography and arrangement 
of Perry. 

It was once my design to prefix to this work a dissertation on the mechanism and 
philo.sophy of the Gaelic language ; but, on reflection, I substituted a compendious view of 
its structure, as being more suitable to sucli a performance, and more likely to be of service. 
In this department of my compilation, I am indebted to the works of Shaw, O'Reilly, 
and O'Connor. 

PREFACE. • xi 

A circumstance not unworthy of notice concerning this Dictionary is, that a great part of 
it was printed while it was generally thought to be only in preparation. Hence it happened 
that, during the progress of these sheets through the press, I was, not unfrequently, favoured 
with communications from most respectable quarters, conveying encouragement which 
excited my gratitude, and oti'ers of assistance which were, I lament, too late to be ren- 
dered available. No doubt, it would have been useful to my work, if I had obligations, 
on this account, to acknowledge. Be that as it may, I consider it due to myself to state, 
that neither in compiling this Dictionary, nor even in transcribing the mass of manuscript 
for publication, nor in superintending the press, have I received the least assistance whatever. 
For patronage, however, I am deeply beholden to several whom ray commendations cannot 
affect, but whom gratitude compels me to mention. 

The early and eflective patron of this work, I am proud to make known, was Lord 
Strathavon ; a young nobleman who, to many other acquirements, has added a most 
accurate knowledge of the Gaelic language. I have not vanity enough to attribute to the 
humble merits of my performance his Lordship's powerful support, to which I owe almost 
all the more splendid names on my list of subscribers; but rather to that liberal and active 
spirit with which he lends his aid to every cause which concerns the literature of the 
Scottish Gael, and the honour of their country. 

To his Grace the Duke of Hamilton I feel greatly indebted for attention and encourage- 
ment ; as also to Lord Archibald Hamilton, and to Lord Glenorchy, 

Sir Charles Forbes, Bart., of Edinglassie, whose patriotic character is well known, laid 
me under early and great obligations. I value the kindness of this gentleman the more, 
because it procured for me the acquaintance of General Gordon of Balbithan, a very superior 
Celtic scholar and philologist, from whose conversation and suggestions I derived essential 

I am gratified to rank, among my most zealous patrons. Dr. Mackiniion of Adelphi, 
and the Rev. Dr. Ross of Lochbroom ; gentlemen whose knowledge of every l^ranch of the 
Celtic language is the least of their acquirements. 

Mr. Simon Mac Gillivray of Suffolk Lane has done this Dictionary a service, which I can 
never forget nor sufficiently acknowledge. 

Mr. Robert Kennedy of Grenada will, I hope, accept of this expression of my gratitude 
for his most active support, to which I owe a great proportion of my West India subscribers. 

My sense of the friendly and successful efforts of the late Dr. Charles Kennedy of 
St. Vincent, my schoolfellow and college companion, is equalled only by my regret for 
his untimely death, and my respect for his memory. 

I have also my thanks to offer to the following gentlemen, who, though mentioned the 
last in order, are not the least in my esteem : — Capt. Duncan Mac Dougall of the 79th Regt. 
of Foot ; the Rev. Daniel Mac Naughton of Glenco and Appin ; the Rev. Alexander 
Anderson of Strontian; and the Rev. Alexander Kennedy of Mull. 

xii ' PREFACE. 

It would be most ungrateful in mc not to take this opjjortunity of mentioning, that, 
notwithstanding all the patronage with which 1 have been favoured, it is questionable whether 
I could ever have offered these sheets to the public, but for the disinterested spirit of my 
publisher, Mr. Duncan. 

To my Subscribers, in general, 1 return my sincerest acknowledgments. They may be 
assured that very strenuous exertions have been made to fulfil the promises held out in the 
Prospectus ; and I trust that I shall be considered as having redeemed my pledge. 

To hope that this Dictionary is free from imperfections, even after all the pains I have 
bestowed on it, would be presumptuous ; and to expect that any circumstance shall cause 
those to be overlooked or forgiven, would be to hope for a favour which has been withheld 
from far higher claims and deserts than mine; — for the merits of one's cause are not always a 
|)rotection from hostility and censure ; and diligence, however laborious and sincere, is not 
always requited with approbation. 

I forbear to mention the time which this work has occupied, and the labour which it has 
required. I might be discredited by some, and considered by others as indulging my vanity; — 
especially when I should add, that I had in the meanwhile to provide for my own sub- 
sistence ; and that the compilation which I now send forth to the world, is, in truth, the 
production of such hours as I could spare from harassing occupations, or snatch from the 
proper seasons of repose. 

Having stated this much, I must guard against misconstruction. I have no desire to 
conciliate hostility, nor to soften criticism. My cause is good. I have, under all disad- 
vantages, done it the best service in my power; and I now, without presumption, yet 
without undue anxiety, submit my work to a public intelligent enough to know the value 
of every man's labour, and sufficiently generous to assign to all the degree of honour which 
they may deserve. 


Asterisks (*) precede the names of those ■Subscribers n-ho are now no more. 




Argyll, His Grace the Duke of. 

Aboyiie, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Aberdeen, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Allan, Grant, Esq. Gower Street. 

."Anderson, the Rev. .\lexander, Strontian. 

.\ndrew, James, LL.D. Sutton. 

Armstrong, Alexander, Esq. Grenada. 

.Armstrong, Simon, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Atcheson, Robert Shank, Esq. Duke Street, Westminster. 

Breadalbane, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 

Beresford, Lord John, M.P. 

Brisbane, Governor Sir Charles, K.C.B. St. Vincent. 

2 copies. 
Brougham, Henry, Esq. M.P. ■ 
Boucher, James, Esq. Grenada. 

Britten, John, Esq. F.S.A. Burton Street, Burton Crescent. 
Brown, Fielding, Esq. Grenada. 

Canning, the Right Honourable George, M.P. 

Calder, Hector, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Campbell, Walter Frederick, Esq. of Shawfield and Isia, 






Campbell, Colonel, Balveolan. 
Campbell, the Rev. Alexander, Stratlitay. 
Campbell, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Carmichael, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Clark, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Collins, John, Esq. Bath. 
Cruickshank, .*Vlcxaudcr, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Cnmming, Alexander, Esq. St. V'incent. 
Cochran, Mr. 108, Strand, 2 copies. 


Davidson, H. Esq. of Tulloch. 

Davidson, Duncan, younger, Esq. of Tulloch. 

Downie, Robert, Esq. of Appin, M.P. 

Dear, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Denton, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Dickie, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Dickson, Thomas, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Donald, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 

V)nW, James Gordon, Esq. Gloucester Place. 

Fife, the Right Hunouralile llie Earl of. 

Fergusson, General Sir Ronald, M.P. 

Forbes, .Sir Charles, Bart, of Edinglassie, iM.i'. Eitzrov 

Scjuare, 5 copies. 
Forbes, John, I'^scj. Fit/roy S(|iiure. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. Fif/.roy Square. 
Forbes, Miss Katharine Stewart, Fitzroy Square. 
Forbes, George, Esq. Fitzroy Siiuare. 
Forbes, Master James Stewart, l''ltzroy Si|ii;u\'. 
Forbes, Lieutenant Colonel David, 7Nth lieyt. 
Frazer, Archibald, Esq. Grenada. 
Frazer, Malcolm, Esti. Cìrenada. 


Gordon, his Grace the Duke of. 
Gwydyr, the Right Honourable Lady, 2 copies. 
Glenorchy, the Right Honourable Lord, M.P. 3 copies. 
Grant, the Right Honourable Sir William, l.incoln's-Inn- 

Grant, the Honourable Charles, M.P. 
Grant, Sir Alexander, Albany. 
Gordon, Major-General Benjamin. 
Gaskill, Robert, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Glen, William, Esq. Grenada. 
Gordon, the Rev. Donald, Ederachilis. 
Grant, Patrick, Esq. of Redcastie. 
Grant, John, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Guthrie, , Esq. of Craigie. 


Hamilton and Brandon, his Grace the Duke of. 
Hamilton, the Right Honourable Lord Archibald, M.P. 
Huntingdon, the Right Honourable the Countess of, 

3 copies. 
Haddington, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 
Hutton, Lieutenant-General. 

Hindlcy, , Esq. Doughty Street. 

Hutchinson, •, Esq. Wellington Place, Cdmrncrcial 

Harding and Co. Messrs. 4 copies. 

Keith, Dr. Ronald, Grenada. 

Kennedy, the Rev. Alexander, Isle of Mull. 

Kennedy, Robert, Escj. Cirenada, 3 copies. 

Kennedy, Evan, Esq. Grenada. 

' Kennedy, John H. Esq. .Surgeon, (irenadi. 

* Kennedy, Charles N. Esq. Surgeon, St. Vinctut, 3 copies. 



* Londonderry, the Most Honourable tlie Marquess of. 
Lyndocli, Lord. 

Lumsden, Lieutenant Colonel D. 
Livingston, Dugald, Esq. Grenada. 


Montrose, his Grace the Duke of. 
Moray, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 
Menzies, Lady, of Menzies, Castle-Menzies. 

* Murray, Sir John Mac Gregor, Bart. 

Mac Gregor, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Evan, Bart. 

Mackintosh, Sir James, M.P. 

Mac Donell, Colonel .Alexander Ranaldson, of Glengarry and 

Mac Kinnon, Donald, M.D. and F.R.S. .'Idelphi. 
Mac Gillivray, Simon, Esq. of Beinn' Ghaidheal. 
Mac Gregor, P. Esq. Surgeon, Golden .Square. 
Mac Arthur, the Rev. Donald, Isle of Mull. 
Mac Arthur, Duncan, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Barnet, .\lexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Coll, the Rev. Alexander, Lismore. 
Mac Dougall, Captain Duncan, 79th Regt. 
Mac Dougall, Patrick, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Dowall, Allan, Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies. 
Mac Ewan, Dr. George, Grenada. 
Mac Ewan, Dr. James, Grenada. 
Mac Fee, John, Esq. .St. Vincent. 
Mac Gregor, Alexander, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Gregor, William, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Innes, John, Esq. Grenada. 

Mac Ivor, Mr. Farquhar, Preacher of the Gospel, Loch- 
Macintyre, Captain .John, Kenniore. 
Macintyre, Archibald, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Kenzie, the Rev. Dr. Hugh, .Assynt. 

Mac Kenzie, Roderick, Es(|. .St. Vincent. 

Mac Kenzie, Colin, Esq. 

Mac Kinnon, Charles, Esq. Cambden Hill. 

Mac Kinnon, William Alexander, Esq. Portswood House, 

near Southampton. 
Mac Lean, the Rev. J. Argyllshire. 
Mac Lean, George, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Lean, John, Esq. Grenada. 
Mac Leod, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent, '2 copies. 
Mac Leod, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Mac Naughton, the Rev. Daniel, Appin. 
Mac Naughton, the Rev. Allen, Campbelton. 
Mac Naughton, Alexander, Esq. Surgeon, R.N. 
Mac Naughton, Dr. James, United States. 
Mac Pherson, D. Esq. Chandos Street, Covent Garden. 
* Mac Vean, Archibald, Esq. Grenada. 
Malcolm, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Menzies, Stewart, Esq. of Culdues. 
Menzies, H. Esq. Mary Street, Fitzroy Square. 
Miller, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Munro, George Gun, Esii. Grenada. 
Murray, Patrick, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Nott, the Rev. Dr. Winchester. 

O'Neil, John, Esq. Grenada. 


Paris, Royal Institute of. 

Petit, Louis Hayes, Esq. Lincoln's Inii. 

Prescod, W. H. Esq. St. Vincent, '2 copies. 


Roseberry, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 


I Stewart,.!., M.D. Appm. 

Stewart, .lames Flemiiis:. Esq. Grenada. 

Ramsay, the Honoiirable Colonel John. Kelly House, near ' Stewart. William, Esq. Piccadilly. 

Richardson, Clement Thomas, Esq. Grenada. 
Robertson, Divic, Es([. Bedford Square. 
Robertson, E. Esq. Beverley, Yorkshire. 
Robertson. Colin, Esq. Russell Square. 
Robertson, Andrew, Esq. Gerrard Street, Soho. 
Robertson, .Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
' Robertson, the Rev. Dr. Ebui'y Street. Chelsea. 
Ross, the Rev. Dr. Lochbroom, Rosshire. 
Rois, the Rev. Alexander, Ullapool. 
Rivmgton, Messrs. Strand, ti copies. 


StafTord, the Most Honourable the Marchioness of. 
Strathavon, the Right Honourable Lord, M. P. 4 copies. 
Saltoii and Abernethy, the Right Honourable Lord. 
Stewart, the Honourable John. 
Stewart, Major General, of Garth. 
Shaw, Major General John. 
.Stewart, the Rev. James, Ardgowcr. 
Salami, A. Esq. 

Shand, .Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. 
Smith, .lohn. Es(j. St. Vincent. 
Symon, James, Esq. St. Vincent. 

Tennanf, R. J. \V. Esq. Belfast. 

Todd, James Ruddell, Esq. of Baliutaaarf, .Adelph 

Treasurer, Kennet, Esq. Edinburgh. 

Thomson, William, Esq. St. Vincent. 


Upham, , Esq. Bath. 

Urquhart. , Esq. St. Vincent. 


Wemyss and March, the Right Honour.ible th..- Earl of. 

Whitely, , Esq. Halifax. 

Wilkmson. Thomas, Esq. St. \ineenl. 



Grammar, or the art of speaking and writing a language according to certain established rules, is divided into four parts, 
viz. Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 

OuTiioGUAPiiY, or right spelling, teaches the true arrangement of letters in words; the correct utterance of which 
is called Orthoepy. 

Etymology teaches how to derive a word from its root or primitive, — the parts of speech, — the inflection of nouns 
and verbs, — and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified. 

Syntax, teaches how to arrange words into sentences. 

Prosody teaches the accent and cjuantity of syllables, and the measure of verse. 


The old Gaelic, commonly called the Irish, alphabet, consists of eighteen letters 

vhich arc divided into vowels and 





Old Gaelic 

, or Ii 


Ancient Gaelic Name. 










































Goibh, or gath. 

A spear. 

















The fjuickcH tree. 















The spindle tree. 





Peith bhog. 























Uir, or iuthar. 


? iVrvvrn 

■;' f)X 


Of these, a, e, i, o, u, are vowels, which Irish granimariuns have divided into broad and sniall : u, o, u, are broad ; 
e, i, small. 

A represents three different sounds ; in the first two of which it is both long and short. A long, sounds like the 
English a in bar, or the Italian a in amo : as, àl, broad ; sc'ir, excellent : and short, like a in cat, as, cas, a foot ; /alt, hair. 



A, immediately preceding dh and gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound, to which there is none correspondent 
in English. In this situation it much resembles the sound of the French diphthong eu ; long, as, ladhar, a hoof; agh- 
mhor, fortunate: short, as a in lagh, law; tagii, choose. 

A soimds short and obtuse, like e in open, in the three forms of the article a, an, am, and in the plural terminations 
a and a/1 ; as, Za(//((()i)in, laws ; icaHHtan, mountains. 


E represents three different sounds. 

E, with the grave accent (è), sounds long, like the Greek »i, as pronounced in Scotland and on the Continent, or like 
e in where ; as, r, he; ri", during the time of: and short, like e in loet ; as, teth, hot; in which state it is never accented. 

E, with the acute accent (t'), sounds like the Greek «, as, pronounced in England ; as, Ic, a female. 

E final hp,5 an obtuse sound, like e in open; as, beannuichte, blessed ; bitailte, struck ; — there being no silent final 
vowels in Gaelic. 


/sounds likecc in English, but .sometimes long and sometimes short; long, as, s'ln, stretch; s'lth, peace: short, like 
ee in feet ; as, bith, existence. 


O represents three different sounds, in each of which it is both long and short. 

long, sounds sometimes like o in lord ; as, hi, drink ; riimacli, hairy : and sometimes like o in fold ; as, cot, a coat ; 
torn, a hillock. 

short, sounds sometimes like o in pot ; as, brod, a lid ; grod, rotten ; borb, fierce : and sometimes like o in rope ; 
as, slob, a puddle. 

0, before gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound : long, as, sogh, luxury; short, as, roghuinn, choice. 

U sounds like u in French and Italian, or like the English oo m jnoon, but sometimes long and sometimes short : 
long, as, fudar, powder ; short, as, furan, a welcome. 


A diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in one syllaljje. In Gaelic there are thirteen diphthongs, and they are 
derived from the vowels in the following manner : 

( ae. I . ( la. ^ 

From a < ai. From e ' ' From i < io. From o, oi. From u\ ■' 

Ì i eo. Ì . ' em. 

f «0. / f III. '• 

Of these, ao, cu, are improper diphthongs ; the rest are proper. 



Ae occurs but in a few words; as, Gael,* a Highlander. 

Ai sounds like ai in the French canaille; as, caill, lose; mill, salt; pailtcas, plenty. Very frequently i is but faintly 
sounded ; as in àite, a ])lace ; fùilte, welcome. 

Ea sounds like ea in the English noun bi:ar ; as, eacli, a horse ; fear, a man ; l)ut before a palatal, c, g ; or a lingual, 
/, n, r; or a dental, d, s, t, not silent, the prepositive is often either quiescent, or but faintly sounded; a.s, ccalg, deceit; 
geall, a wager. 

Ei sometimes gives the sound of both vowels ; as, fcidh, deer ; and sometimes that of e alone ; as, n'irf/i, a plain. 
Before the palatals, c, g, the Unguals, /, n, r, or the dentals, d, s, t, not silent, i is but faintly heard ; as, rcic, sell ; leig, 
let ; fciii, self: and often confers on a following palatal, a double palatal sound; as, thig, (pronounce hcek), shall come; 
and on a dental, a double dental sound; as, theid, shall go (pron. hiich, articulating ch as in church). 

Eo sounds somewhat like aiv in ijawl ; as, ccòl, music; ceo, mist. 

la has both vowels heard ; as, fiar, crooked ; mil, a thou.; ; rinr, dusky ; but in ciu ? what ? and iad, they, ia often 
sounds like e in when:. 

' Gat-I and Guelach are more commonly writteji Gaidlieal ami Gaidlieahcli, to presorvo the rule, cuol ri cnol, is Icalhan ti katkait. 


lo sounds both long and short: long, as, ea in fear ; as, sior, ever; Jior, true : and short, not unlike the French eu ; 
as, Jiodh, timber. Before a palatal, lingual, or dental, o is not always, or but faintly, heard; as, pioc, pick; ciod, what; 
sgiol, skill ; hior, a thorn ; Jios, knowledge. 


lu sounds both its vowels; as, _/;«, (pron. few), worthy; except before c, 51, or d, I, n, r, s, t, where it is not 
sounded; as, Hugh, thick, (pron. chin);, deny, (pron. chiùlt). 

Oi sounds both its vowels: long, as, doiyh, manner; sloigh, host: short, as, troidh, a foot; hloidh, a piece. Except 
before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, not silent, i is quiescent, and affects the sound of the consonant which it precedes; as, toic, 
substance, (pron. t»(x») ; foid, a turf, (pron./òcA, ch sounding as in chair); coise, gen. of cas, foot, (pron. coish). 

Ua sounds both its vowels ; as, tuar, colour ; fuar, cold. Except before ch, dh, gh, th, the a of xui commonly 
sounds like e in her; as, bruach, a bank; tuadh, a hatchet; shiagh, people; luath, swift. 

Ui sounds both its vowels ; as, buidhinn, gain ; luidh, lie. Except before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, the i of ui is not heard ; 
but it affects the sound of the consonant following, as, luis, (pron. luish) ; tuit, fall, (pron. tuick, ch as in church) ; sluig, 
swallow, (pron. slluk, — k as in key). 

Ao has a peculiar sound, not attainable by the ear, much resembling that of eu in the French heure ; as, laoijh, a calf; 
and a nasal sound, as, maoth, soft. 

Eu sounds like ei in feign ; beum, a blow ; feum, need. 


The triphthongs are these five: aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai. They are pronounced respectively, like the diphthongs, ao, eo, 
ia, iu, ua, with the addition of a short i, which senes to liquefy the sound of the following consonant. They are all long, 
and never occur but in monosyllables, or in the first syllable of polysyllables. 


There are twelve consonants, b, c, d, f, g, I, ni, n, p, r, s, i ; h is rather a mark of aspiration than a radical letter. 
The consonants in Gaelic may be conveniently brought into the following arrangement: Labials, Palatals, Dentals, 
and Linguals. 


<"^' Palatals <■ Dentals-J^ LingualsxTi. 

I;: ^^- h. Xr. 

Of these, 6, c, d, f, g, >n,p, s, t, are mutable, or capable of aspiration, by having h subjoined; in which state their 
simple sound is either altered or lost. The immutables are /, n, r. 


B simple sounds somewhat harder than b, and softer than p, in English ; as, btmil, strike ; bean, touch. Bh sound 
like V in English, French, and Italian ; as, bhean, touched ; bhac, hindered. Bh, at the end of a word or syllable, either 
sound like n, or stand for a gentle aspiration ; as, searbh, bitter ; fabhras, a fever. Sometimes bh, in the middle of a 
word, are silent; as, soirbheas, prosperity; doirbheas, adversity. 


F simple is pronounced as in most other languages ; fh are silent ; as, fhad, long ; an Fhraing, France. In a very 
few words, as, ìnifhiiti, myself, fh sound like h in English. 


M simple, the same as in English; as, mir, great; caman, a club; lom, bare. Mh sound like v in English; as, 
amhàin, only; a mhusgaid, the musket. Frequently, though never at the beginning of a word, mh sound like a nasal 00, 
or stand for a gentle aspiration; as, ramh, an oar; and sometimes they are altogether quiescent, as, comhnard. level; 
dhomh, to me. 

* In tlie West and Nortliem Highlands, this diplithong is often pronounced Uke ia ; as, miad, size, for rneud ; inn, bird, lor eun. 



P simple sounds as in English and othcT languages ; as, pronn, bruise ; peasg, a gash ; ph like / in English, as, 
phronn, bruised. 



C simple has two sounds: (1.) Like t in cuh ; as, cù, a dog-; cratli, shake. (2.) When preceded in the same syllable 
bv a small vowel, it has, in most parts of the Highlands, a sound to which that of;;)', is pretty similar; as, aire, distress, 
(pron. aifx")- 1" some parts it sounds like k. 

Ch sound like the Gr. yc in ;k«?^". or like the Irish gh in lough, or the vulj^'ar Scotch ch in /oc7i, as, moch, early ; and, 
wlien followed by a small vowel, like x '" X^i"*" : ^s, c/ù, shall see. 


G simple sounds, at the beginning of a word, nearly as in English ; at the end of a word, its sound more nearly 
resembles that of the English k in rock; as, rug, bore; thvg, gave. 

G aspirated, or gh, followed by a, o, or u, sounds somewhat softer than the Greek x, '> as, ghitir, laughed ; excepting 
at the end of a syllable, and then it is silent ; as, tigh, a house ; rioghachd, a kingdom. 

Gh, followed by e or i, sounds like y in ye ; as, ghios, (pron. yeess), towards. 


D simple is more a dental than in English, and sounds somewhat like the French and Italian d ; as, dan, a song; 
duine, a man ; dlagh, a handful ; madadh, a mastiff; rud, a thing. Except when it is followed by e or i, or is preceded 
in the same syllable by i; for then it grounds like ch in child; as, clogaid, a helmet; càirdeas, friendship. 

D, preceded by dh, sounds like x*-' »*> lochd, harm, (pron. Wox"-). 

Dh, at the beginning of a word, has a somewhat softer sound than the Greek X' &s, dha, to him ; but if followed 
by e or i, it sounds like y in English ; as, dheth, of him ; dh'i, of her, {pron. yea, ye). 

Dh at the end, or in the middle of a word, is most frequently quiescent; as, chaidh, v/eni ; fiiidhcadaireachd, 
prophecy. ^ 

T simple, immediately followed by a, o, or ti, or a consonant, sounds like the French t in terns, or the Italian t in 
tempo; as, tamh, rest; tao/n, pour; tin, smooth. 

T simple, preceded in the syllable by u, or immediately followed by e or i, sounds like ch in child; as, tein, fire, 
(pron. chcin); ftiilte, welcome, (pron. failch, ch sounding as in church). 

T aspirated, or th, like h in home; as, thoir, give; but in the middle, or at the end of a word, it is silent; as, 
Jitheach, a raven; bith, existence. 


S simple, preceded or followed by a, e, or ;, sounds like sh in English; as, sioii, (pron. shioii), u blast; gnuis, (pron. 
gnuish), a visage. Except is, (pron. iss), am. 

S simple, preceded or followed by a, o, or v, sounds like s in English; as, sabh, a salve; sogh, luxury; mios, 
a mouth. 

.S' simple, followed by d, t, I, or n, and a short vowel, sounds like sii in English; as, sdiùir, or stiùir, steer; slios, 
a side; sniomh, spin. 

S, before any other consonant, even though followed by a short vowel, sounds like s in English ; as, smig, (pron. 
smik), a chin ; smtid, (pron. smeich), a nod. 

S aspirated, or sh, is silent; as, shebl, directed, (pron. heoi); excepting when followed by I or n, and then there is 
no aspiration ; as, shniimh, (pron. 7iàv), swam ; shli'inuich, (pron. IFinix), healed. 


The lingual consonants, as has been said, are incapable of aspiration ; but they have often a double lingual sound, 
to which there is none similar in English.' 


L simple, like I in large; as, las, flamed. It has this so\nul when it l)cgins the preterites of verbs and the feminine 
form of adjectives. 

L has its double lingual sound when followed by e or ;, and then it is articulated like // in million, or like the Italian 
gl, or the Portuguese Ih ; as, linn, an age ; Win, a shirt. Yet, with regard to nouns beginning with I, if the masc. pass. pron. 
goes before, / sounds as in English ; as, a litir, his letter ; where I differs materially in sound from I in a litir, her letter. 

L has another double lingual sonnd, generally, when it is preceded by itself, or when it is followed by a, o, or u, in 
verbs and in adjectives masculine ; us, /aWai/i, healthy ; Wn, full ; /om, bare; /«s, an herb. 

//, prccedcfl or followed by a short vowe', also sounds as the Itulinii gl. 

II, preceded or followed by '(, o, oi u, has the same double lingual sound as in liin, masculine, but has no sound 
simdar to it in English. 



N simple sounds like n in English in the beginning of preterites, and whenever it is preceded by a, o, or u; iis, ritnh 
washed ; lihi, full ; Ion, a thrush ; run, aflfection ; and in the middle of words, as, sinidh, shall stretch. 

N has its double sound in the beginning of a verb in the imperative mood, and followed by a, a, or u ; as, noclid 
shew; or at the beginning of a masculine adjective, and followed by a broad vowel; as, naomh, holy; nuadh, new. In this 
situation it has no similar sound in English, but is the same with the first n in the French non. 

The same observations apply to the reduplicated nn. 

N has another double sound, when immediately preceded by i, or when i is the last vowel of the same syllable ; as, 
linn, an age; ciiirn, cairns; uinneag, a window; and at the beginning of imperatives, and certain other tenses, when 
followed by a small vowel ; as, nigh, wash. In this situation it sounds exactly like gn, in the French guigne, or the 
Italian regno. 

N, preceded by m or c, is in some words pronounced like r ; as, cnaimh (craimh), a bone ; cno (era), a nut. 

Lastly, an and nan, when the next word begins with c or g, sound like ng and 7iung ; as, an cit, the dog ; an ginl, tin 
cheek; nan cealgair, of the deceivers. 


R simple sounds like r in English; as, rath, (pron. ra), luck; righ, a king. Righ, in the vocative, has no sound 
similar to it in English, but it is exactly that of ri in the French infex'wx'xtt-. 

R, if preceded by i, or if followed by i, and forming a syllable, sounds as above, like ri in the French infcrioriti' ; 
as, rithe, with her ; mairbh, dead ; còiV, right. 


Etymology is that part of grammar which teaches how to derive a word from its primitive, — shews the parts of 
speech, the inflections of nouns, and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified. 


In Gaelic there are nine parts of speech, viz. Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, 
Interjection, Conjunction. These are divided into declinable and indeclinable. 

The declinable parts of speech are, — the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle. 
The indeclinable are, — the Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, Conjunction. 


There is no indefinite article in Gaelic. An, the, is the definite article, and is declined by genders, cases, and numbers. 
Singular. Plural. 

Mas. Fern. Mas. and Fern. 

Norn. An, am. An, a'. Na. 

Gen. An, a'. Na. Nan, nam. 

Dat. An,* a'. An, a'. Na. 

The form am of the article is used before a simple (not aspirated) labial; as, am buille, the blow ; am fear, the man : 
before any aspirated consonant (except fh) the article is written a'. 

A substantive noun, beginning with s, followed by a liquid or by a vowel, requires the insertion of t between it and 
the article, in the gen. and dat. sing. 7nas. of nouns, and in the nom. and dat. of feminine nonns. 
A sub. mas. beginning with a vowel has t between it and the article in the nom. sing. 
A sub. /em. has h in the same situation in the gen. sing. 
Nouns which are either 7nas. or fern, have h in ithe nom. and dat. plural. 
Nan, of the gen. pi., is always used, except before words beginning with b,f, p. Nan, before c or g, sounds ming. 


The genders are two, masculine and feminine. 

The Gaelic language is very anomalous in its distinction of nouns by gender ; and perhaps no set of rules can be 
devised to ascertain the gender of every noun in the language. It personifies every object, whether animate or inanimate. 
The gender is not determined by termination, or any circumstance, but by immediate distinction of sex, and by custom. 

Nouns signifying males, are masculine ; as, duiae, a man ; laoch, a hero ; each, a horse. 

Note. — That lebmhann, lion ; laogh, calf; uan, lamb ; and several other names for the young of animals, are masculine, 
though the objects be feminine. 

Nouns in 0, or having o in the last syllable, are commonly masculine ; as, ce'o, must ; roth, a wheel ; corp, a body. 

Polysyllables in a, o, or u, are commonly masculine. 

Diminutives in an are masculine ; as, caman, a club ; fuaran, a well ; barran, a thorn-fence. 

* An, after a vowel, is written 'ii. 


Derivatives in ac/i, iche, as, air, ear, are for the most part masculine; as, marcach, a rider; maraiche, a seaman; 
piobair, a piper; muillear, a miller; cùirdeas, friendship. 

Names of trees are coraniouly masculine. 


Nouns signifying females are feminine ; as, viàthair, a mother. 

Aggregate names of trees are feminine; as, darach, oak-wood. 

Names of countries, especially those ending in achd, or which have a short vowel in the last syllable ; as, Gaidhealt- 
nchd, the Highlands; Eirin, Ireland. The names of districts have their gender commonly regulated by their termination. 

Names of musical instruments ; as, fiob, a pipe ; cridt, a harp. 

Names of diseases ; as, buinncuch, a diarrhoea. 

Polysyllables (except agents in air and iche) whose least vowel is e, or i, are commonly feminine ; as, neasgaid, a 
boil ; doiriinn, an isthmus. 

Diminutives in ag ; as, sradag, a spark. 

Derivatives in achd ; as, maiseaciid, comeliness ; rioghachd, a kingdom. 

Comparatives used substantively, are feminine ; as, niaoile, baldness ; gile, whiteness. 

Nouns in ua, and ?<;, a diphthong, the subjunctive of which is a slender or small vowel, are commonly feminine; as, 
aiach, a cup ; compailt, company. 


A noun has two numbers, singular and plural. 

The cases are four, viz. Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Vocative. 

A noun is either simple or aspirated, e. g. mbr, mlwr, where mbr is the simple form, and mhbr the aspirated. 

Nouns in a definite sense are declined with the article. 

The flection of a Gaelic noun is carried on not so much by a change of the termination, as of the last vowel, or of the 
diphthong of the nominative, and by aspirating the initial consonant. 

The Gael have only two declensions. Nouns whose last vowel is a, o, or u, are of the first ; nouns whose last vowel 
is e, or i, are of the second. 


Example of a Noun Masculine, indejinile. 

Fear, a man ; 7iias. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Fear, a man. Norn. Fir, or feara, men. 

Gen. Fir, of a man. Gen. Fear, or feara, of men. 

Dat. Fear, to a man. Dat. Fearaibh," to men. 

Voc. Fhir, man. Voc. Fheara, men. 

The same Notin declined with the Article. 
Sing, PI. 

Nom. Am fear, the man. Nom. Na fir, the men. 

Gen. An fhir, of the man. Gen. Nam fear, of the men. 

Dat. An 'n f hear, to the man. Dat. Na fearaibh, to the men. 

Ej ample (fa Noun Feminine, indefinite, beginning with a Palatal Consonant. 

Cuach, a cup ; fern. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. Cuach, a, cup. Nom. Cuachan, cups. 

Gen. Cuaiche, of a cup. G'n. Cuach, of cups. 

Dat. Cuaich, to a cup. Dat. Cuachaibh, to cups. 

Voc. Chuach, cup. Voc. Chuacha, cups. 

The same Noun declined with the Ai'ticle. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. A' chuach, the cup. Nom. Na. cu&chan, the cups. 

Gen. Ha cuixiche, of the cup. Gen. Nan cuach, q/' </ie c«/)s. 

Dat. .\n,'n ciiuaicli, to the cup. Dat. Na cuachaibh, to the cups. 

Example (fa Noun Masculine, indefni/e, beginning with a Dental. 

Dorus, a door ; tnas. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. Dorus, a door. Nom. Dorsan, doors. 

Gen. Doruis, of u door. Gen. Dorsa, of doors. 

Dat. Dorus, to a door. Dat. Dorsaibh, to doors. 

Voc. Dhoruis, door. Voc. Dhorsa, doors. 

* Tiie nominative and dative plural of surnames are alike. 


The same Noun declined with the Artick. 

Sing. PI- 

Norn. An doms, the door. Nom. Na dorsan, the doors. 

Gen. An doruis, of the door. Gen. Nan dorsa, of the doors. 

Bat. An, 'n dorus, to the door. Dat. Na dorsaibh, to the doors. 

Example of a Feminine Noun, indefinite, beginning with a Dental. 

Teasach, a fever ; fem. 
Sing. PI- 

Nom. Teasach, a fever. Nom. Teasaichean, /euers. 

Gc7i. Teasaiche, of a fever. Gen. Teasach, offerers. 

Dat. Teasach, <o a /ei-er. Dat. Teasaichibh, ^o/euew. 

Foe. Theasach, fever. Voc. Theasaiche, O fevers. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Sing. Pl- 

Nom. An teasach, ^Ae/eyer. Nom. Na teasaichean, Me /ewers. 

Gen. Na teasaiche, o/ </je /euer. Gen. Nan teasach, o/ Me /eyers. 

Dat. An, 'n teasach, to the fever. Dat. Na teasaichibh, to the fevers. 

Note. — L That nouns, definite, beginning with s, and followed by a lingual, insert t between the article, and the gen. 
and dat. singular. 

II. That nouns masc. beginning with a vowel, insert t in the nom. sing.; and nouns fem. insert h in the gea. sing.. 
and also in the nom. and dat. pi. 

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, andfolloiced In/ a Vowel. 
Soc, a socket; mas. 



Notn. Soc, a socket. Nom. Suic, sockets. 

Gen. Suic, of a socket. Gen. Hoc, of sockets. 

Dat. Soc, to a socket. Dat. Socaibh, to sockets. 

Voc. Shoe, socket. Voc. Shuic, sockets. 

The same Noun declined xvith the Article. 

Sing. Pl- 

Nom. An soc, the socket. Nom. Na suic, the sockets. 

Gen. An t-suic, of the socket. Gen. Nan soc, of the sockets. 

Dat. An, 'n t-soc, to the socket. Dat. Na socaibh, to the sockets. 

El ample of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, and followed Inj a Lingual. 

Shiagh, people ; mas. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Sluagh, a host. Nom. Sloigh, hosts. 

Gen. Sluaigh, o/ a Aos^ Gen. Hiogh, of hosts. 

Dat. Sluagh, to a host. Dat. Sloigh, to hosts. 

Voc. Shluagh, host. Voc. Shlòigh, O hosts. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 

Sing. PI- 

Nom. An sluagh, the host. Nom. Na sloigh, the hosts. 

Gen. An t-s\\iaiigh, of the host. Gen. iim s\o^\\, of the hosts. 

Dat. An, 'n t-sluaigh, to the host. Dat. Na sloigh, to the hosts. 

Note,— That nouns masculine, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert t between the article and the nom. sing., and h 
between the article and the nom. and dat. pi. 

Example of a Noun Masculine, definite, beginning with a Voicel. 
lusg, a fish ; mas. 
Sing. PI- 

Nom. An t-iasg, the fish. Nom. Na h-iasgan, the fishes. 

Gen. An eisg, of the fish. Gen. Nan iasg, o/'Me/ste. 

Dat. An,'nidLS^, to thefish. Dat. Na h-iasgaibh, ?o Me /sAes. 

Note.— Tliat feminine nouns, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert h between the article and the gen. sing, and 
the nom. and dat. plural. 


Example of a Soun Feminine, dejinite, beginning with a Voivei. 
Osac/, a breeze ; /em. 

Nom. An osag, the breeze. 
Gen. Na h-osaig, of the breeze. 
Dat. All, 'n csaig, to the breeze. 


Nom. Na h-osagan, the breezes. 
Gen. Nan osag, of the breezes. 
Dat. Na h-osagaibh, to the breezes. 

Bean, a woman, is declined inegularli/ ; thus. 

Nom. Bean, a ivoman. 
Gen. Mna, of a woman. 
Dat. Mnaoi, to a woman. 
Voc. Bhean, woman. 

Nom. Mnai, or ninathan, iiojnen. 
Gen. Ban, of women. 
Dat. Mnathaibh, to women. 
Voc. Mhnathan, women. 

Bean, declined tvith the Article. 

Nom. A bhean, the woman. 
Gen. Na mna, of the woman. 
Dat. An, 'n mhnaoi, to the woman. 

Nom. Na mnathan, the women. 
Gen. 'Nam ban, of the women. 
Dat. Na mnathaibh, to the women. 



General Rule. — The genitive is formed by inserting i after the last vowel of the nominative ; as, slat, fem., gen. slait, 
a rod : chtaran, masc., gen. cluarain, a thistle. Feminines of one syllable also insert i after the last vowel of the 
noun, and often add e to the last letter; as, lamh, laimhe, a hand. 

Special Rules. 

Nouns ending in a,* o, or u, have their nom. and gen. alike; lù, mas. gen. lù, a day; cnb, mas. gen. ciw, a nut ; 
c7(ù, fame; except bb, cu, bra, which have respectively, boin, coin, bronn, and broinn. 

Nouns in achd, eachd, iochd, rr, have their nam. and gen. alike. Slochd has sluichd in the genitive singular. 

Nouns in adh, of more than one syllable, form their gen. sing, in aidh ; as, mortadh, mas. murder, gen. mortaidh ; 
vnomitnchadh, mas. sanctifying, naomhachaidh. 

Monosyllables in gh and th fonn their gender from the nom. by adding a; except agh, mas. joy, gen. aigh. 

Monosyllables change ea into ci ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Beann, Beinne, f a hill. 

Ceard, Ceaird and ceird, m. n tinker. 

Each, Eich, m. a horse. 

Feall, Feill, w. deceit. 

Fearg, Feirg, /. wrath. 

Learg, Leirg,/. sea. 

Some change ea into i ; as, 

.Some also add e ; as, 

Brie, m. n trout. 
Cinn, ÌH. a head. 
Cip, m. a last. 
Dris, ?«. a thorn-bush. 
Fir, 7rt. a man. 
Mill, »). a lump. 
Pris, >n. a bush. 

Brice,y. smatl-pox. 
Circe, f a hen. 
Gliiine, m. a valley. 
Lice, y. a fag. 

Dissyllables in each and eajin change ea into i; as. 






_ Gen. 

Aigich, in. a stallion. 

Cinnich, m. a nation. 
\ Buidhinn, contr. buidhnc, _/'. u 
( company. 

Sithinn, con<ra. sithne, /. vemson. 

Dissyllables in ean change ean into ein ; as, 

Nom . Gen. 

Binnean, Binnein, m. a pinnacle. 

Cuilean, Cuilein, m. a whelp. 

Ceisdean, Ceisdeiu, m. a sweetheart. 

Guirean, Guircin, m. a pimple. 

Isean, Isein, m. a gosling. 

Monosyllables change ia into ei ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Biadli, Beidh, or bidh, 

Ciall, CèH\,f. judgment. 

Ciar, Ceir and ciair, m. darkness. 

Cliabh, Cleibh, f. a hamper. 

Cliath, Cleitii, f. a harrow. 

Fiadh, Feidh, m. a deer. 

Grian, Grein and Greine, f sun. 

* Dissyllables in « (now wntlen iidli) lur e tlicir tjenillve singiiliir in i 
f^in. aul.ii : rnla, a /uirbour ; gtn. calai, &c. 

likt' the iincMit I.;itin. T; 

tull.ii, <i hull ; l.nt. aula, 


Kom. Gen. 

lall, Èill, /. a thong. 

lasg, Eisg, m. fish. 

Liadh, Leidh, /. a ladle. 

Sgian, Sgeine, or sgine,/. a knife. 

Sg-iath, Sgeith, f. a shield. 

Sliabh, Sleibh, ;«. a mountain. 

Dia, has Dia and Dè in the genitive singular. 

Monosyllables in eu change eu into eoi ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Beul, Beoil, or beil, m. a mouth. 

Deur, Deòir, in. a drop. 

Eun, Eoin, m. a bird. 

Feur, Feòir, m. grass. 

Leus, hebis, m. afiame. 

Meur, Meòir, m. a finger. 

Neul, Neoil, m. a cloud. 

Sgeul, Sgeoil, or siieil.y. a talc. 

Eug, m. ghost, has Eig in the singular. 

Some nouns in eu merely add to the nom. ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Beum, Beuma, m. a blow. 

Ceum, Ceuma and ceim, m. a step. 

Feum, Feuma and feim, m. need. 

Treud, Treuda, m. a flock. 

Some characterized by eu have the nom. and gen. sing. 
alike ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Beuc, Bene, m. a rod. 

Freurah, Freumh and freinih,/'. a root. 

Leud, Leud and leòid, vi. breadth. 

Send, Send, m. a jewel. 

Some nouns change a into oi ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Cas, Cois, or coise, y. a _/bo/. 

Clach, Cloich,y. a stone. 

Crag, Craig, or cròig,y. a paw. 

Smàg, Smàig, or smòig, a pan. 
But, Mac, a son, has Mic. 

Some nouns in ann have a double gender ; as, 
Nom. Gen. 

Clsuin, Clainne, or cloinne,/. children. 

Crann, Crainn, or croinn, m. a tree. 

Lann, Lainne, or loinne,/. a sicord. 

Aghann,/. a pan, has Aighne. 

Monosyllables characterized by a, o, or u, often change a, 
o, u, into ui ; as, 

a into ui. 

Nom. Gen. 

Alld, Uilld, m. a streamlet. 

Allt, Uillt, m. a streamlet. 

Balg, Builg, m. a bag. 

Ball, Buill, VI. a jnember. 

Calg, Cuilg, 7«. awn. 

Car, Cuir, vi. a turn, or tivist. 

Cam, Cuirn, m. a cairn. 

Clag, Cluig, 771. a bell. 

Fait, Fuilt, m. hair. 



into ui. 
Buiig, m. a bog. 
Buinn, m. a coin. 
Cuilg, 77i. awn. 
Cùird, in. a rope. 
Fuilt, m. hair. 

Nom. Gen. 

Gob, Guib, >n. a bird's bill. 

Long, Luing,/'. a ship. 

Lorg, Luirsfjy". a staff. 

Mofl, Muill, m. chaff. 

Ord, Uird, 77!. a hammer. 

Poll, Puill, 77J. mire. 

Sonn, Suinn, 77i. a hero. 

u into iii. 

Ciil, Cùil, m. a corner. 

Lùs, Lilis, 771. pith. 

Lus, Luis, 77(. an herb. 

Mult, Muilt, 77i. a wether, 

Tùr, Tùir, ?7ì. a tower. 

Nouns in col change e'ol into cuil ; as, 

Noin. Gen. 

Ceòl, Ciùil, 771. 7misic. 

Seòl, Siùil, 77!. a sail. 

Nouns in eag change cag into eig ; as, 

^'0771. Ge7!. 

Caileag, Caileig, /. a young girl. 

Duilleag, Duilleig, _/. a leaf. 

Fàirea^, Fàireig, /'. a gland. 

FiUeag^, FiUeig,/. a./bW. 

Piseac, Vim\^, f. a kitten. 

Nouns in og and Ò7ì follow the general rule ; as, 

jV077!. Ge7!. 

Bros:, Bròig,y. a shoe. 

Cròg, Cròig, y. a /70277. 

Smog, Smòig,y. ra paw7. 

Bròn, Bròin, 777. food. 

Lòn, Loin, 77!. food. 

Some nouns in ua change ua into uai ; as. 




Brunich,/". an ascent. 
Cuaich,y. a cup. 
Luaidh, 777. praise. 
Sluaigh, 77!. people. 


Others add a to the nominative ; 

iVci77!. Ge7!. 

Fuath, Fuatha, m. hatred. 

Some nouns in io lose in the genitive ; as, 




Ciche,/. a pass. 


Criche,y. a 71 e?id. 


Lin, m.flax. 


Sil, ?7!. seed. 


Sine, m. a blast. 

Some nouns in io only add a to the 710771. ; as. 
Nom. Gen. 

Bior, Biora, m. spit. 

Cries, Criosa, m. a belt. 

Fion, Fiona, 777. ivine. 

Fios, Fiosa, or fios, 777. tìo^ìcc. 

Lios, Liosa, 77i. a garden. 

Criosd, Christ, is undeclinable. 

The following nouns form thsir genitive irregularly. 
No>n. Ctn. 

Ceathramh, Ccithreimb, ?7!. a quarter. 

Leabaidh, Lcapa, 07- leapach,/. a bed. 

Leanabh, Leinibh, 771. a child. 

Piuthair, Peathar, _/. a si's^er. 

Talamh, Talmhainn,y. /a7icf. 


General Rule. — Nouns masculine have their dat. ami worn. sing, alike; nouns feminine have their dat. like the gen. 


Norn. Dat. Xom. Gen. Dal. 

Cabar, Cabar, a deer's horn. Teasach, Teasaich, Teasaich, a fever. 

Dorus, Dorus, a door. Misneach, Misnich, Misnich, courage. 

Tobar, Tobar, a uell. Osag, Osaig, Osaig, a blast of wind. 

Special Rules for the Dative case of Nouns Feminine. — When the genitive is formed by contraction, the dat. is like 
iht noin. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. 

Sitheann, Sithne, Sitheann, /. venison. 

Piuthair, Peatliar, Piuthair, /. sister. 

MonosvUabies drop e from the genitive. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. ^ 

Cluas, Cluaise, Cluais, /. an ear. 

Lamh, Laimhe, Laimh, f. a hand. 

In Gaelic there is no Accusative differing from the Nominative. 


The vocative singular of masculine monosyllables is the genitive aspirated. 

Nom. Gen. loc. 

CÙ, Coin, Choin, m. a dog. 

Bard, Baird, Bhaird, ot. a bard. 

Bròn, Bròin, Bhròin, m. grief. 

Fleasgach, Fleasgaich, Fhleasgaich, a youth. 

Nouns masculine beginning with a vowel have their vocative and genitive alike. 
Nom. Gen. , Vac. 

Ord, I ird, V'ml, m. a hammer. 

Amadan, Amadain, Amadain, »i. a /oo/. 

Oglach, Oglaich, Òglaich, m. a youth. 

I'cniinine nouns form their vocative by aspirating the nominative; as, 
Nom. Voc. 

Cluas, Chluas, /. ear. 

Gealach, Ghealach, /. nurse. 

Grian, Ghrian, /. sun. 


General Rule for the Nominative. — The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular, by adding an ;* 
as, sliseag, /. a slice, n. pi. sliseagan ; srad,/. a spark, sradan; spiorad,7«. a spirit, n. pi. spioradan ; rioghachd./. 
a kingdom, n. pi. rioghachdan ; geug, f. a branch, n. pi. geugan. 

Special Rules. — Many dissyllables in i/ch add ranj- to the 
gen. sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Clarsacli, /'. a /tar/j, Clarsaich, Clarsaicluan. 

Culhich. m. a boar, Cullaich, CuUaichean. 

Deudacii,y. a jmr, Deiidaicli. Deudaichean, 

Muliach, m. n top. Muilaloh, Midlaichean. 

Some masculines in ach have their nom. pi. like the gen. 
sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Oglach, a yoM^/i, Oglaich, Oglaich. 

Fear, m. a man. Fir, I'ir. 

Nouns in ar sometimes transpose the final letter and add 
iihe, or ichcuii ; as, 

Nom. sing. Xom. pi. 

Tobar, m. a. v-ell, Tobraicheaii. 
I.eabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichcan. 

Nom. sing. Nom. ])l. 

Bata, 7n. a staff, has Batachaii eind bataichean. 
La, ?K. « 'lay, Làithe, làithean, and latliachan. 

Leabaidh,/. a bed, I.eapaichean. 
Piuthair,/. a sister, Peathraichean. 
Lann,y. enclosure, Lanndaichean. 
Masculine monosyllables in ca, which cliange ca into i, 
in tile gen. sing, have their gen. sing, and nom. pi. alike ; as. 
Nom. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. 

Fear, a man. Fir, Fir. 

Meall, a lump, Mill, Mill. 

Ceann, in. head. Cinn, Cinn. 

Some nouns in I and nn have their i:om. in tan ; on and 
oin have tean ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Reul, m. a star, Reultan. 

.Scul, TO. a seal, Seultan. 

• In forming the nominative plural of these and oilier words, some writers only add a to the nominative singular; anil several nouns 
are made to end in idh, in the nominative [jlural ; as, hcann, bcanntuidh ; bi/r, Oiliil/i ; coitle, coiUliJIi. 
f Some writers only add t. 


Norn. sing. 
Beann,/". a hill, 
Gleann, m. a valley, 

Lionn, m. beer, 
Lòn, m. a meadow, 
Mòin,_/. peat. 

Norn. pi. 

Beanntan and beanntaidh. 
\ Gleanntan, glinu, and 
{ gleanntaidh. 




Sliabh, a mountain, has Sleibhte, or sleibhtean. 
Sabhul, m. a bam, Saibhlean. 

Norn. sing. 
But, Dia, a god, has 

.Sluagh, m. people, 
Sgian,/. a knife, 
Bo,y. a coiv, 
Gniomh, ?h. jvork, 
Lion, m. fiax, has 

Linn, m. a pool, has < 

Nom. pi. 

Dee and diathan. 

Sginichcan a»rfsgeinichean. 

Liontan and hontaichean. 
Linnte, Hnntcan, linnichean. 
and linntichean. 


Monosyllables have their gen. 

pi. like the nom. sing. 

A'ow. sing. 
Bard, 7«. a poet, 
Breug, m. a lie. 

Gen. pi. 

Cat, m. a cat, 


Ceard, m7 a tinker, 


Feart, m. a quality, 


Sloe, m. a pit, 


Some trisyllables have the gen 

pi. like the notn. sing 

A few nouns form t 

Nom. sing. 
Bean,y. a woman. 

Gen. pi. 

Caor, /. a sheep, 



Nom. sing. Gen. pi. 

Freiceadan, m. a guard, Freiceadan. 

Teampullach, m. a churchman, TeampuUach. 

Dissyllables having ean in the nom. pi. have ean also in 
the gen. pi. ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. and gen. pi. 

Leabaidh,/. a bed, Leapaichcan. 

Leabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichean. 

Tobar, m. a well, Tobraichean. 

Nom. sing. 
Cu, 7H. a dog, 
Sluagh, /H. people. 

Gen. pi. 

Slogh and sluagh. 

The dative plural ends in aibh, or ibh, and is formed from the nominative singular, or plural : thus. 

Monosyllables commonly add aibh to the iwm. sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. 
Bard, m. a bard, 
Crann, m. a tree, 
Cruach,/". a heap, 
Feart, ?«. a virtue. 
Mac, m. a son, 
Ord, 7«. a hammer. 

Dat. pi. 

If the nom. pi. end in ta or tan, these arc changed into 
nibh ; as. 

Nom. sing. 
Beann,/. hill, 
Cua;, m. sea. 

Nom. pi. 
Cuanta, or -an, 

Dat. pi. 

If the 7iom. pi. end in c or can, these terminations are 
changed into ibh ; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Dal. pi. 

MuUach, m. a top, Mullaichean, MuUaichibli. 

.Sliabh, OT. a /ii//, Sleibhte, or -ean, Sleibhtibh. 

Teasach,y". a'yèfer, Teasaichean, Teasaichibli. 

Trisyllables in ch have their dat. and nom. pi. alike; 

Nom. sing. Nom. and Dat. pi. 

Comhairleach, 7H. a counsellor, Comhairlich. 

Monosyllables in cadh, iadh, and cagh, add aibh to llic 
nom. sing. ; but, 

Nom. sing. Dat. pi. 

Fiadh, m. deer, has Feidh. 

Sluagh, m. people, has Sloigh. 

Monosyllables in amh and ath form their dat. pi. in aibh 

Noin. sing. Dat. pi. 

Lamh,/! a hand, Lamhaibh. 

Ramh, m. an oar, Ramhaibli. 

Flath, m. a prince, Flathaibli. 

Sgiath,/. a tving, Sgiathaibh. 

But, Damh, m. an ox, has Daimh. 

Bean,y. a woman, has Mnathaibli. 


The vocative plural is commonly the aspirated form of the nominative plural; as, 

Nom. pltir. Voc. plur. 

Beannta, beanntan, hills. Bheannta, or bheanntan. 

Dorsa, dorsan, doors, Dhorsa, or dhorsan. 

Jlonosyllables often add a to the aspirated form of the nominative singular ; as. 

Nojn. sing. 
Bard, m. a poet, 
CluaSj^". an ear. 

Asp. form. 

Voc. plur. 



Bean has mhnathan in the vocative plural; as, damh, an o.r, dhaimh ; sluagh, peop/f, shloigli, and shluagli 



L'nder this declension may be classed all those nouns whose characteristic or last vowel is i. 

Example of a yioun Masculine, intlejiiiite, beginning with cl. 

Cladhair, a coward. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Cladhair, a coward. Norn. Cladhairean, cowards. 

Gen. Cladhair, of a coward. Gen. Cladhair, of cowards. 

Dat. Cladhair, to a coward. Dat. Cladhairibh, to cowards. 

Voc. Chladhair, coward. Voc. Chladhaire, cowards. 

The same Xo«/i declined with the Article. 

Nom. An cladhair, the cotvard. 
Gen. A' chladhair, of the coivard. 
Dat. An, 'n chladhair, to the coward. 

Nom. Na cladhairean, the coivards. 
Gen. Nan cladhair, of the cowards. 
Dat. Na cladhairibh, to the coicards. 

Example nf a Feminine Monosyllabic, indefinite, beginning with a Voicel. 

Aire, fcm. an ark. 



Aire, a« ark. 
Airce, of an ark. 
Aire, to an ark. 
Aire, ark. 



Aircean, arks. 
Aire, of arks. 
Aircibh, to arks. 
Airce, arks. 

The same Noun declined with the Article. 


An aire, the ark. 
Na h-airc, of the ark. 
An, 'n aire, to the ark. 

Nom. Na h-aircean, the arks. 
Gen. Nan aire, of the arks. 
Dat. Na h-aircibh, to the arks. 

Example of a \o»« Feminine, indefinite, beginning with s, followed bi/ a louel. 

Sùil, fern, an eye. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. Sùil, an eye. Nom. Sùilean, eyes. 

Gen. fih\ and sù\a,ofan eye. Geti. Siil, of eyes. 

Dat. Sùil, to an eye. Dat. Suilibh, to eyes. 

Voc. Shùil, eye. Voc. Shiiil, eyes. 

The same IS'oiin declined icilh the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An t-sùil, the eye. Nom. Na sùilean, the eyes. 

Gen. ^A i~ù\, of the eye. Gen. Nan sùl, o/ </ie eyes. 

Dat. An, 'n t-siiil, <o </ic eye. Dat. Na suilibh, <o ^//e ryej. 


General Rales. — I. Dissyllables and trisyllables form their 

yen. like the nom. ; as, 

\'om. sing. Gen. sing. 

.\iinsir, /. weather, Aimsir. 

Cealgair, m. a deceiver, Cealsj;air. 

Cladhair, m, a coward, (Cladhair. 

(icaltair, m. a coward, Gealtair. 

I'reabadair, in. a weaver, lireabadair. 

11. Monosyllables add c to the noniinativc ; as, 

No7n. sing. 
Ainm, m. a name, 

Gen. sing. 

A^om. sing. 
Aire, ni. an ark, 
Clais, y. a furrow, 
Tuil,/. a food, 

Gen. sing. 

Special Rules for the Genitive. — L Some nouns in uU 
change ail into alach ; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Diiil,/. a meadow, Dalach. 

Sail,/, a beam, Salach. 

],àir,/. a marc, Làrach. 

But, Dail,/. delay, has Daile. 

.Sail, m. brine, Sàile. 


Some monosyllables in ui have their gen. and nom. alike; 

Cruit,y. a harp, 
Smuid, m. smoke, 
Truid, a starling, 
Cuid, f. part, 
But, Muir,y". sea, 
Fuil,/. blood, 
Druim,y". ridge, 
Sùil,y. an eye. 



Cuid and codach. 

Fala and Fola. 

Feminines in oi drop the subjunctive, and add a ; as, 

Notn. sing. 
Feò[\, flesh, 
Sroin,y. a nose, 
Tbin,f. bottom, 

Gen. sing. 


Sròna, or sròine. 


Feminine dissyllables in air change air into rack; as, 

Nom. Gen. 

Cathair,/. a city, Cathrach. 

Lasair, y. aflame, Lasrach. 

Machair,/. a plain, Machrach. 

Nathairy. a serpent, Nathrach. 

So also, Staidhir,y. a sfai>, has Staidhreach. 

Faighir,/". a fair, has Faighreach. 

Some dissyllables, characterized by the diphthong ai, 
lose the subjunctive in the genitive; as. 

Athair, tn. a father, 
Bràthair, »i. brother, 
Màthair, m. mother, 
Piuthair,y. sister, has 

Peathar and piuthair. 

Feminine dissyllables in eir sometimes form their genitive 
by adding e to the nominative, and sometimes by changing 
eir of the nominative in earach ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. 

Dinneir,y. dinner, Dinneire, or dinnearach. 
Inneir,/'. dung, Inneire, or innearach. 

Suipeir,_/". supper, Suipeire, or suipearach. 

Ni, righ, br'igh, s'lth, re, te, have their genitive and nomi- 
native alike. 

The following nouns form their 
Nom. sing. 
Abhainn,y. a river, 
Aghann,/. a pan, 
Banais.y. a wedding, 
Coluinn,y. a body, 
Dùthaich,y. a country, 
Fiacail,y. a tooth, 
Gamhuinn, m. a steer, 
Gualainn,y. shoulder, 
Madainn,y. morning, 
Obair,y. u-ork, 
Uilinn,y. elbow, 

genitives irregularly :■ 
Gen. sing. 
Colla, colna. 
Dùthcha and dùcha. 
Fiacla and fiacail. 

Guaille and guailne. 
Uille and uilne. 

The dative singular is like the nominative. 


The vocative singular is the nominative aspirated ; and in nouns beginning with a vowel it is the same as the nominative. 


General Rule. — The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular by adding ean ; as, cealgair, m. 
deceiver, nom. pi. cealgairean ; clùrsair, m. a harper, nom. pi. clarsairean. 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Cridhe, m. heart, Cridheachan. 

Cuid, f. part, Codaichean. 

Nouns in cile and ein often add tean; as, 

Special Rules. — .Some nouns, which form their gen. sing. 
by contraction, retain the contraction in the nom. pi. ; as. 

Nom. sing. 

Gen. sing. 

Nom. pi. 



Aibhnichean and aibhnean 

Aghann, y. 








Duchan and duchannan. 

Fiacail, y. 



Gamhuinn, 7«. 









Namhaid, 7n. 



Uilinn,y. Uille a/irf uillne, Uillean ohcZ uilnean. 

Feminine nouns in air change ach of the gen. sing, into 
aich, and add ean ; as, 

Nom. sing. Gen. sing. 

Cathair,y. seat, Cathrach, 
Lasair,y.ya/.-ie, Lasrach, 

Measair.y tub, Measrach, 

Nathair,y. serpent, Nathrach, 

Athair, m. father, has 

Mathair, y mother, 
Uisge, m. water. 

Nom. pi. 

Nom. sing. 
Fèil,y. a kilt, 
Lèin,y. a shirt. 

Nom. pi. 




Monosvllables in ail and atle add ean to the nom. sing.; as, 

Nom. sing. Nom. pi. 

Fàil,y. a ring, Fàilean. 

Dàil,y. delay, Dàilean. 

Caile,y. a girl, Cailean. 

Sàil,y. a heel, has Sàiltean. 

Sail,y. a beam, has Sailthean. 

Dàil,y. a meadow, has Dailthean and dailean. 

Some nouns in aile, ain, and others, add fean to the 
nom. sing. ; as, 

Nom. sing. 

Bail, m. a town, Bailtean. 

Smuain, m. a thought, Smuaintean. 

Smaoin, tn. a thought, Smaointean. 

Aithne, y. a precfp^, Aithntean. 

Coille,y. a wood, Coillteau. 


Some nouns in ùii and uillc add ean to the noin. sing. ; as, 

Nom. stng. 
Sùil,/'. an eye, 

Buille, a blew, 


No}n. pi. 
J Buillean, builleachan, and 
I builleannan. 

The following nouns in uil add lean for the 7iom. pt. irre- 
gularly ; as, 

A'om. sintj. ì^om. pi. 

Cilil, m. a corner, Ciiiltean. 

Diiil, /". element, Duiltean. 

A'om. sing. 
Tull,y". ajiood. 

Nom. pi. 

The following nouns form their nom. pi. irregularly ; as, 

Nom. smg. 
Cliamhuinn, m. a son-in-hiiv, 
Duine, m. a man. 
Fear, m. a man, 
Ni, m. a thing, 
Righ, m. a king. 
Cleamhna and rliamhnan. 
Fir and feara. 
Nithe and nitheannan. 
Righre and rii;hrean. 


Many words of one or more syllables have their genitive 
plural like the nom. sing, and pi. ; as, 
A'om. sing. 

Ni, in. a thing, 

Righ. »1. a king, 

Nom. pi. 

C Nithe, 

( Nitheannan. 

( Righre, 
I Righrean. 

r-i iL 1 S Cladhaire, 


Gen. pi. 
I Nithe, 
I Nitheannan. 

( Righ, 

•' Righre, 
t Righrean. 
i Cladhair, 
\ Cladhaire, 
[_ Cladhairean. 

Feminine polysyllables have commonly their nom. 
gen. pi. alike ; as. 

Gen. pi. 
( Linntean, 
) Linntieheau. 
J Aibhnean, 
( Aibhnichean. 


Nom. pi. 



Linntean, ^ 


Linntichean, J 

Aibhnean, J 

Aibhnichean, \ 


Dull,/, an element 

, has 

Sùil, an eye, 


The dative plural is formed from the nominative plural by changing the last vowel or syllable into ibh ; as, 

A'om. pi. 
Bailtean, towns, 
Ciiiltean, corners, 
Feiltean, kilts. 

Dat. pi. 

Nom. pi. 
Righre, kings, 
Fiaclan, teeth, 

The vocative plural is the aspirated form of the nominative plural ; as, 
A'om. pi. 

Coillte, or Coilltean, 
Cealgaire, or Cealgairean, 

Dat. pi. 


Voc. pi. 
Choillte, or Choilltcan. 
Chealgaire, or Chealgairean. 


The Gaelic Language has three Methods of Distinguishing the Se.r ; viz. 
1. By different Words. 








^ Nighean no 
( maighdeann, 

Aonaraiuu h. 





Ban righ. 





















Brathair at bar. 

Piuthair athar. 





Fear liainnsc, 

Bean baiiiiise. 



Brathair bochd. 

Cailleach dubli. 

Brathair màtiiar 

Piuthair màtliar 











II. I 

y prefixing ban or ba 

in to nouns feminine 

; as. 
























jy putting an adjective alter the subslant 

vc ; as. 




n boirionn. 

Uan firion 


Uan boir 




Ak adjective is a word which denotes some quality belonging to the substantive ; as, dume viath, a good man ; 
tiqh mhr, a large house. 

In Gaelic, the adjective is varied on account of gender, number, and case. 

The changes which an adjective undergoes in the course of flection are twofold : first, by aspirating the initial eon- 
'onant ; and, secondly, by changing the termination. 

Adjectives, like substantives, are either of the first or second declension. 

Adjectives which are characterized by a, o, or u, are of the first declension. 

Adjectives characterized by i, are of the second. 


Marbh, dead. 





Masc. and Fern. 

Norn. iMarbh, 



Gen. Mhairbh, 



Daf. Marbh, 



Voc. .Alhairbh. 




The initial consonant, when it admits of aspiration, is aspirated for the feminine gender, and terminates like the 
masculine ; as, mbr, m. inhbr,fem. great; fann, m. fhann,fem. weak; ceart, m. cheart,fem. right. 

The oblique cases of each gender are formed like those nouns of the first declension, and follow the same rules. 


In general, the genitive singular feminine is formed from the genitive singular masculine by throwing aside the aspirate 
of the initial consonant ; and monosyllables, after this change, commonly add e. 
If the no\m ma.sculine ends in e, that vowel is retained throughout. 
The learner may derive some help from the following table : — 

Norn. sing. 7nas. 

Norn. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. mas. 

Gen. sing. fern. 

Ban, pale. 




Bochd, poor. 








Buan, lasting, 




Cam, crooked. 




Caomh, 7mld, 




Ceart, right, 


Cheairt, cheirt. 

Ceairte and ceirte. 

Crion, little. 




Daor, dear. 




Dubh, black. 




Fann, iveak. 




Gann, scanty. 




Gearr, shoot. 




Goirt, sour, 




Marbh, dead. 




Mòr, great. 




Pronn, pulverised, 




Saor, free. 




in all change a into oi in the genitive masculi 

ne and feminine. 

Xom. sing. mas. 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. ynas. 

Gen. sing. Jem. 

Dall, blind. 




Mall, slow, 




A gram:\iar of 

Monosyllables in om, onii, orb, orm, change o into ui ; as, 

Nom. sing. 7iias. 
Crom, crooked, 
Lorn, bare, 
Trom, heavy, 
Gorm, blue. 

Nom. sing.fe/n. 

Gen. sing. 7nas. 


Gen. sing. /em. 

Monosyllables in ea, eu, ia, change these diphthongs into ei in the genitive singular; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. 

Dearg, red, Dhearg, 

Deas, ready, Dlieas, 

Geur, sharp, Gheiir, 

Liath, grey-haired, Liath, 

Some change ca into i; as, 

Breac, spotted, Bhreac, 

Geal, white, Gheal, 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel have no initial change ; as, 

Gen. sing. 7nas. 



Nam., sing. jnas. 
Ah, joyful, 
Aosda, old, 
Vr, fresh. 

Nom. sing. fern. 

Gen. sing. mas. 


Adjectives ending with a diphthong have no change in the termination ; as, 
Beo, alive, Bheo, Bhco, 

Gen. sing. fern. 


Gen. sing, f em. 


Adjectives of two syllables, or more than two, do not commonly add to the genitive singular masculine ; as, 

Nom. sing. 7nas. 
Cinnteach, sure, 
Eagallach, fearful, 
Maiseach, handsome, 
Bodhar, deaf, has 
Odhar, sallow, has 

Nom. sing.fctn. 


Gen. sing. 7nas. 

Gen. sing. fern. 

General Rule. — The dative singular masculine, without the article, as that of substantives, is like the nominative 
singular; and the dative singular feminine is like the genitive masculine; as, 

Nom. sing. mas. 
Bodhar, deaf 
Caol, small, 
Donn, brown, 
Geal, white, 
Trom, heavy, 
Uasal, noble, 

The vocative singular masculine of adjectives, as that of substantives, is like the genitive singular masculine ; and the 
vocative singular feminine is like the nominative singular feminine; as. 

Gen. sing.fe7n. 

Dat. sÌ7ig. mas. 


a/, sing. fem. 



















A'om. sing. fern. 
Dliàn, pale, 
13hcag, little, 
Bhodhar, deaf, 
D\vM, blind,' 
Gheal, white, 
Throm, heavy, 
Truagli, w'relchcd. 

Gen. sing. 7nas. 

Voc. sing. mas. 

Voc. sing. fern. 


A monosyllabic adjective adds a to the nominative singular masculine; as, nom. swg. mas. mòr, great, pi. mora. 
Adjectives of more than one syllable have their plural cases like the nominative singular; as, nom. sing, brònach, sor- 
rowful, pi. brònach; cinnteach, sure, pi. cinnteach. 



These adjectives are characterized by i, and they form their cases Uke substantives of the second declension. 

Some adjectives of two syllables, of both declensions, are contracted in the plural; as, reamhara, cotitr. reamhra,/a? ; 
milise, contr. milse, sweet. 

The initial form of the adjective depends, (1) on the gender of its noun, (2) on its termination, (3) on its sense being 
definite or indefinite.* 

Example of an Adjective icith a Masculine Substantive, indejinite, of the Fiist Declension. 

Fear marbh. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Fear marbh, a rfead man, Nom. ¥\r m\\?ah\ia., dead men. 

Gen. Fir mhairbh, of a dead man. Gen. Fheara marbha, of dead men. 

Dat. Fear marbh, to a dead man. Daf. Fhearaibh marbha, to dead men. 

Voc. Fhir mhairbh, dead man. Voc. Fheara marbha, dead men. 

The same Words declined with the Article. 
Sing. PI. 

Nom. Am {ear marhh, the dead man, Nom. N a (hir mh^LThh^, the dead men. 

Gen. An fWìT mhairhh, of the dead man, Gen. 'Nam (ear marhh-d, of the dead men. 

Dat. An, *n fhear niharbh, to the dead man, Dat. Na fearaibh marbha, to the dead men. 

Example of a Noun Feminine and Adjective of the First Declension, indefinite. 

Beann mhòr. 
Sing. PL 

Nom. Beann mhor, a high hill, Nom. Beanntan mora, high hills. 

Gen. Beinne moire, of a high hill. Gen. Beann mora, of high hills. 

Dat. Bemn mhoire, to a high hill, Dat. Beanntaibh mora, to high hills. 

Voc. Bheann mhor, high hill, Voc. Bheannta mora, high hills. 

The same Words declined with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. A bheann mhor, the high hill, Nom. Na beanntan mora, the high hills. 

Gen. Na beinne moire, of t lie high hill. Gen. Nam beann mora, of the high hills. 

Dat. An, 'n bheinn mhoir, to the high hill, Dat. Na beanntaibh mora, to the high hills. 

Rule. — A substantive preceded by its adjective, is aspirated, and both are declined as one word ; as, 

Sgòr-bheann, s.f. a rocky hill. 


Sing. PL 

Nom. Sgòr-bheann, Nom. Sgòr-bheanntan. 

Gen. Sgòr-bheinn, Gen. Sgòr-bheann. 

Dat. Sgòr-bheinn, , Dat. Sgòr-bheanntaibh. 

Voc. Sgòr-bheann, Voc. Sgòr-bheannta. 

The same Noun with the Article. 

Sing. PL 

Nom. An sgòr-bheann, Nom. Na sgòr-bheantan. 

Gen. Na sgòr-bheinne, Gen. Nan sgòr-bheann. 

Dat. An, 'an sgòr-bheinn, Dat. Na sgòr-bheanntaibh. 


In Gaelic there are three degrees or states of comparison ; the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative. 
Tlie Positive merely expresses the quality ; as, tha 'n dath so dearg, this colour is red. 
The Comparative enlarges or diminishes the quality ; as, is e so dath is deirge, this is the redder colour. 
The Superlative expresses the quality of an object in the highest degree ; as, is e so an dath is deirge dhiubh uile, 
this is the reddest colour of them all. 

* If a substantive feminine ends in n, and its adjective begins vpith d, there is no initial change in the adjective ; as, aiiliiin dubh. 
admit donn, 




Tho comparative of monosyllables is commonly like the genitive singular feminine, and is generally followed by na. 


Gen. sing, fern. 



Gen. sing. fern. 


Ban, /air, 



Donn, brown, 



Borb, fierce. 



Dubh, Mack, 



Buan, tasfing. 



Fann, weak, 



Cam, crooked. 



Geal, white. 



Caomh, mild, 



Gorni, blue, 



Ceart, right, 



Lag, weak. 



Crion, little. 



Leatli, grey. 



Crom, crooked. 



Lorn, bare. 



Daor, dear, 



Mall, slotv, 



Dearg, red, 



Marbh, dead. 



Deas, ready. 



Trom, heavy. 



If the positive end in ach or each, the comparative is formed by adding e to the genitive singular feminine; as, 

Positive. Gen. sing. fern. Comp. 

Cealgach, deceitful, Cealgaich, Ccalgaiche. 

Cinntcach, sure, Cinntich, Cinutiche. 

Positive. Gen. sing. fern. Comp. 

Ciontach, guilty, Ciontaich, Ciontaiche. 

Maiseach, handsome, l\Iaisich, Maisiche. 

The following adjectives are contracted in the comparative ; as. 

Bodhar, deaf, 
Domhainn, deep. 


Bòidheach, pretty, 
Odhar, sallow', 


If the positive be characterized by i, the comparative is formed by adding «; as. 

Banail, modest, 
Caonihail, kind, 


Caoimhneil, kind, 
Làidir, strong. 


If the positive end in o or uidhe, the positive and comparative are alike; as, beo, lively, comp. lieo; buidhe, 
yellow, comp. buidhe. 


The superlative is like the comparative, and is followed by the preposition do or dke, either simple, or compoundrd 
with a pronoun. 

Ro,fior, and siir, put before an adjective, answer respectively to the English very, truly, exceedingly. They always 
tlirow the adjective into the asjiirated form; as, ro rahath, very good ; fior nihath, truly good; sàr nihath, e.ccecding (jooit. 

(Comparatives and superlatives undergo no change in the termination. 


Lugha, little, less, least. 
Càra, cairdiche, akin, more akin, most akin. 
Dorra, difficult, more difficult, most difficult. 
Fhaisge, fhaigse, near, nearer, nearest. 
Fhoisge, fhoigse, wear, nearer, nearest. 
Fhasa, easy, easier, easiest. 
Giorra, short, shorter, shortest. 
Annsa, ionnsa, dear, dearer, dearest. 
Loatha, 1 

Leithne, > broad, broader, broadest. 
Lithne, 3 

Fcarr, fhearr, good, better, best. 
M(), great, greater, greatest. 
Miosa, bad, worse, worst. 
Tcoithe, hot, hotter, hottest. 
Docha, dear, dearer, dearest. 

* Tliere is a double comparative, having tlie nature of both a substantive and adjective : it is formed from l!ie comparative by cliangin- 
into id; as, tcoilhe, hotter, teuthid. Kvery adjective does not admit of this form of comparison. 






Càra, cairdiche, 




Fhaisge, fhaigse, 


Fhoisge, fhoigse 



Gearr, goirrid, 



Annsa, ionnsa, 

i Lcatha, 
< Leillme, 


Math, maith, 

Fcarr, fhearr, 











A PuoNOtx is a word put instead of a noun, to prevent the too frequent repetition thereof; as, tha Dia mòr; tha e. 
sona; tha e gràsmhor; tha e naomh. 

There are six kinds of pronouns ; viz. the Personal, the Relative, the Adjective, the Interrogative, the Indefinite, and 
the Compound pronouns. 


There are four personal pronouns; they admit of Person, Gender, Number, and of a Simple and Emphatic form. A 
personal pronoun is thrown into an emphatic form by the addition of sa, or san, se, ne, to the simple form. 


Mi, mhi, /, the first person, "^ Sinn, we, the first person, ^ 

Tu,* thu, thou, the second person, ( „. . Sibh,t you, the second person, f 

E, se, Ae, ).,,,• , i' ' lad, siad, they, the third person, * 

■t ■ t I- the third person, I > > ,m r > 



Sinne, u-e, the first person, "J 


Mise, mhise, /, the first person, "j Sinne, u-e, the first person, "J 

Tusa, thusa, thou, the second person, f „. . Sibhse, you, the second person, J- 

The forms of the personal pronoun governed by a transitive verb are. 

Simple form. Emph.form. Simple form. Emph. form. 

Mi, Mise, me, "j .Sinn, Sinne, ns, 1 

Thu, Thusa, thee, \ Singular. Sibh, Sibhse, you, ',■ Plural. 

E, Esan, him, j lad, ladsan, them, j 

I, Ise, her, j 

Note. — -That/ewj when added to a personal pronoun, is equivalent to the Latin syllabic adjection met, English self, 
or selves ; mi fein, or mi f hein, myself; mise fein, -my own self. 

Thu fein, or thu fhein, thyself; thusa fein, thy own self. 

E fein, or e fhein, himself; esan fein, his oiun self. 

I fein, or i fhein, herself; ise fein, her own self. 

Sinn fein, or sinn fhein, ourselves ; sinne fein, our own selves. 

.Sibh fein, or sibh fhein, yourselves ; sibhse fein, your own selves. 

lad fein, or iad fhein, themselves ; iadsa fein, theinselves. 

Gender has respect only to the third person singular of the pronouns, e, i. E is masculine, i is feminine. There is 
no neuter gender in Gaelic, as has been already observed. 


There are three relative pronouns, nom. a, ivho, which ; gen. and dat. an ; nach, who not, which not, that not; na, 
that which. 

The adjective pronouns may be subdivided into the Possessive, the Demonstrative, and the Distributive. 
I. The Possessive Pronouns are, 

Mo, 7ny, "i Ar, our, "J 

Do, thy, ^Singular. Bhur, o;' ur, 2/0!(, \ Plural. 

A, her, y An, or am, their, ) 

These pronouns never have the emphatic syllable subjoined, like the personal pronouns ; but when they agree with a 
substantive, the emphatic form is expressed as follows : 

Simple form. Emph.form. Simple form. Emph.form. 

Mo (lieann. Mo cheann-sa, '\ Ar ceann, Ar ceann-ne, 1 

Do cheann, Do cheann-sa, > Sinqular. Bhur, or ur ceann, Bhur, or ur ceann-sa. > Plural. 

uu ciieaiiu, uo cneann-sa, > mnguiar. isnur, or ur ceann, rsnur, or ur ceann-sa. ^ 

A cheann, A cheann-san, ) Ant ceann. An ceann-san. J 

* The personal pronoun tu, thu, or thusa, is used in addressing our equals and our inferiors; and, what is remarkable, in our addresses 
to the Supreme Being. 

f Sibil, or sibhse, is commonly used when we address our superiors in age or in rank ; yet the second personal pronoun is beautifully 
applied to majesty, and to people of very high rank. 

J Am is used before words beginning with a labial not aspirated ; un is used before all other consonants, and before words begin- 
ning with a vowel. 


If the substantive be followed by an adjective, the emphatic adjection is put after the adjective only; and if it be fol- 
lowed by more adjectives than one, the adjection is put after the last ; as. 

Do ghnùis bhòidheach-sa, thy pretty face. 

Do lamh bhòidheach gheal-sa, thy pretty white hand. 

Do phiutiiair g;ioil-sa, thy beloved sister. 

Before a vowel or /aspirated, 7>io and do arc written with an apostrophe ; as, m' athair, my father ; d' ainm, thy name. 

II. The Demonstrative Pronouns are three, so, sin, sud or ud ; so, this; sin, thai; sud * or ud, yon, yonder. 

III. The Distributive Pronouns are, gach, each, every; gach uile, contracted chuile, or h-uile, every; a cheile, each 


The interrogative pronouns are, co ? zcho? cia? which? ciod? what? and nach, which is used when a question is 
put in a negative form. 

The indefinite pronouns express their subjects in a general manner ; the following are of this description : 

each, the rest, Cia b' e, zvhoever. 

Cuid, some, Cia b' e air bith, whoever. 

Cuid eile, some others, Co air bith, whoever. 

Eigin, some, Ciod air bith, luhatever. 
Eile, other. 

The personal pronouns in Gaelic are often found combined with prepositions, which generally govern different 
cases ; and, in that state, they form a part of speech which may be termed Compound Pronouns. The prepositions which 
are capable of being thus united, are the following: aig or ag, at; air, on; ann, in; as, out of; de, off; do, to; eadar, 
between; fo, fodha, or imiì\ì, under ; g\i, till ; le, with; mu, about ; o or ua, from ; ri, to; roimh, before; thar, over; 
troirah, through. The syllabic adjections, as has been said, throw the pronouns into the emphatic form. 

AG, or AIG, AT. 

AIR, o.v. 


1 St pers. Agam-sa, at Tne, 

2d pers. Agad-sa, at thee, 

„, ( Aige-se, at him, 

3d pers. I ^;6^_^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

Againn-ne, at as. 
Agaibh-se, at you. 
Aca-sa, at them. 

i&i pers. Orm-sa, on me, 
2d pers. Ort-sa, o)i thee, 

( Air-san, on him, 
3d pers. < Oirre-se, on her, 

\_ Orra-sa, ok her. 


Oirnn-nc, on us. 
Oirbh-se, on you. 
Orra-san, on them. 







Annam-sa, in me, 
Annad-sa, in thee, 
Ann-sa, in him, 
Innte-se, in her. 


Annainn-ne, in us. 
Annaibh-se, in you. 
Annta-sa, in them. 

DE, OF, or OFF. 

Dhiom-sa, off me, 
Dhiot-sa, off thee, 
^ Dheth-sc, off him, 
I Uhi-se, off her. 

Dhinn-ne, off us. 
Dhibh-se, off you. 
Dhiubh-siu), off them. 




No Singular. Plural. Eadarainn-nc, ie^iyire?) us. 

2(1. Edaraibh-se, between you. 

3d. Ivitorra-san, between them. 

GU, TO. 

Singular. Plural. 

H-ugain-sa, to me, H-ugainn-ne, to us. 

H-ugad-sa,t to thee, H-ugaibh-se, to you. 

i Il-uigc-san, to him, H-uca-san, to them. 

( H-uice-sa, to her. 









Asam-sa, out of me, 
Asad-sa, oitt of thee, 
i As-san, out of him, 
I Aisde-se, out of her. 


Asainn-nc, out of us, 
Asaibh-se, out of you. 
Asda-san, out of them. 

DO, TO. 

Dhomh-sa, to me, 
Diiuit-se, to thee, 
Dhii-san, to him, 
Dhi-se, to her. 


Dhuinn-nc, to us. 
Dluiibh-se, to you. 
Dhoibh-san, to them. 

FO, FODIIA, or FUIDll, uxder. 

Singular. Plural. 

Fodham-sa, under me, I'odhaiiiii-nr, under us. 

Fodiiad-sa, under thee, Fodhaibh-se, under you. 

Fodiia-sa, under him, Fodhpa-san, under them. 
Fuidhpe-se, wider her. 

LE, HI Til. 


Lcam-sa, with me, 
Lcat-sa, with thee, 

iLeis-san, with him, 
Leatha-sa, with her. 


Leinn-ne, zvith us, 
Leibh-se, with you. 
Leo-san, tvith them. 

* Sud is perliaps a contracted form of is lul, yonder is, or are. 

•f II-u^mI, and k-uguibU are often used in the sense of here is at you, beware, lake cure. 









Umam-sa, about me, 
Umad-sa, about thee, 

Umainn-ne, about us. 
Umaibli-se, about you. 

i Uime-se, about him, Umpa-sau, abotit them. 

Uimpe-se, about her. 

RI, TO. 

Rium-sa, to me, 
Riut-sa, to thee, 
Ris-san, to him, 

to her. 

C Ris-san, t 
< Ria-sa, ) 
(Rithe, I 

Ruinn-ne, to tis. 
Ribh-se, to you. 
Riu-san, to them. 

Singular. Plural. 

Tharam-sa, over me, 
Tharad-sa, over thee, 
Thairte, over her, 

Tharrainn-ne, over us. 
Tharraibh-se, over you. 
Tharta, over them. 





0, or U, FROM. 

Singular. Plural. 

Uam-sa, _/ro?» me, Uainn-iie, /;-o»i us., from thee, Uaibh-se,jrro7n j/ok. 

{Uaith-se, yVom him, Uapa-sa, yVom them. 
ljàìpe-se,from her. 


Singular. Plural. 

Romham-sa, before me, Romhainn-ne, before us. 
Romhad-sa, before thee, Romhaibh-se, before you. 

^ Roimhe-se, before him, Rompa-sa, before them. 

\ Roimpe-se, before her. 

Singitlar. Plural. 

1st. Tromhum-Sci, through me, Tromhamn-ne, through us. 
2d. Tromhad-sa, through thee, Tromhaibh-se, through you. 
( Troimlie-se, through him, Tronipa-san, through them. 
\ Troimpe-se, through her. 


1. Aon, a li-aon. 

2. Dhà, a dhà. 

3. Tri. 

4. Ceithir. 

5. Cuig, còig. 

6. Sè, sia. 

7. Seachd. 

8. Ochd. 

9. Naoi, naoth. 

10. Deich. 

1 1 . Aon deug. 

12. Dhà dheug. 

13. Tri deug. 

14. Ceithir deug. 


Cuig deug, còig deug. 



Se deug, sia deug. 



Seachd deug. 



Ochd deug. 



Naoi deug. 






Aon thar fhichead. 



Dha 'r fhichead. 



Tri 'ar fhichead. 



Ceithir 'ar fhichead. 



Cuig ar fhichead. 



Se ar fhichead. 



Seachd ar fhichead. 



Ochd ar fhichead. 
Naoi 'r fhichead. 
Deich ar fhichead. 
Aon deug 'ar fhichead. 
Dha dheug ar fhichead. 
Da fhichead. 
Da fhichead is deich. 
Tri fichead. 
Tri fichead is deich. 
Ceithir fichead. 
Ceithir fichead is deich. 
Ceud, ciad. 
Di\ cheud. 

300. Tri ceud. 
400. Ceithir cheud. 
500. Cuig ceud. 
1,000. Mile. 
2,000. Da mhile. 
3,000. Tri mile. 
4,000. Ceithir mile. 
5,000. Cuig mile. 
10,000. Deich mile. 
20,000. Fichead mile. 
100,000. Ceud mile. 
200,000. Da cheud mile. 
1,000,000. Muillion, deich ceud mile. 

Cardinals joined to a Noun Matcuiine. 

1. Aon fhear, one man. 

2. Da fhear. 

3. Tri fir. 

4. Ceithir fir. 

5. Cuig fir. 

6. Se fir. 

7. Seachd fir. 

8. Ochd fir. 

9. Naoi fir. 

10. Deich fir. 

1 1 . Aon fhear deug. 

12. Da fhear dheug. 

1 3. Tri fir dheug. 

14. Ceithir fir dheug. 

15. Cuig fir dheug. 

16. .Se fir dheug. 

17. Seachd fir dheug. 

18. Ochd fir dheug. 

19. Naoi fir dheug. 

20. Fichead fear. 

21. Aon fhear 'ar fhichead. 

22. Da fhear 'ar fhichead. 

23. Tri fir 'ar fhichead. 

24. Ceithir fir fhichead. 

30. Deich fir fhichead. 

31. Aon fhear deug 'ar fhichead. 

32. Da fhear dheug 'ar fhichead. 
35. Cuig fir dheug 'ar fhichead. 
40. Da fhichead fear. 

Cardinals joined to a Nuitu Feminine. 

Aon chloch, one sto7ie. 

Da chloich. 

Tri clachan. 

Ceithir clachan. 

Cuig clachan. 

Se clachan. 

Seachd clachan. 

Ochd clachan. ' 

Naoi clachan. 

Deich clachan. 

Aon chlach dheug. 

Da chloich dheug. 

Tri clachan deug. 

Ceithir clachan deug. 

Cuig clachan deug. 

Se clachan deug. 

Seachd clachan deug. 

Ochd clachan deug. 

Naoi clachan deug. 

Fichead clach. 

Aon chlach 'ar fhichead. 

Da chloich 'ar fhichead. 

Tri clacha fichead. 

Ceithir clacha fichead. 

Deich claciian fichead. 

Aon chlach dheug 'ar fhichead. 

Da chloich dheug 'ar fhichead. 

Cuig clachan deug 'ar fhichead. 

Da fhichead clach. 


Cardinals joined to a \oiin Mascuiiiie. 

41. Fear is da fhichcad.* 

42. Da fhear is da f'iiichead. 
50. Deich fir is da fiiicliead.t 

60. Tri fichead fear. 

61. Tri fichead fear is li-aon. 
70. Tri fichead fear is deich. 
80. Ceithir fichead fear. 

100. Ceud fear. 

101. Ceud fear is h-aon. 

102. Ceud fear is dhà. 
200. Dà cheud fear. 
,300. Tri cheud fear. 
400. Ceithir cheud fear. 
500. Cuig ceud fear. 
600. 'Sè ceud fear. 
700. Seachd ceud fear. 
800. Oehd ceud fear. 
900. Naoi ceud fear. 

1.000. Mile fear. 

1.001. Mile fear is h-aon. 

1.020. Mile fear fhichead. 

1.021. Mile fear fhichead is h-aon. 
1,030. Mile fear fhichead is deich. 
2,000. Da mhile fear. 

3,000. Tri mile fear. 

4,000. Ceithir mile fear. 

5,000. Cuig mile fear. 

10,000. Deich mile fear. 

10,020. Deich mile fhichead fear. 

20,000. Fichead mile fear. 

100,000. Muillion fear. 

Cardinals joined to a y^oiin Feminine. 

Clach 's da fhichead. + 

Da chloich 's da fhichead. 

Deich clachan 's da fhichead. 

Tri fichead clach. 

Tri fichead clach is h-aon. 

Tri fichead clach is deich. 

Ceithir fichead clach. 

Ceud clach. 

Ceud clach is h-aon. 

Ceud clach is dha. 

Da cheud clach. 

Tri cheud clach. 

Ceithir cheud clach. 

Cuig ceud clach. 

Sè ceud clach. 

Seachd ceud clach. 

Ochd ceud clach. 

Naoi ceud clach. 

Mile clach. 

Mile clach is h-aon. 

Mile dacha fichead. 

Mile dacha fichead is h-aon. 

Mile clacha fichead is deich. 

Da mhile clach. 

Tri mile clach. 

Ceithir mile clach. 

Cuig mile clach. 

Deich mile clach. 

Deich mile fichead clach. 

Fichead mile clach. 

Muillion clach. 


An ceud. . 

An dara. 
An treas. 
An ceathramh. 
An cuigeamh. 
An seathamh. 
An seachdandi. 
An t-oclidau\h. 
An naothaudi. 
An deiclieanih. 
An t-aou deug. 
An dara deug. 

^ An treas } , 

( An triamii j' ' "^' 
An ceathnuiih deug. 
An cuigeandi deug. 
An seathamh deug. 

An seachdandi deug. 

An t-(jclidauih deug. 

All iKi(ilh;iiiili deug. 

Am fichcadaiiih. 

An t-aon 'ar fhichead. 

An dar' 'ar fhichead. 

An treas 'ar fhichead. 

An ceathramh 'ar Hiichead. 

An cuigeamh 'ar fhichead. 

An .seathamh fhichead. 

An seachdunih 'ar fhichead. 

An t-ochdamh 'ar fhichead. 

An naolhamh 'ar fhichead. 

An deiclieanih 'ar fhichead. 

An t-aon deug 'ar fhichead. 

An dara deug 'ar fhichead. 

33. An treas deug 'ar fhichead. 

34. An ceathramh deug 'ar fhichead. 

35. An cuigeamh deug 'ar fhichead. 

36. An seathamh deug 'ar fhichead. 

37. An seachdamh deug 'ar fhichead. 

38. An t-ochdamh deug 'ar fhichead. 

39. An naothamh deug 'ar fhichead. 

40. An da fhicheadamh. 

41. An t-aon 'ar da fhichead. 

^„ ( An deiiheamh 'ar da fhichead. 

^ All leth-cheudamh. 
51. An t-aon deug 'ar da fhichcad. 
60. An tri ficheadamh. 
70. An deicheamh 'ar tri fichead. 
80. An ceithir ficheadamh. 
90. An deicheamh 'ar ceithir fichead. 
100. An ceadamh. 
1 10. An deicheamh 'ar ceud. 
120. An seathamh fichead. 
130. An deicheamh 'ar sè fichead. 
140. An seachdamh fichead. 
150. An deichamh 'ar seachd fichead. 
160. An t-ochdamh fichead. 
170. An deicheamh 'ar ochd fichead. 
180. An naothamh fichead. 
190. An deichamh 'ar naoi fichead. 
1,000. Am mileamh. 
2,000. An da inliileamh. 
;ì,0()0. An tri mileamh. 
4,000. An ceithir mileamh. 
5,000. An cuig mileamh. 
6,000. An sia mileamh. 
10,000. An deich mileamh. 

* We also say, ilnflnchcadfcar 's a li-uoii, uiifiikheiid fear's a dim, &c. 
f We also say, daj hichead clacli 't a It-aon, du fhichcad cluch 's a dha, &c. 

I ^Vlso, Iclli cheud fear. 


Ordinals joined to a Aoa/j Masculine. 

















An ceud fhear, thejirst man. 

An dara fear. 

An treas fear, an triamh fear. 

An ceathramh fear. 

An cuigeamh fear. 

An seathamh fear. 

An seachdamh fear. 

An t-ochdamh fear. 

An naothamh fear. 

An deicheamh fear. 

An t-aon fhear deug. 

An dara fear deug. 

An treas fear deug-. 

An ceathramh fear deug. 

An cuigeamh fear deug. 

An seathamh fear deug. 

An seachdamh fear deug. 

Am licheadamh fear. 

An t-aon fhear fichead.* 

An dara fear fhichead. 

An t-aon fhear deug 'ar fhichead. 

An dara fear deug 'ar fhichead. 

An da fhicheadamh fear. 

An deicharah fear 'ar tri fichead. 

An ceudamh fear. 

An t-aon fhear thar cheud. 

An dara fear thar cheud. 

An da cheudamh fear. 

An deicheamh fear fhichead thar da cheud. 

An tri cheudamh fear. 

An cuig ceadarah fear. 

Am mileamh fear. 

An deich mileamh fear. 

Ordinals joined to a Koun Feminine. 

A cheud chlach, thejirst stone. 

An dara clach. 

An treas clach. 

An ceathramh clach. 

An cuigeamh clach. 

An seathamh clach. 

An seachdamh clach. 

An t-ochdamh clach. 

An naothamh clach. 

An deicheamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach deug. 

An dara clach deug. 

An treas clach deug. 

An ceathramh clach deug. 

An cuigeamh clach deug. 

An seathamh clach deug. 

An seachdamh clach deug. 

Am licheadamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach fichead.f 

An dara clach fichead. 

An t-aon chlach deug 'ar fhichead. 

An dara clach deug 'ar fliichead. 

An da fhicheadamh clach. 

An deicheamh clach 'ar tri fichead. 

An ceudamh clach. 

An t-aon chlach thar cheud. 

An dara clach thar cheud. 

An da cheudamh clach. 

An deichamh clach fhichead thar da cheud. 

An tri cheudamh clach. 

An cuig ceudamh clach. 

Am mileamh clach. 

An deich mileamh clach. 

The following 'Siimerals are applied only to Persons; thus. 

2. Dithis mhac, iivo sons. 

3. Triùir mhac, three sons. 

4. Ceathrar mhac, your sons. 

5. Cuignear mhac,_/?i'e sons. 

6. Sèanar mhac, six sons. 

7. Seachdnar mhac, seven sons. 

8. Ochdnar mhac, eight sons. 

9. Naothnar mhac, nine sons. 
10. Deichnar mhac, ten sons. 


A Verb expresses action, being, or suffering. 

In Gaelic there are two conjugations. The first comprehends all those verbs which begin with any consonant, 
except/; as, paisg, wrap. Under the second are arranged those which begin with a vowel or withy,- as, òb, refuse; 
till, fold. 

The Gaelic verb is declined by Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons. 

There are two Voices ; Active and Passive. 

The different particles of conjunction and adverb in Gaelic might give rise to a variety of moods, but they may be 
reduced into the five following: — The Affirmative, or Indicative, the Negative, or Interrogative, the Subjunctive, or 
Optative, the Imperative, and the Infinitive, 

There are three times or tenses; the Present, Preterite, and Future. 

There are two numbers; .Singular and Plural. 

There are three persons; First, Second, and Third. 

Verbs, like nouns, are inflected by aspirating the initial consonant, and by an occasional change of termination. 

* We also say. An t-aon fear 'ar fliichead, an dara fear 'arfiicliead, an treas fear ' ar fliichead, &c. 
t We also say, An t-aon chlach 'ar fhichead, an dara clach 'ar fhichead, an treas clach 'ar fhichead, &c. 



FAISG, u-iap. 




( Phaisg mi, / wrapped. 
< Phaisg thu, thou wrappcdst, or didst wrap. 
{^ Phaisg e, he wrapped. 


■ Paisgidh mi, / shall or tuill "J 

thou shall or wilt > wrap. 
: or e, he shall or will } 

C Paisgidh mi, 
< Paisgidh tu, 
f. Paisgidh se o 

Phaisg sinn, we 'Ì 

Phaisg sibh, ye or you '■ wrapped. 

Phaisg iad, they } 

C Paisgidh sinn, we shall or will 
Plur. •! Paisgidh sibh, ye or you shall or tui 
t Paigidh siad or iad, they shall or ivi 

II > wrap, 


Preterite. Future. 

C Bo phahg mi, I wrapped not, OT did not wrap. „■ f Phaisg mi, / s/^a// or U'z7/ no< Ì 

< Do phaisg thu, thou didst not wrap. 'f'l Ì P'^^'^s ^^hu, thou shall or wilt not \wrap. 

(_ Do phaisg e, he did not wrap. ^^ f. Phaisg e, he shall or will not } 


f Do 
\ Do 



phaisg sinn, we did not 



sibh, yc or you did not \ wrap. 
iad, they did not } 



(^ Do 


f Do 





mi, did I not Ì 

thu, did thou not \ wrap ? 

e, did he not ) 

sinn, did we not 'i 

sibh, did ye or you not > wrap '; 

iad, did they not ) 

mi, if I did not 'J 

thu, if thou did: 
e, if he did not 

sinn, ifiue did not 'i 

sibh, if ye or you did not > wrap. 
iad, if they did not J 

p. ( Phaisg sinn, we shall or will not 
„, ■ I Phaisg sibh, ye or you shall or will not 
l^ Phaisg iad, they shall or will not 

„. i Paisg mi, shall I not "i 

K 1 » P"*'*? tl^'i shall thou not )■ 

"aisg e, shall he not 

> wrap. 

1 rai 

< Paisg thu, shall thou not V wrap '. 
(^ Paisg e, shall he not } 

p, C Paisg sinn, s^aZZ we not 
-^ ,■ J Paisg sibh, shall ye or 7/0!< not \ wrap '. 
{^ Paisg iad, shall they not j 

„. C Paisg mi, if I shall or wiZi iiot '^ 

^ "■ < Paisg thu, if thou shall or a;i7/ not \ j 
(^ Paisg e, if he shall or will not. j 

p. f Paisg sinn, if we shall or 7vill not 'i 
jL/, \ Paisg sibh, if you shall or ?tJÌZZ not \ wrap. 
(^ Paisg iad, if they shall or will not ) 



( Phaisginn, / might, could, or would 

Sing.l Phaisgeadh i\i,thou inightst, couldst, or wouldst ywrap. 
(^ Phaisgeadh e, he might, could, or would ) 

Sing. } 

C Phaisgeas mi, if T shall or will 


Phaisgeas tu, if thou shall or wilt >wrap. 

[^ Phaisgeas e, if he shall or will 


C Phaisgeadh sinn, or phaisgeamaid, we might, could, '\ 
J or would ( 

1 Pliaisgtadh silih, ye or you might, could, or would I '' 
(.Phaisgeadh iad, ilicy might, could, or would j 

<. C Paisginn, if I might or were to 
N- i Paisgeadh tu, if thou mightst or wcrt to ' ivrap 
l_ Paisgeadh e, if he might or were to J 

p. (Vhah^cas smn, if we shall or ivill 'Ì 
^ ' \ Phaisgeas sibli, if you shall or will J- ivrap. 
' (. Phaisgeas iad, if they shall or will ) 



.T < Pais 

Nam i -r, . 

I. Pais 

Paisgeadh sinn, if we might or were to 1 

~ geadh sibh, ifyc or you might or were to ^wrap. 
guadh iad, if they might or were to ) 


C Paisgeam, let mc wrap. 
Sing. < Paisg, wrap thou. 

(^ Paisgeadh c, let him wrap. 

( Paisgeamaid, let us wrap. 
Plur. I Paisgiijh, wrap ye or you. 

(. Paisgeadh iad, let them wrap. 


A phasgadh, ) . 

T^ ■ , " , \- to wrap. 

Do phasgadh, ^ '^ 

A nasiradh, ) 
Ag pasgadh, 3 ' ' •' 





Sing. ^"^hlwas ^ 

Phaiseeadh ) *''"' """' "'"^' \ '^"'"PP'^d. 
° (. e, fte was } 

" (. laa, tney ivere J 

Sinn t '"'' ^ ^''"^' °' "'^^ ^'^ ) 

Paisiear i *'"'' "'"" ^''"'' ""^ '^'''^ ^'^ > ffrop/jerf. 

' ^ ' ' e, /ie shall or ji-i// 6e ) 

Plur { ^'""' "■'^ ^''''^^ °'' "''^^ *^ Ì 

Paissrear 1 **''*' ^^^ O"" .'/0« ^'^all or m;ì7Z èe I w 

^*' f, iad, ^Aeì/ shall or «77? 6e j 




An do phaisgeadh 

An do phaisgeadh 

Cha do phaisgeadh 

Cha do phaisgeadh 

Nach do phaisgeadh 

Nach do phaisgeadh 

.Mur do phaisgeadh 

Mur do phaisgeadh 

C mi, was / ■J 

< thu, M;er< thou ' 
(^e, was Ae ) 

rapped '. 

C Sinn, were we 

•j sibh, were ye or 7/o;< '• wrapperf? 

t iad, ?i;ere <Aey J 

C mi, / jt'as nof Ì 

I thu, </io« irer^ not J 
(. e, Ae luas not j 


( sinn, we were not 1 

< sibh, ye or you tvere not \ wrapped. 

t iad, they were not } 

( mi, was I not '\ 

•. thu, wert thou not \wrapped'f 
[_ e, ?tias he not } 

C sinn, were we not '\ 

-•. sibh, were ye not \ wrapped ? 

t iad, were they not j 

(m\, if I was not ì 

■j thu, if thou wert not ^^ wrapped. 

' e, if he was not ) 

("sinn, ifive were not '\ 
< sibh, if ye were not \ 
( iad, if they were not ) 



Smq. \ "}'' '''f, ' ^ 

.Ampaisgear)""''/'5f '^''« 
^ ° (,e, shall he be 

he \ wrapped : 

Am paisgear 


( sinn, shall we be Ì 
<. sibh, shalt ye be V w 
{_ iad, shall they be ) 

•rapped ': 

( mi, / shall not be 

Cha phai'sgear Ì *^"' ^f^^u shalt not be\wrapped. 
^ ^ ( e, he shall not be ) 

p, i sinn, we shall not be 

Chaphai;gear-i^'^'''f 07°" ^ 
•^ ° (. iad, they shall not be 

sibh, ye or you shall not be \ wrapped. 

Nach paisgear 

C mi shall I not be 

< thu, shalt thou not be 

{_ e, shall he not be 

wrapped f 

Nach paisgear 

iur ])aisgear 

i sinn, shall we not be '\ 

\ sibh, shall ye or you not be [■ wrapped : 

{ iad, shall they not be ) 

mi, if I shall not be Ì 

thu, if thou shalt not be \ wrapped. 

e, if he shall not be } 


: sinn, ifice shall not be Ì 

Mur paisgear ) ^^^'V'"^ «f^'// "ot be\, 
•^ " t 'ad, ij they shall not be J 

Nam paisgeadh 

Nam paisgeadh 

( mi, if I were Ì 

•; tiiu, if thou wert ^wrapjped. 

' e, if lie toere } 

C sinn, if we were Ì 

\ sibh. ifvou were \ 

\ sibh, if you were ,■ 
{_ iad, if they were ) 

te rapped. 

Sing . 


C mi, 
< thu, 
I e, h( 

( sinn, w 

li ] sibli, i/t 

(_ iad, the 


I could or would be ^ 

thou couldst or wouldst be ' wrapped, 
he could or would be ) 

•e could or would be Ì 
ye could or would be \ wrapped, 
they could or would be } 

mi, let me iei 

thou > wrapped. 

C mi, let me bi 
< thu, be thou 
t e, let him be 



Plur ( ^'""' '''' '" ^"^ Ì 
Paisgtear ) '''',''' *« V^ , [ '^''-"pp.rf. 
° (. iad, ;e< <Aem Ac ) 

Ma phais 


i mi, //' / shall be 
•, thu, if thou shalt be \ ivrapped. 
f e, if he shall be 

Tsinn, if we shall be 

It \ ■ \ sibh, if you shah 

aa phaisgear i . , '/,/ , „ 

^ " (. iad, 2/ i/(Pi/ shall 


dlbe ^ 
tall be > wra 
all be ) 

Paisste, ^ 

Air pasgadh, ) 







, \ Tha th 


i 1 ( / am 



'pasgadli, ■? thou art 

C Tha sinn ì 

Phir. \ Tha sibh ' 

■ ii.a S.U.. ;a paso-adh 
fThaiad ) 

; )/c arc ~- 
' they arc j 


( we are Ì 

)/c arc '• iurappinr/. 


Sing. ■! Bitliidh tu '■ 'pasgadh 
f Bithidh se } 

, { ih( 

I shall he 

shall be j 

( Bha mi ^ 

Sing. < Bha thu '■ 'pasgadh 
(Bhae 3 

C I was 

1, < </iOH wert > 
f^ Ae was ) 



( Bha sinn ■! 
' Bha sibh '. c, 
( Bha iad ) 

a pas 

-adh, I 

\\ sinn Ì 
Plur. l Bitliidh sibh ' a pasgadh, 
( Bithidh siad j 

( Bithidh 
' Bitliidh 

we were "i 

rje were \ wrapping. 

they were j 

C we shall he "1 

■I you shall be J zcrapping. 

(^ they shall he ) 





Am blieil mi 'J 
Am bheil thu \ 
Am bheil e j 

C am I "J 

'pasgadh, J art thou ^. ivrapping '. 
' is he J 


C An robh mi 
•'An robh thu 


' Am bheil sinn Ì C are we 

Am bheil sibh V a pasgadh, -! are ye v wrapping : 
Am bheil iad ) {_ are they ) 


( An robh e 
r An robh sinn 

ivas I 

ert thou ^. wrapping ■ 
teas he ) 

Plur. i An robh 
( An robh 

^ ( was I Ì 

> 'pasgadh, < wert thou '• 
3 ' teas he ) 

sinni C were we "1 

sibh ' a pasgadh, < were yp ' 
iad 3 \_were t 

Shut. I A 

\ Am bi e 


shall I be 

\m bi mi ■^ 

')</. < Am bi thu J. 'pasgadh, -l shalt thou be ^ wrapping '. 


i shall I be ì 
< shalt thou be J- 1 
(^ shall he be J 

C Am bi 

Plur. < Am bi 

(^ Am bi 

sinn "J 
sibh V 
iad } 

ye V wrapping 
they ) 

i shall we be "1 

a pasgadh, <. shall yc be \ wrapping ': 

' shall they be } 

( Cha 'n 'eil mi "^ 
Sing. \ Cha 'n 'cil thu '• ' 

C I am not "j 
> pasgadh, < thou art not 
} f he is not J 




(^ Cha 'n 'eil e 
Cha 'n 'eil sinn "i C we are not 

r'ha 'n 'eil sibh '• a pasgadh, l you are yiot ■ j. 

Cha 'n 'eil iad ) Kthey are not} I 

C Cha bin mi '^ (I shall not "i i 

< Cha bhi thii '■ 'pasgadh, : thou shalt not 'iì 
\_ Cha bhi e ' (Ac shall not ) 'i 



( Cha robh mi 'J 

•J Cha robh thu \ 'pasgadh 

\^ Cha robh c ) 

Cha robh sinn '\ 
ha robh sibh ' 

Cha robh iad 3 


I was not ì 
thou wert not '.■ 
he was not } 
C we were not 

a pasgadh, < ye were not 
\^ they were not 

( Cha bhi sinn Ì 

C we shall not Ì ^ 

Plur. I Cha bhi sibh \ a pasgadh, < you shall not \ i\ 

t Cha bhi iad 3 (. they shall not 3 I 



i N'ach 
. ] Nach 
f Nach 'eil c 

■I art I 
' is he not 

( Nach 'eil sinn 
Plur. \ Nach 'eil sibh 

( are we not 
, 1^.0.. •. ti. .^../.. .■ a pasgadh, < n;T ye «0i! " icnipping( 
' Nach 'eil iad j {_ are they not j 

J i Nach robh mi ^ 

: \ wrapping '. Sing. \ Nach rohli thu ' 

S ( Nach robh S 



ich robh o 3 

(N; ■ 
Plur. \ Nach robh sioh )- a p; 

C was I hot 1 

:idh, •! wert thou not '■ i(t«;i/(I", 
(^ was he not J 


Nach robh 

1 SMin "i 

. i,>.v,.. .vy.-.i sibh J- a pasg 
I Nach robh iad } 

C ivere tve not "j 
adh, l were ye not 
(^ were they not ] 



i Nach bi mi ^ ( shall I not ^ \ 

Sing.< Nach bi thu J- 'pasgadh, ■? shalt thou not > s'i 

I Nach bi e 3 f shall he not J I 

( Nach bi sinn 'J ( shall wc not 

Plur. ; Nach bi sibh \ a pasgadh, •; shall yt 


ach bi iad 

ye not ) . 
shall they not ) 


C Mm- 'eil mi Ì i 'f ^ "'" ""' 

Sing. ' Mur 'eil thu '. 'rin<:o-.irlli ' if ll.n 



.Miir i(il)h mi 

'eil a 

.' pasgadh, -J if thou art not • 5 
3 ' if he j$ not J 5 

( Mur '. il 

Phir.\ Mur 'cil sibh 
I MMr'.il 

nn 1 
t,l, ' 


a pasgi 

i if we are not 1 J 
adh, J if ye arc not J. * 
if they are not J I 




i .\liir i(il)li nil > 
. ; Mur robh thu ' ' 
I Mur robh e ) 

I Mur robh sinn J C if 

. . Mur robh sibh ' a pasgadh, l if 
f Mur robh iad 3 

I if I was not ~i i 
\ if thou wert not \ | 
f^ if he was not J I 

we ivere not 'J : 

ye were not V '\ 

if they were not ) \ 



C ,Min bi mi ^ Cif I shall not 

Sing. < .M ur bi thu '• 'pasgadh, C if thou shalt not ' a S 
(Mur hie ) l^'if he shall not } I 



i Mur bi siun'J ( if wc shall not \ | 

< Mur bi sibh Va pasgadh, < if ye shall not ys's. 
tMurbiiad ) i'if they shall not } I 



Preterite. Future. 

C Bhithinn 'i CI would èe Ì * ( Ma bhitheas mi^ t if I shall be '\ £« 

Sing. ■; Bhitheadh tu V 'pasgadh, < thou wouldst be > '| Sing, s Ma bhitheas tu J 'pasgadh, < if thou shall be ' | 

(Bhilheadhe) {_he would be )% ( Ma bhitheas e ) lif he shall be jl 

i Bhithcaniaid "i ( we ivotild be IS- ^ Ma bhitheas sinii ^ (if we shall be )i 

I Bliitheadh sibh |- a pasgadh, ? ye would be ', | Plur. < Ma bhitlieas sibh '. a pasgadh, •: if you shall he ' % 
( Bhitheadh iad j {_ they would be) l (, Ma bhitheas iad } (if they shall hi'S Ì 


( Am bithinn "i ( would I be ì 

Sing, s Am bitheadh tu V 'pasgadh, <. wouldst thou be '• ivrapping ? 
(^ Am bitheadh e 3 t. would he be j 

C Am bitheamaid "i C would ice be "1 

Plur. l Am bitheadh sibh ' a pasgadh, •? would ye be ^-wrapping ? 
' Am bitheadh iad J (, would they be ) 

( Cha bhithinn Ì CI would not be ì 

Sing. < Cha bhitheadh tu V 'pasgadh, < </iO?i ivouldsf not be ~. wrapping. 

. _ ^ .a Vpasgadh, < i . ..„. „^ 

(^ Cha bhitheadh e ) {_he would not be y 

C Cha bhitheadh sinn "i C we tvould not be ^ 

. < Cha bhitheadh sibh '■ a pasgadh, \ ye icould not be J- wr( 
( Cha bhitheadh iad } ' they would not be J 

C Mill- bithinn Ì Cifl would not be Ì 

. < Mur bitheadh tu J- 'pasgadh, < z/" </(OiJ wouldst not be V lura 
' Mur bitheadh e j {^if he would not be } 

' if we would not be "1 
^''"■•^ M„r bitheadh sibh > ^ pa^gadh, ■; z/ 2/e «;o«W «o< èe . ^orapp^ng. 

tj they would not be ) 



( Bitheam ^ C let me be 'Ì C Bitheamaid ~j C let us 

Sing. < Bi, bi thusa J- 'pasgadh, < be thou \ wrapping. Plur. '. Bithibh |- a pasgadh, \ be ye 

( Bltlieadh e 3 (let him be) ( Bitlieadh iad 3 (let tlu 

tliem be J 


Bhith, or a bhith pasgadh, ) . , 

Do bhith pasgadh, \ ^° ^' wrapping. 



Present. Preterite. 

( Tlia mi Ì CI am ^l C Bha mi Ì C I was Ì 

Sing. I Tlia thu \ paisgte, < thou art J- wrapped. Sing. ■? Bha thii [. paisgte, •; thou wert \ wrapped. 

( Tha e 3 (he is } ( Bha e 3 (h^ was ) 

(Tha sinni Civeare ^ f Bha sinni (weivere "i 

Plur. ; Tlia sibh V paisgte, < ?/e are ' wrapped. Plur. ; Bha sibh J paisgte, < ye were J. wrapped. 

f Tha iad 3 (they are) (Bha iad ) (they were) 


rBithidhmii C I shall be i 

Sing. , Bithidh tu v paisgte, < thou shall be ^wrapped. 

C I shall bi 

isgte, < thou sha. 

( he shall , 

( Bithidh SB 3 (he shall be ) 

C Bithidh sinn i C we shall be Ì 

Plur. <. Bithidh sibh J- paisgte, < ye shall be \ wrapped. 
( Bithidh siad 3 ( they shall be ) 

* Another form of the present, preterite, and future affirmative is, Tlia mi air mo phiisgadh , 4c- ; Bha mi air mo phasgailh, i^i-. ,- liithuik 
mi air mo phasgadb, ajC, 


Present. Preterite. 

„ i bheil mi ~i i am I '] „■ f robh mi Ì (was I "i 

. J' \ bheil thu > paisgte, < art thou J tvrapping ? A » ""obh thu J- paisgte, •. trcrt thou \ wrapped ' 

(.bheile J \_is he } (^robh e ) {_was he ) 

p, i bheil sinn ì C are we Ì Pl i "^*^^'' ^'"" Ì f «'tTe we ^J 

, ■ J bheil sibh > paisgte, -J nee ?/e 'u'rappiny ^ . ■< robh sibh ' paisgte, < M-rre ?/e '■ icrappefi ' 

(. bheil iad ) {_ are they ) t robh iad } (^ were they ) 

r.- f bi mi ì ( shall I be ì 

.-''-? hi thu ' paisg-tc, ■; shalt thou be \ wrapped? 
(^ bi e 3 L shall he be ) 

p. f bi sinn Ì C shall we he "i 

, ' % bi sibh ■ paisgte, ; shall ye he J- wrapped ? 
(^ bi iad 1 ( shall they be ) 

Present. Preterite. 

„. i 'eil mi 'Ì C am I not ^ ■ <: C ™'^'' ''^' Ì i " "* ^ ""' Ì 

1, ^ ; 'eil thu V paisgte, ! oiV </iOit not J- wrapped ? IM Vi » "^^*^'' '^'^" !' P'*'*?**'' i '^'^''^ ''""« "o* ;• ivrapped i* 

(^ 'eil e 3 (^ !s lie not J t robh e 3 ' «^'«s Ac ?(0< } 

p. r 'eil sinn Ì ( are we not ì p, ( robh sinn 1 f KJere are !<o/ 1 

_' -' 'eil Slbh ' naico-fd ' nrfl lif rtnt V inyfiTiiiffl ^ * J rnbVi ftil->h V nnKcrtp < niyerp IIP rinf \ ; 

eil iad 

r,. ( bi mi 1 r s/ta/Z / not be Ì 

-- •'." ■ bl tlìii '. lìriincrfo ■: vhnli flintt rinf hp '. 

Ì ( are we not ì nj ( robh smn 1 C were we not 1 

.. , , 'eil sibh '^ paisgte, I are ye not > wrapped ? n V. » ''obh sibh '■ paisgte, \ were ye not '■ tvrapped ? 

I ■ :i !_j j {^are they not ) (^ robh iad ) i^were they not ) 

j^ I ■: bi thu ' paisgte, < shalt thou not be > lorapped ? 

' (. bi e 3 t siiall he not be 3 

p. . f bi sinn ^ T sAo/Z ji'e noZ be "^ 

N ,u J bi sibh ' paisgte, ■( shall ye not be \ wrapped? 
( bi iad 3 ' shall tlicy not be J 

Present. Preterite. 

i 'eil mi Ì CI am not J „. C robh mi "l (I was not Ì 

<. 'eil thu ' paisgte, < tliou art not ' wrapped. p, "' ^ robh thu ' paisgte, ■; thou wert not ;■ wrapped. 

(^ 'eil e 3 (. '"^ 2S not ) (_ robh e 3 l.he was not ) 

p, ( 'eil sinn 'jk f ive are not ì p/ ■ f '^"'^'' **'"" Ì f ""'^ were not "1 

pi ■ ■ < 'eil sibh '. paisgte, ■! ye are not '■ wrapped. „, ' I robh sibh ' paisgte, < i/e Jt^ere not \ tcrapped. 

f 'eil iad 3 {.they are not) (^ robh iad, 3 f^fhey were not ) 



., f bhi mi "i f / s/ioZZ not be 'J 

fl i ''''' ^''" i P^'^S*^' i ''""' sAaZZ not be yicrappcd. 
(bhie 3 [he shall not be J 

bhi sinn ) f «y s/iaZZ ho< òe 1 

bh '• paisgte, ■! ye shall not be '■ wrapped. 
d J f Z/icy s/inZZ not be ) 

Plur ( '''" ^" 
,,) < bhi sil 

f bhi iai 


Preterite. Future. 

I Bhithinn Ì il would be ^ ( mi Ì f ;/ / .•(//nZZ be "1 

.SiH'/. . Bhitheadh tu ' paisgte,* J thou wouldst be ', wrapped. ,, V/'-^i' ! t" > paisate, < if thou shalt be yirravped. 

iBbitheadhej \ he would be S " Ma bhithcas ^^, J I' "^ {-(f he shall be S 

r Bhitheamaid, or^ ,,, , , • ■. , j- i n i ^ 

,,, 3 lil'itheadh sinn ( . ^^'-e would be \ ^ smn -^ ^ ,ftve shall be \ 

' ''"■i Bl,itheadh sibh y P=»«P"^. ■ r ^rouldbr | „t.;,,,../. ,.^^ • s,bh ' pa.sgto. ■ ./ ye ska I be • «Ta^,;rrZ. 

(.Bhitheadh iad j ( ZAit/ u.,»/Zrf if 3 t iad ) IjJ they shall be } 


i P.itlicam ^ t let me be 1 A bhith paisgte, ) , , 

Sing. •' Bi, bi thusa I paisgte, \ he thou \ wrapped. Do bhith paisgte, \ " ''"'"/'/"'«■ 
( Bitheadh e 3 ( let him be S 

fBitheamaid "J I let us be \ FARTlCIPi.K. 

I'lnr. . Bitlijlih, bithibhse ' paisgte, ? be i/e '■ mapped. Air bhith paisgte, having been wrapped. 
( Bitheadh iad ) I let' them be ) 

' Anollicr form of the [iretcritu and future subjunctive is, lUiilln in uir niu iJiiisgiidh, S,c.; Mu hhilhcu% ini uir mo phiiN:iulli, ffc. 



OL, (bill/:. 


Preterite. Future. 

( mi, 

I drank, 
thou drunkest, 
e drank. 


p. C sinn, we drank. 
nVi' "1 1 ^''^'^> y^ drank. 
( iad, they drank. 


( mi, / shall or ivill "J 
< tu, thou shall or ?«!'/< > dr. 
\ se, Ae s/ia/Z or will S 

C sinn, 

^ Isii: 

</if i/ s/inZ/ or will } 

we shall or ivill 

ye shall or ?(J(7Z ^ drink. 


„■ C mi, did I drink, or /mt'e / Ì 

A H '1 i ^^"' '^''^*'' '^"^ drink, or Aas< </io« '■ rfrun^ .' 
(^ e, did he drink, or /ires he } 

p, , f sinn, did we drink, or have ice 1 
, ..■- 1 •! sibh, did ye drink, or have ye J drunk ? 
l_ iad, dirf <Àe!/ drink, or /tai'e <Af v J 

Sing. I J? 

Chad'ÒI V" 

mi, / did not drink, or have not ^ 

u, </iOM didst not drink, or Aas< not > drunk, 
he did not drink, or Ans )!o< J 

p. C sinn, we did not drink, or Aawe not Ì 

p. ,.■. I J sibh, ?/e rfirf no? drink, or Aaue ko< ' drunk. 
(^ iad, </iey dirf not drink, or Aaye no< ) 

^, f mi, dtd / not drink, or Aaye / not "i 

Nachd'òlì *'^"' '^''^^^ '^°" '*"' rf'i«^, or hast thou not ^drttnk : 
(.e, did he not drink, or has lie not j 


' sinn, did we not drink, or have we not 
^ iad, fZir/ <Ap)/ ?io^ drink, or Aore <Aei/ ?io< ) 




( mi, sAfjZZ o 

?'■ < tlui, sAa/< 

t e, shall or 

mi, sAfjZZ or will I Ì 

or ici'/f thou J rf/ÌHÌ ? 
' or will he ) 

C sinn, shall or ?«i7/ we 

' sibh, shall or wZ/Z ye \ drink ? 

pi I sum, òftuiL Ul (t/itt we I 

. , I ■? sibh, shall or will ye V 
( iad, sAa/Z or w?7/ they ) 

(,. ^ mi, / shall or ici// ,'io/ Ì 

/ "• .' tliii fi,r^„ shah or )t';7< ho? ; di 

,-.] .•^' 1 •; thu, tho 
Cha n ol I ,' , 

he shall or h'(7/ not 

p. , f sinn, we shall or wi/Z not 'i 
p. ' M \ sibh, ye shall or jfiW no? '. drink. 
l^ iad, /Af!/ shall or wJ/Z ?io< ' 

^. ( mi, sAaZZ or will not I 

v[ 1 XI \ thu, sAaZi or w(Z< not thou 
t e, sAaZZ or will not he 

PI i sinn, sAaZZ or ?yz7Z not xve ^ 

• T I VI "j sibh, shall or ?«JZZ no< ye ' 

' iad, sAaZZ or will nut they ) 


drink : 




( Dh' òlainn, I would or could 'Ì 

I Dh' oladh tu, thou wouldst or couldst 'fZn'rtA. 

(^ Dh' òladh e, Ae would or could j 

( Dh' òlamaid, or dh' òladh sinn, ive would or could \ 

Plur. ■! Dh' oladh sibh, ye would or roi/Zrf v rfciinA 

f Dh' oladh iad, ?Aei/ would or coj/ZcZ 3 


Ma dh' òlasl- 


( mi. zy / sZirtZZ or will 

\ tu, if thou shnlt or w^it , 

(^c, z/"Ae shall or jfiZZ 3 

J sii.n, if we shall or ivill "J 

x sibh, z/j/e shall or wJZZ ' fZ/v'/i^ 

(^ iad, if they shall or .v;7Z j 

r Òlam, let me drink. 
Sing. I 01, ol thusa, drink thoit. 
(^ Oladh e, let him drink. 

i Òlamaid, let us drink. 
Plur.}^ Òlaibh, drink yc. 

f Oladh iad, let them drink. 


A dh' ol, to drink. 

Ag Ò1, drinking. 

* The second conjugation, as lias been said, compreliends all those verbs which begin with a vowel or with the letter /'. 
t It does not appear necessary to exenipUfy, any further, the preterite subjunctive inflected with the vaiious particles ofcoiijunclii 
The young student cannot be at any loss if he but turn back to the preceding verbs. 



This verb is not often used in the passive voice, excepting; in the third person singiiliir and plural. 


Preterite. Future. 

Sine/. Dh' òhidh e, it ivas drunk. Siny. Òlar e, it shall be drunk. 

Preterite. Future. 

Sing. Cha d' òladh e, it was not drunk. Sing. Cha 'n òlar e, it shall not be drunk. 

Plur. Cha d' òladh iad, they were not drunk. Plur. Cha 'n òlar iad, they shall not be drunk. 

Siiig. Nach d' òiadh e, was it not drunk ? Sing. Nach òlar e, shall it not be druuk ? 

Plur. Nach d' òiar iad, were they not drunk ? Plur. Nach òlar iad, shall they not be drunk ? 

Preterite. Future. 

Sing. Dh' òltadh e, it would be drunk. Sing. Ma dh' òlar e, i/it shall be drunk. 

Plur. Dh' òltadh iad, they xvould be drunk. Plur. Ma dh' òlar iad, if they shall be drunk. 

Sing. Òltar e, let it he drunk. 
Plur. Òltar iad, let them be drunk. 


Olta, oiltc, ) , , 
. ■ ,, > drunk. 

Air ol, ) 

ORDUICH, order. 




Sinr f '"'' ^ Ì 

ni '' 1 ■ u I thu, thou ;• ordered. 
Dh orduich 1 , i 

I c, he } 

p. C sinn, tt'e Ì 

TM.' J- 1 \ sibh, ?/e ) ordered. 
Dh orduich 1 ■ , .v i 
t^iad, they ) 


i mi, / shall or trill "i 

•! tu, thou shalt or will ' 

' e, he shall or will ) 

i sinn, ive shall or icill 1 

/-V 1 • L- 11 l sibh, ye shall or will '■ 
Orduichidh 1 ■ i .i , ,, ■,, i 

^ iad, they shall or wtll J 







An d' orduich 


( mi, did I order, or have I 'Ì 

< thu, didst thou order, or hast thou > ordered '. 

\ c, did he order, or has he j 

i sinn, did we order, or iiave ive 
< sibh, did ye order, or iiave ye 

{_ iad, did they order, or have they ) 

ordered '. 

Nach d' orduich 

Nach d' orduich 


( mi, did I iiotyflt have I not 

■\ tiiu, didst thou not, or hast thou not '• ordered'^ 

\_ e, did he not, or Itas he not J 

i sinn, did we not, or have ive not Ì 

< sibh, did ye not, or have ye not > ordered '. 

( iad, did Ihry not. or itavc they not } 

Sing. S 
An orduich Ì 


An orduich 

Nach orduich 


Nach orduich 

mi, shall or xvill I 1 
thu, shalt or wilt thou ' 
c, shall or will he ) 
sinn, shall or icill we ^ 
sibii, shall or will ye \ order i* 
iad, shall or will they ) 
mi, shall or will I not "i 
thu, shalt or wilt thou not y order ? 
e, shall or will he not } 
sinn, shall or will we not \ 
sibh, slialt or wilt thou not ^ urd<:r f 




Dh' orduiciiinn, / ivould "1 

.,,r ordiiic liciulh tu, thou ioouldst \ order. 
' Dh' orduichcadii e, /ic xvould } 

/" Dh' orduicheamaid, or dh' orduichcadli sijin. 
7 ?«e would 

' i Dh' orduiclioadh sibh, ye would 
V Dh' orduichcadli iad, Ihey xvould 



Mu dh 

c,. J mi, if I shall or w';7/ Ì 

. "^; • 1 ■; tu, if thou shalt or «7// ' order. 
orihirclieas 1 ;., , „ .,, i 

^ (', tj he snail or will ) 


sinn, if we shall or xvill 

«, ,, . , • , < sibh, if ye shall or wtll ] 
JMii till orduichcas 1 ■ , ;.,•, , ,, ,, i 

{^ lad, tJ they shall or will J 



C Orduicheam, let me order. 
Sing.< Orduich, order than. 

{^ Orduicheadh e, let him order. 

r Orduicheamaid, let us order. 
Plur. \ Orduichibh, order ye. 

(^ Orduicheadh iad, let them order. 

Dh' orduchadh, 
A dh' orduchadh. 

to order. 

Ag orduchadh, ordering. 



Dh' orduicheadh 

C mi, / was Ì 

< thu, thou wast > 
' e, he was j 


„ ( sinn, we ivere 1 

TM ' ' I ■•1 n I sibli, 1/e were ]■ ordered. 
Dh orduicheadh i • , ,; l 

I iM, they were j 




r mi, / shall or will be ~i 

■I tlui, thou shalt or wilt be \ ordered. 

f e, he shall or ivill be ) 

i sinn, we shall or iuill be '\ 

. sibh, ye shall or will be \ ordered. 

t iad, they shall or will be J 

An d' orduicheadh 

An d' orduicheadh 

C mi, u'ns / Ì 
^ thu, wert thou ^-ordered? 
(^ e, was he j 

i sinn, ivere i 
< sibh, luere ? 
\^ iad, were tl 



f mi, shall I be 

''ni, shalt the 

shall he be 


ye V ordered ? 
they ) 

Sing. ) 

Nachd' orduicheadh Ì "' 

mi, was I not 


was he not j 

( sinn, were we not '\ 

< «inn tnpTp no tint \ 

ordered ? 

i\'„ 1 J- J • 1 11 ^ sibh, were ye not > 
Nachd orduicheadh 1 • , J , t 

(^ iad, ivere they not } 

ordered ? 

An orZ'chcar] *'"'' ''f/ ^,^"" *^ [ordered? 
{^ e, shall he be J 

( sinn, shall we he 

A 1 ■ 1 \ ^\h\\, shall ye be \ ordered? 

An orduichear i ■■, , i, A , j ""="-" ■ 
(^ iad, shall they be } 


Nach orduichear 

Nach orduichear J ^''t' ff °'" 't" f "°« ^f 
(^ lad, s/ifflH or ivtll they not be 

( mi, shall or ?t'i7/ / not be '\ 

< thu, shalt or ?«27< //ìojì not be \ ordered ? 

(^ e, shall or will he not be } 

f sinn, shall or ivill we not b 

ordered ? 


Sinn i ™'' ^ «""(W or could be 

■ *^^u, thou wouldst or eoi 

he would or cordd be 



Dh' orduichteadh Ì '^'""' "'"" '"^o^ldst or couldst be \ ordered. 


( sinn, ?«£ would or coji/rf 6e ì 
•j sibh, !/e would or cohW èe J i 
(^ iad, they would or coi</rf be } 

Ma dh' orduichear 

Ma dh' orduichear 

( mi, j/" / sAai/ or ivill be "i 

, thu, if thou shalt or hu7« be \ ordered. 

' e, i/" Ae shall or iuj7/ èe J 

(s.\nn,ifweshalloTwillbe "J 

: sibh, z/j/e shall or ?<)z7/ 6e v ordered. 

{^ iad, if they shall or m,'ì7/ Ae j 

Orduichtear 1 —-7-- -•■-■■ , 
^e, let him be ) 

e bc'i 
thu, be thou ] ordered. 



( sinn, let tis be "i 

/-\ 1 • 1 . 1 sibh, be ye [ordered. 

Orduichtear J • 1 , , .v , ( ^' '<-'"<■ 
(^iad, let them be 1 


Orduichte, Ì j j, 

, ■ , , ,, ;■ ordered. 
Air orduchadh, ) 

FILL, fold. 




Dh' fhi 


i mi, / 

', thu, thou \ folded. 
I e, he ) ' 


r'liji \ tu, thou shalt or wilt 
Fillidh 1 ' 

sibh, ye \ folded 

Dh' Chill ì ^'""' f f 
(^ iad, they ) 


se, /(C shall or ?;77/ 
sinn, ?ue shall or- 
sibh, j/c s/m^/ or : 


C sinn, we shall or- -itiW Ì 
F'll'rIVi "1 ^''^'^' .'/'^ s/m^/ or will y fo 
\_ siad, they shall or jut7Z ' 




o C mi, did I fold, or iiave I Ì 

I "^ i>?i 11 \ tliu, didst thou fold, or liast thou > folded ' 
And (hill i J- J ; /■ I J ; I i ■ 

f e, asa he jold, or /ios /«? 3 


sinn, rfi'd we fold, or Aaue we Ì 

rfìV^ ye fold, or /mi'e ye J- folded ' 
did theij fold, or have they ) 

( sinn 

Am fill 


mi, s/ia// or will I ì 

tlni, s/m/^ or wilt thou ^foldf 

[ e, shall or w,'j7/ /le j 

p. f sinn, s/ia/Z or will we "i 

. ,.',, -x sibh, shall or wi7Z ye V fold f 
Am hll J • , ' , „ ■„ ,•; ( ■' 

( lad, shall or will tliei/ } 


Dli' fhillinn 

I would or could 



Dh' fhilleadh c, he zvould or could 

Dh' fhilleaniaid, or } 

loe would or could " 

Dh' fhilleadh sibh, ye would or could 
Dir fhilleadh iad, they would or coM?d 


I Filleam, let me fold. 

I Fi!l,/oW Mom." 

' Filloadh e, let him fold. 


(• Fillea 

Plur.\ Fillib 

( Fille? 

eamaid, let us fold. 
h\\, fold ye. 
lleadh iad, let them fold. 


Ma dh' fhilleas 

Ma dh' fhilleas 

( mi, if I shall or will Ì 
< til, if thou shalt or wilt > 

{^ e, i/' /ie shall or Wi7/ 
f sinn, if we shall or m;ì7/ ^ 
; sibh, if ye shall or ivill >fo 
{_ lad, (f they shall or ji'i/i J 


Dh' fhilleadh 
A dh' fhilleadh 

A fdleadh 
Ak fiUeadh 

adh, 1 '°> 
I folding. 




... C mi, / tvas 

IM • !■! -11 11 \ thU, </(0M w«s< 

Dh fhilleadh 1 ,' 

(^ e, lie was 

Dh' fhilleadh 

C sinn, we were 
< sibh, !/e ?«ere 


ad, tliey were 

■ folded. 

i folded. 



f mi, / shall or will be 1 

.' .1.,, /;.„„ ^h„if „r „„7; Je J. 

thu, thou shalt or u;z7i 
he shall or ?t'z7Z èe 


p. J sinn, we shall or wj7^ (6e 'J 

^ sihh, ye shall or will be \ folded. 


( iad, Mipi/ 

;hall or ?(.'i7/ fce 



,,. f mi, was I Ì 

An d' fhilleadh 

thu, w)e/7 </iou ] folded ! 

Q, was he ) 

p. C sinn, were we 'Ì 

, i.<-i 11 11 \ sibh, were i/e / folded f 

\n d fhilleadh 1 ■ i ., t '' 

f iad, were they j 

„. i mi, was I not ~i 

."'- ... < thu, wert thou not y folded ^ 

( c, was he not J 

( sinn, were we not 

Nach d' fhillcar 

\ i;, ivm iif: tiut 

p. ( sinn, were we not 1 

»T 1 i.ri'ii < sibh, were 7/e ?(o< \ folded'. 

Nach d fhillcar J . , ' .f , {•' 

\ iad, ivere they not ) 


( mi, shall or will I be "i 

4 ' 'fill ■'! '^''"'' *''"'' "'' "-'^'^ ''""' '"^ ; /oWcrf ■ 

(^ e, shall or wi// /i« be J 

p. J sinn, shall or wi/^ we ie i 

, „.. ■ < sibh, shall or wi// ye be J- folded f 

t iad, s/iaZ/ or wi7/ they be ) 

C mi, / shall or wi7/ not be ì 

; thu, thou shalt or ?ii7< ?iO< be ' folded. 

t e, /je s/io// or ttij7/ «ot be j 

p. f sinn, we shall or wi7Z mo< be 'Ì 

„, , ,,,■.,, . ^WÀì, lie shall UT will not be ; folded. 

C ha n thillcar | ■ , ' / , „ n . l i 

{ iad, ?rtey shall or wj« no< oe J 

Sing . 
Cha "ii (hi 



^. i mi, / would or could be 

r.1 . ri 111 11 ! thu, Z/ioii Viouldsl or euuldsl be 
Dh fhillteadh ) , •, . , , , 

( c, he would or couW be 

r., i sinn, jue would or could be 

Dh' fhillteadh 

. folded. 

sibh, ?/c would or co?/W /-e ' 

iad, /Aey would or fo»W //e ' 




f mi, ;■/■ / shall or hv7/ be \ 

11 • ;-i 11 \ thu, if thou shalt or wi// ie > folded. 
i\\\ thilliar I ■,.',' , ,, ,, , I ■ 

^ e. If he shall or will be ) 

.,. C sinn, if we shall or Wi7/ 6ei 

,, ,,,','.! ■.,, ; sibh, i/'?;e s/in7/ or ?iu7i Ae ). folded. 
Ma (lb iillear 1 • , ';.'',' r ;, „ ■,, i i 
{_ iad, ij they shall or will be ) 



mi, let me be 
be thou 
let hint be 

let us be ì 
be ye V folded, 

let them be j 



C mi, /( 
< thu, 
( e, let 
( sinn, 
{ sibh, 
i iad, I, 



Fillte, Ì /• J J r 


The learner, having come thus far, can have no difficulty, it is presumed, in declining- the compoimd tenses of any 
verb, as they are, both in the active and passive voices, similar to those of the first conjugation, to which I refer him. 




Abair, say, 
Adhlaic, bury, 
Ainmich, name, 
Aisig, restore, 
Aithn, command, 
Aithnich, know, 
A mail, hinder, 
Arduich, exalt, 
Bac, hinder. 
Bean, touch, 
Bearr, crop, 
Blais, taste, 
Bogaich, soften, 
Bris, break, 
Bruadair, dream, 
Buail, strike, 
Buain, cut down, 
Buair, tempt, 
Buidhinn, witi, 
Buin, deal with, 
Caill, lose, 
Caith, spend, 
Ciallaich, mean, 
Cinn, grow, 
Caomhain, spare, 
Ceangail, bind, 
Ceil, conceal, 
Ceill, declare, 
Ceannuich, buy, 
Cluinn, hear, 
Codail, sleep, 
Coghain, aid, 
Coinnich, meet, 
Coirich, blame, 
Coisg, extinguish, 
Coisich, travel, 
Comhdaich, cover, 
Creach, spoil, 
Crath, shake, 
Crioslaich, gird, 
Croch, hang, 
Ciiirr, hurt, 
Crup, shrink, 
Cuimsich, hit, 
Cuir, put, 

Dh' adhlaic, 
Dh' amais, 
Dh' ainmich, 
Dh' aisig, 
Dh' aithn, 
Dh' aithnich, 
Dh' amail, 
Dh' arduich, 

Past Participle. 

Air radh, 









Bacta, bacte, 

Bearrta, bearrte, 


Biathta, biathte, 

















Creachta, creachte, 
Air chur, 

Present Participle. 
Ag radh. 

Ag adhlac, or -adh. 
Ag araas. 
Ag ainmeachadh. 
Ag aiseag. 
• Ag àithneadh. 
Ag aithneachadh. 
Ag amal. 

Ag arduch, or -adh. 
A bacadh. 

A beanachd, a beantuinn. 
A bearradh. 
A blasdachd. 
A biathadh. 
A bogachadh. 
A briseadh. 
A bruadaradh. 
A bualadh. 
A buaineadh. 
A buaireadh. 
A buidhneadh. 
A buntuinn. 
A call. 
A caitheamh. 
A ciallachadh. 
A cinntinn. 
A caomhnadh. 
A ceangladh. 
A ceiltinn. 
A ceilltinn. 
A ceannuchadh. 
A cluintinn. 
A codal. 
A còghnadh. 
A coinneach, or -adh. 
A coireachadh. 
A cosgadh. 
A coiseachd. 
A comhdachadh. 
A creachadh. 
A crath. 
A crioslachadh. 
A crochadh. 
A ciurradh. 
A crupadh. 
A cuimseachadh. 
A cur. 


Cum, itold, 
Cuitich, quit, 
Daighnich, strengthen, 
Dealbh, /or;«, 
Dean, do, 
Diobair, ybrsnic, 
Diol, pay, , 

Dion, protect, 
Dòirt, spill, 
Dùin, sìiut, 
Dùisg, ìvakcn, 
Dùraig, dare, 
Eid, clothe, 
Eigh, shout, 
Eirich, rise, 
Faic, see, 
Faigh, get, 
Fainich, feel, 
I Fan, wait, 
Falbh, 510, 
Fas, grow, 
Feith, ivait, 
Feuch, shew, 
Fàisg, squeeze, 
Figh, weave, 
Fin, /old. 
Flinch, ivet, 
Folaich, hide, 
Fosgail, open, 
Fuin, bake, 
Fuirich, tvait, 
Fuaigh, sew, 
Fulaing, suffer, 
Gabh, take, 
Gàir, laugh, 
Gairm, proclaim, 
Geall, promise, 
Gearr, cut, 
Geura, low. 
Gin, gion, produce, 
Glac, catch, 
Gleidh, keep, 
Gluais, move, 
Gnathaich, use, 
Goil, boil, 
Goir, crow. 
Grab, catch, 
Grabh, engrave, 
Greas, hasten, 
larr, request, 
lomain, drive, 
Ith, eat, 
Labhair, speak. 
Las, kindle, 
Leagh, melt. 
Lean, follow, 
Leig, let, 
Leighis, cure, 
Leir, torment, 
Lùb, bend, 
Leugh, read. 
Lion, fill, 
Loisg, burn, 
Lomair, shear, 
Luchdaich, burden, 
Luidh, lie, 
Mair, last, 
Marbh, kill, 
Marcaieh, ride. 


Past Participle. 

Present Participle. 


A cumail. 



A cuiteachadii. 



A daighneachadh. 



A dealbhadh. 


Deanta, deante, 

A deanamh. 



A diobradh. 


Diolta, diolte. 

A dioladh. 


Dionta, dionte, 

A dionadh. 



A dòrladh. 



A diinadh. 



A dùsgadh. 


A dùrachdainn. 

Dh' eid, 


Ag eideadh. 

Dh' eigh. 

Ag eigh. 


Ag eiridh. 

Chunnaic, chiinna, 

A faicinn, a faicsinn. 


A faotainn, a faghail. 

Dh' fhainich, 


A f'aineachadh. 

Dh' fhan. 

A fanachd, a fanticinn. 

Dh' fhalbh, 

Air dol, 

A falbh. 

Dii' fhas, 

Air fas. 

A fas. 

Dh' fheith. 

A feitheamh. 

Dh' fheuch. 

A feuchainn. 

Dh' fhaisg, 


A fàsgadh. 

Dh' fhigh. 


A figheadh. ' 

Dh' fhifl. 


A fiheadh. 



A fliuchadh. 

Dh' fholaich. 


A folachadh. 

Dh' fhosgail, 


A fosgladh. 

Dh' fhuin. 


A fuineadh. 

Dh' fhuirich. 

A fuireach. 

Dh' fhuaigh. 


A fuaghal. 

Dh' fhulaing, 


A fulang. 



A gabhaiL 


A gàireachdaich. 



A gairmeadh. 



A gealltuinn. 


Gearrta, gearrte, 

A gearradh. 


A geumnaich. 

Ghin, Ghion, 

Ginte, gionta, 

A gintinn, a giontuinn, a 




A glacadh. 



A gleidheadh. 



A gluasad. 



A ghnathachadh. 


A goileadh. 


A goirsinn. 



A grabadh. 



A grabhadh. 



A greasdachd. 

Dh' iarr, 

Ag iarruidh. 

Dh' iomain. 


Ag ioman. 

Dh' ith, 


Ag itheadh. 


A labhradh. 



A lasadh. 


Leaghta, leaghte. 

A leaghadh. 


A leant u inn, a lcanuflid,a 




A leigeil. 



A leigheas. 



A leireadh. 


Lùbta, h'lbte, 

A liibadh. 


Lenglita, leughte. 

A i.ii-hadh. 



A lionadii. 



A losgadh. 



A lomairt. 



A luchdacliadh. 


Air luidhe, 

A Inidlie. 


A marsuinn, a mairsinn. 


A marbhadh. 


A marcachd. 


Meal, enjoy, 
Meall, cheat, 
Meas, estimate. 
Mail, grind, 
Mill, spoil, 
Minich, explain, 
Mionnuich, swear, 
Mosgail, waken, 
Mùth, change, 
Nàraich, shame, 
Naisg, bind, 
Nigh, wash, 
Ob, refuse, 
Oibrich, work, 
01, drink, 
Orduich, order, 
Pàigh, pay, 
Paisg, wrap, 
Pian, pain. 
Pill, return, 
Put, push, 
Reic, sell, 
Reub, tear, 
Ruathar, dig, 
Ruig, reach, 
Ruith, ruii, 
Sàbh, saw, 
Salaich, soil, 
Saltair, tread, 
Saoil, think, 
Sàth, thrust, 
Sdiùir, steer, 
Seachain, shun, 
Seall, look, 
Searg, wither. 
Seas, stand, 
Seid, bloic, 
Sgàin, burst, 
Sgaoil, spread, 
Sgap, scatter, 
Sgar, separate, 
Sgath, prune, 
Sgeaduich, adorn, 
Sgoilt, split, 
Sgriob, scratch, 
Sgriobh, write, 
Sguab, sweep, 
Sguir, stop, 
Smuainich, think, 
Snaidh, hew, 
Snàig, creep, 
Snaim, knot, 
Snamh, swim, 
Sniomh, spin, 
Spoth, geld, 
Srachd, tear, 
Tachair, ?neet, 
Tachrais, wind, 
Tagh, choose, 
Taisg, lay up, 
Taoni, pour, 
Tarruing, draw, 
Teagaisg, teach, 
Teanail, gather, 
Teasairg, save, 
Teirig, wear out, 
Thig, come, 
Thoir, thabhair, give, 


Past Participle. 
























Dh' Ob, 


Dh' oibrich, 



Olta, oilte. 

Dh' orduich, 







Air pilltinn, 










Sàbhta, sàibhte. 


Salaich te, 




Sàthta, saithte, 







Seargta, seargte, 












Sgapta, Sgapte, 

Sgathta, sgathte, 





Sgriobhta, sgriobhte 










Snamhta, snaimhte, 




Spothta, spothte, 





Taghta, taghte. 














Air teachd, 


Present Participle. 
A mealtuinn. 
A mealladh. 
A measadh. 
A nieilleadh. 
A milleadh. 
A mlneachadh. 
A mionnuichte. 
A raosgladh. 
A muthadh. 
A nàrachadh. 
A nasgadh. 
A nigheadh. 
Ag obadh. 
Ag oibreachadh. 

Ag orduchadh. 
A pàigh. 
A pasgadh. 
A pianadh. 
A pilltinn. 
A putadh. 
A reiceadh. 
A reubadh. 
A ruathradh. 
A ruigheachd, a ruigsinn, 
A niith. 
A sàbhadh. 
A salachadh. 
A saltairt. 
A saoilsinn. 
A sàthadh. 
A stiùradh. 
A seachnadh. 
A sealltuinn. 
A seargadh. 
A seasamh. 
A seideadh, a seidil. 
A sgàineadh. 
A sgaoileadh. 
A sgapadh. 

A sgaradh, a sgarachduinn. 
A sgath adh. 
A sgeaduchadh. 
A sgoltadh. 
A sgriobadh. 
A sgriobhadh. 
A sguabadh. 
A sgurachd, a sgur. 
A smuaineachadh. 
A suaidheadh. 
A snàgadh. 
A snaimeadh. 
A snamhudh. 
A sniomh. 
A spothadh. 
A srachdadh. 
A tachairt. 
A tachras. 
A taghadh. 
A tasgadh. 
A taomadh. 
A tarruing. 
A teagasg. 
A teanaladh. 
A teasairginn. 
A teicheachd. 
A teireachduinn. 
A teachd, a tishinn. 
A toirt, a tabhairt. 



Tilg, throio, 
Tionndaidh, turn, 
Tionsgail, contrive, 
Tionsgain, begin, 
Tiormaich, dry, 
Tochail, dig, 
Tog, lift, 
Togair, desire, 
Toinn, twist, 
Tòisich, begin, 
Trèig, forsake, 
Treoruich, lead, 
Tuig, understand, 
Tuirling, descend, 
Tuislicli, fall, 
Uigheamaich, dress, 
Uraich, renew. 


















Dh' uigheamaich, 

Dh' uraich. 

Past Participle. 

Tiormaichte, . 
Togta, togtc, 


Air tuiteam, 

Present Participle. 
A tilgeadh, a tilgeil. 
A tionndadh. 
A tionsgladh. 
A tionsgiiadh. 
A tiormachadh. 
A tochladh. 
A togail. 
A togrfldh. 
A toinneamh. 
A tòiseachadh. 
A treigsinn. 
A treoruchadh. 
A tuigsinn. 
A tuirhiig. 
A tuisleachadh. 
A tuiteam. 
Ag uigheamachadh. 
Ag ùrachadh. 



Tmi, / am. 
< thu, thou art. 

S'»9 . ^^^ 
Ta or tha Ì , . 
{_ e, he IS. 

Plur. fsi""."'^'^'-^- 

(^ lau, they are. 


Sing. S 

mi, / was. 

Tj, X thu, thou wert. 
Bha ) ,' . 

^e, he IS. 

r,, ( sinn, zve are. 
Plur. } ., , ' 

M-{ Sinn, ye are. 

{^ lad, they are. 



( mi, / shall or will^ 
< tu, thou shalt 


se, he shall 

p, ( sinn, we shall or will 
Bithidh ' ''^^' V '^""- 

t iad, they shall 

„ C mi, am I? 

jLK^\i ì \ til") «'■' thou ? 

„, C sinn, arc we? 

Plur. J •, u ■} 

A ui 1 "\ sioh, are you ! 

Am bhcil I • 1 ., , 

(^lad, are they: 

p. f mi, I am not. 

, r'\. t > -1 \ thu, thou art not. 
Cha n eil. J , ■ 

\Q, lie IS not. 


( smn, we i 
ur. J ., , 
, , ■■ < Ribh, you 

{^ iad, they 

Nach 'i 

Nach 'ei' 


are not. 
arc not. 
are not. 

i mi, am I not ? 
\ thu, art thou not ? 
t e, is he not ? 

i sinn, are ive not ? 
•C .sibli, are you not ? 
(^ iad, are they not? 

^- Tmi, was I? 

. 1 1 \ thu, wert thou ? 
An robli J ,3 

(. e, was he f 


T, f smn, 

''"■• , \ sibh 
n robh J ■ , ' 
(.iad, 1 

f mi, / xoas not 

lucre we ( 
ivere you ? 
were they ? 

Cha robli 

thu, thou wert not. 

tc, he 

was not. 

c. i Sinn, we were not. 

Sinn. 1 •, , 
„, 111 .sihh, you were not. 
Clia robh J • 1 .1 

(^ iad, they were not. 

Nach robl: 


i ni'j '• 


mi, were I not? 

wert thou not ? 
was he not? 

( sinn, were we not ? 
• sibii, were you not ? 

Nach robh i . 1 J ;9 

(^ lad, were they not '. 

o- ( mi, shall or will /i 
. I • ■! tiiu, shalt thou J- be ? 
( e, shall lie j 

p, . ( sinn, shall or will we 1 
. ,'. ! sibh, shall you ' òe ! 

t iad, s/ia// iAey y 

C mi, / s/i«/i or u'ill not^ 
< thu, thou shalt not '■ /^e. 

(^ e, he shall not 

Clia bh 

sinn, we shall or will not 
I not 

( sinn, we shall 01 

■ < sibh, you shall 1 

{^ iad, they shall 

„. ( mi, shall or it'i7/ / tiot 

Nach bi i 

c, s/ifi/Z he not 



( sinn, shall or «(,77/ it'c 7iot Ì 
' iad, shall they not y 

* Dean, r/i), ot make, and rach, gii, arc often used as auxiliary verbs; as, dean luidlic, lir dawn ; dean seasamh, slaiul ; literally, 
make a lie down; make (island; chaidh mo clireaehadh, 1 xims plundered, i.e. nn/ plundermg is gout- or jiasl ; racliadli mo bhualadli, / iniidd 
be struck, i. c. tlic striking (if mc would have ]mss(d or happened. These auxiliaries are declinable witli all die conjunctive and adverbial 

+ Am bhcil is, almost always, pronounced 'm blieil or hhelt ; in some districts of the lliijhlands, as in Badcnoch, they say «;« biil. 

\ 'Eil for bhcil. After the conjunctive particles cha, nach, mur, blieil is written \il ; and in order to scjiaratc; die two vowels, and also 
to prevent an hiatus, we insert the letter n, and write clui 'n 'til, rather dian clia \il. 






( Bhithinn, 7 would "1 

N Bhitheadh tu, thou woulds 
[ Bhitheadh e, he aould 





i Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, we would^ 
s Bhitheadh sibh, you would > be. 

l^ Bhitheadh iad, theij would J 

i Bithinn, would I Ì 

: < Bithcadh tu, wouldst thou J- be. 

{^ Bitheadh e, would he ) 

C Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, would we Ì 

■s Bitheadh sibh, would you \ b(. 

f Bitheadh iad, icould theij J 

i Bithinn, if I would 

< Bitheadh tu, if thou wouldst 

( Bitheadh e, if he would } 

Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, if ive would~i 
Bitheadh sibh, if you would ^bc. 

Bitheadh iad, if they would J 

■ be. 


„■ i mi, if I shall or will 'i 

Ma bhitheast ) *"'//'"'" 'Ij"^^ °':f' ^^" 
{_e, >j he shall or will J 

p, ( sinn, if we shall or will "J 

M 1 1 "ti i sibh, if you shall or will J- be. 
( iad, if they shall or will J 
„ ( Bhithinn, / would not, 'J 

p/"< Bhitheadh tu, thou wouldst not vòc. 

(^ Bhitheadh e, he would not ) 

p, C Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, ice would iiot^i 
p, ■ ^ Bhitheadh sibh, you would not Joe. 

(^ Bhitheadh iad, they would not ) 

r, f Bithinn, tt'o»W / no< '^ 

N Vi 1 Bitheadh tu, wouldst thou not v be ? 

(^ Bitheadh e, would he not J 

p. f Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, luould we not 1 


Bitheadh sibh, would you not 

(_ Bitheadh iad, would they iw 



i Bitheam, let me be. 
Sing. J Bi, bi-sa, bi thusa, be thou. 

(^ Bitheadh e, let them be. 

( Bitheamaid, let us be. 
Plur.<. Bithibh, be you. 

{_ Bitheadh iad, let them be. 


A bhith, do bhith, to be. 


Perf. Air bhith, having been. 

Fut. Gu bhith, ri bhith, to be, or about to he 

IS, am. 


C mi, or mise, it is I. 
• ♦", tusa, if is tho" 
esan, it is he. 

i,'\ tu, tusa, if is thou 

p. C sinn, sinne, it is we. 
J ' < sibh, sibhse, it is you. 
(^iad, iadsan, if is they. 


( Bu mhi, or mhisc, it was I. 
Sing. ? Bu tu, tusa, it was thou. 

(^ B' e, esan, it teas he. 

{ Bu sinn, sinne, it was ice. 
Plur. -? Bu sibh, sibhse, it was you. 

[^ B' iad, iadsan, it was they. 





Plur. I 



Cha ■ 

Am mi, or mise, is it I? 
An tu, tusa, is it thou ? 
an e, esan, is it Ae? 
An sinn, sinne, is it we ? 
An sibh, sibhse, is it you ? 
An iad, iadsan, is it they ? 

mi, or mise, is it not I? 
tu, tusa, is it not thou ? 
e, esan, is it itot he ? 

sinn, sinne, is it not we? 
sibh, sibhse, is it not you ? 
iad, iadsan, is it not they ? 

mhi, or mhise, it is not I. 
tu, tusa, it is not thou, 
'a e, esan, it is not he. 

sinn, sinne, if is not we. 
sibh, sibhse, it is not you. 
'n iad, iadsan, it is not they. 








( bu mhi, or mhise, was it I? 

< bu tu, tusa, was it thou ? 

(^ b' e, esan, was it he? 

i bu sinn, sinne, was it we ? 

■l bu sibh, sibhse, was it you ? 

f^h' iad, iadsan, icas it they ? 

'bu mhi, or mhise, was it not H 

bu tu, tusa, xcas it not thou ? 
I h' e, esan, was it not he ? 
f bu sinn, sinne, ivas it not we? 
' bu sibh, sibhse, was it not you? 
[ b' iad, iadsan, was it not they ? 

bu mhi, or mhise, it was not I. , 
bu tu, tusa, it was not thou. 
b' e, esan, it was not he. 
bu sinn, sinne, it teas not we. 
bu sibh, sibhse, it was not you. 
[ b' iad, iadsan, it was not they. 

Bithcadh is often contracted biodh. 

t Bhit/uas IS often written bliios, botli in prose and in verse. 



„. C mi, or mise, if it be I. 

.* . \ tu, tusa, if it be thou. 
Ma s I ' 


esan, if it be lie. 

sinn, sinne, if it be we. 
sibhsc, if it be you. 
iadsan, if it be they. 

C sinn, 
• \ sibh, 
Hiad, i 


bu mhi, or mhise, if it were I. 
bii tu, tusa, if it were thou. 
b' e, esan, if it were lie. 

p, rbu sinn, sinne, if it were we. 
VT, ' I Ini sibh, sibhse, if it lUcre you. 
(^b' iad, iadsan, if it were they. 

Sinrj. \ 
Nam J 


The Preterite Affirmative of Neuter Verbs, and the Future of the Negative or Intenogative Mood of Active Verbs, 
are often used impersonally ; as, ghuileadh, biutiledr, rjluaiseur, faicear, faighear. Any verb used in this way may be 
declined with the compound pronoun /eawi, through all its persons; yet it is not accounted so elegant to express the 
pronoun, as to leave it to be supplied according to the sense of the context. The impersonal verbs are used after this 

(learn,/ ) _ p^,^^ ^leibh,we ì 

n .?■ ■! leat, <AoM \ struck. 
'^"^*'''^^'' (leis, A. j 

Plur. , , . 
,, ., <. leuin, ye 
buailear 1 , '/ 
(.leo, tliey 



The Irregular Verbs are reckoned ten; seven of the first conjugation, viz. dean, clainn, beir, rack, ruig, thig, thoir 
or thahhair ; and three of the second, viz.faic,faigh, abair. 


DEAN, make. 


fmi,/ Ì 

thu, thou \made. 


I shall or will 

Sing. } 

Plur. I ^ 


smn, we 

\ sibh, ye 

\^ iad, tlicy 

■ made. 




thu, thou shall or ivii 
e, he shall or ivill 

C sinn, we shall or ivill 
< sibh, ye shall or wi> 
[ iad, they shall or iv 

It i 

ill ■) 

:// [ 

.'ill } 




Sing. S 
An do rinn Ì 

Plur. j 
An do rinn ) 

Nach do 

lo rmn I 

Plur. \ 
Nach do rinn Ì 

Smg. S 
Cha do rinn Ì 

Plur. S 

Cha do rinn i 

mi, did I 
thu, didst thou 
e, did he 
sinn, did we 
sibh, did ye 
iad, did they 

mi, did I 
thu, didst thou 
e, did he 
sinn, did we 
sibh, did ye 
iad, did they 

mi, / did not 
thu, thou diflsl mil 
c, he did not 
sinn, we did not 
sibii, ye did not 
iad, they did not 

make ? 

make ? 






An dean 

An dean 

Nach dean 

Nach dean 


' make ! 

Cha dean 

Cha dean 

( mi, shall or wiZ/ / "1 

< thu, sAo/< or «u7< thou J : 
' e, shall or wì7Z Ae 3 
( sinn, s/ja7Z or ?t'i7/ we 1 

< sibh, s/ia/Z or will ye 
(^ iad, shall or i/^iZZ </iej/ 

t mi, shall or ?i)iW / not "i 

V thu, sAa/< or wilt thou not ' 

t e, s/iaW or wt/Z he not ) 

( sinn, shall or Wi7Z wc ?;o< ì 

-! sibh, 47(nZ/ or will ye not > 

(^ iad, shall or luJ/Z Z/tey not j 

( mi, / shall or wiZZ noZ 'J 

< thu, thou shall or wilt not ' ?«n/i:t. 
(^ e, he shall or wiZZ ?ioZ J 

( sinn, Jt'c s/iaZZ or will not 1 

•v sibh, ye shall or WiZZ not > make. 

(^ iad, </ify s/iaZZ or jmZZ ?ioZ ) 

make ? 

make ? 


Sing. ^ 


Dheaiiainu, / would or could ì 

Dheanadh tu, thou would or couldst V make. 
Dheanadh e, he would or could y 

> make. 

( Dheanamaid, we tvould or could 
Plur. \ Dheanadh sibh, ye would or could 

l_ Dheanadh iad, they would or could 
o- ( àe&wàmn, if I would ox could 1 

Nan" \ deanadh tu, if thou u-ouldst or couldst \ make. 

(^ deanadh e, if he would or could j 

p, ( deanamaid, if we would or could 1 
T^ ' \ deanadh sibh, if ye tvoidd or could ^make. 

(^ deanadh iad, if they would or could ) 


C Deanam, let me make. 
Sing. < Dean, make thou. 

^ Deanadh e, let him make. 
( Deanamaid, let us make. 
Plur. < Deanaibh, make ye. 

{^ Deanadh iad, let them make. 

Sing. J 
Ma ni i 

Plur. S 
Ma ni Ì 

Sing. S 
Mur dean 1 

Plur. S 
Mur dean 1 

mi, if I shall or luill "i 

thu, if thou shalt or wilt K make. 
e, if he shall or will } 

sinn, if we shall or will ^ 
^'i^^^, if ye shall or will \make. 
iad, if they shall or will J 
mi, if I shall or 7t'!7Z not '\ 

thu, t/ </iu« shalt or «u7< 7io< V make. 
e, iy Ae s/jaZZ or will not J 

sinn, ifive shall or itu'/Z «o^ "J 
sibh, z/ye sAaZ/ or will not \make. 
iad, i/ they shall or m'ì'ZZ ?ìo< j 

A dheanamh, to do, or ww/^e. 


A, or ag deanamh, rfo!«^ or making. 




\ thu, 
( e. In 
( sinn, 
< sibh, 
(.iad, i 

I was Ì 

thou wert \ made, 
e was J 



( mi, / shall or will be 
< thu, thou shalt or wilt 
(.e, he shall or will be 

be > made. 

we zvere 
ye were 
they were 

■ made. 

Plur C ^'"''' '''* s/jn/Z or juiZZ be 

Nithear i ^*'^''' ^^ *^"'^ °'" ""'^ *^ 
( iad, they shall or wJZZ èe 



An do rinneadh 

An do rinneadh 

Nach do rinneadh 

Nach do rinneadh 

Cha do rinneadh 

Cha do rinneadh 

C mi, was / 'J 

< thu, it'erZ ZAoa > made ? 

e, tt'as Ae 


r sinn, were we 'J 

< sibh, ?t'ere ye J- ma(Ze ? 

( iad, ivere they ) 

( mi, was I not 

< thu, w-ert thou not 
(. e, was he not 

C sinn, were we not 
sibh, were ye not 



iad, were they not } 

' mi, / luas not 

thu, thou wert not 
\ e, he was not 
' sinn, ?t'e jrere noZ 

sibh, ije were yiot 
_iad, ?Aey were not 

made ? 



■ made. 

An deanar 

An deanar 

Nach deanar 

Nach deanar 

Cha deanar 

Cha deanar 

C mi, sAaZZ or will I be 'i 

•j thu, shalt or jt'JZZ ZAo!< be V marfe ? 
( e, shall or wiZZ /ie be j 

( sinn, sAaZZ or will we be 'J 
I sibh, sAaZZ or ?<;ì7Z ye be J. /natZe ? 
( iad, sAaZZ or wiZZ they be J 
C mi, shall or wjZZ /7wZ èe Ì 

I thu, sAaZ; or ivilt thou not be \ made ? 
t e, sliall or will he not be j 

( sinn, shall or will we not be ~i 
I sibh, shall or jfiZZ ye not be \ made ? 
t iad, shall or will they not be J 
i mi, / shall or will not be ~i 
■j thu, thou shalt or wiZZ not be \ made. 
( e, he shall or lyZZZ not be } 

( sinn, w-e shall or ?t)zZZ noZ be Ì 
•J sibh, ?/e shall or wjZZ noZ Z>e K made. 
(^ iad, Z/igi/ 4'Zm(ZZ or ivill not be } 



( mi, / would or could be 

■ 'hu, thou wouldst or cov 

he ivould or could be 
( sinn, 7t;e would or coiiZd èe 
< sibh, ye would or couZrf 6e 
(. iad, Z/iei/ would or couZcZ òe 


Dheantadh ^ *'^"^' '''°" wouldst or couldst be 

• macZe. 

■ made. 

Ma nithear 

mi, (/"/ sZioZZ or will be 

if thou shalt or wilt be 
if he shall or u'ill be 
C sinn if we shall or luill he 
"■'"''. l/ye sZjaZZ or will be 
if they shall or will be 

( mi. I 
< thu. 

Ma^nkhear j ^^^^' '^^* ^'"^^^ °"' "'^'^^ ^'^ 

■ made. 



„. r mi, if I would or could be "i 

òing. }i\-^i,\f thou li'ouldst or couldst be} viade. 
N an deantadh \^^,j-l, ^.^^ or could be ) 


„. .' mi, if I shall or will be "i 

3- ) tiiu^ if thou shalt or wilt be \made. 

C sinn, if we xuoidd or could iel 
<. sibh, i/ ye woidd or cohW 6e > i 
* (. iad, i/' they would or cohW òe ) 

„. ,"'■ „ ^ sibh, if ye would or could be ]■ 7nade. 
Nan deantadh » ' -^ •' - » 

Nan deanar 

f mi 

'• \ th 
anar I 

i/" Ac sTiaW or will be } 


( sinn, ifiue shall or will be "i 

< sibh, if ye shall or ?ui7i 6e > Tiuidc. 

„ , < siDn, )/ ve siiau or ?uu« oe > i 

Nan deanar I ;^j^ .y /,^^^j ^j^^^ ^^ ^,,.„ ^^ J 


„. fnii, let me be'\ 

^mg. },^^^ f,ethou \ 

Deantar ) , , i ■ i „ i 

\e, let lam be j 

sinn, let us be 



( Sinn, let u 
< sibh, he y~ 
(.iad, let ih 

them be } 


Deanta, deante, done. 

CLUINN, hear. 


„. ( mi, / heard, or did "i 

nu^\ \ t'»'' *''°"- heardst, or didst \ hear. 
^^"^^^ le, he heard, or did ) 

sinn, we heard, or did ì 

ye heard, or dzrf > /tear, 
i/jey heard, or rfiii J 


r sinn, 
\ sibh, 
(iad, < 

„. t mi, / shall or u';7/ ì 

^, "^: „ -J tu, <ftoM s/w/f or wilt \hear. 
{^ se, he shall or z«ti« J 
p. f sinn, u'e s/(aW or ?(n7Z "1 

,-., ■ "'-'lu •! sibh, we s/(aW or rvill \ hear. 
<=^'"'"""^^iiad, <Ae2/sAaZZor^iZ/i 




„. C mi, rfid / 

^mg- 1 ti^„ ^j^s^ thou \hcar? 

p, C sinn, f/Jd we "J 
/""■•, -J sibh, rfto; j/e \hear? 
-■^" '="='•(. iad, did <)tey 5 

„. C mi, did I not 1 

*"*i'- . •? thu, dids< thou not '■ /(ca/- .■" 

,, , -^ , < mil, ajasf r«o?t not > i 
Nachcual^^^^.^;^^,^^^ ) 

p. f' sinn, did we not ~i 

,,, , ■ , < sibh, did ye not ; 
^^^^'^''^^ [iad, did they not S 

hear ? 

„. C mi, / did iiot "i 

-*'"■'?• - •' thu, </(Ott didst not \ hear. 

Cha chual 

c did «o< 

(e, Ai 

p . r sinn, we did not "i 

^1 '[■ 1 \ sibh, ?/e did vol \ hea^. 
Cl'^' '^'"''^'i iad, (/«i/ did «o<i 

An chiinn 

An cluinn 

Nach cluiiin 

f mi, s/io/Z or jyj/Z / "i 
< thu, .sAa/Z or wilt thou \ hear ? 
(e, shall or «;iZZ he ) 

f sinn, s/jaZZ or will we "i 
sibh, shall or w'iZZ ?/e J- hear ? 
iad, sZfaZZ or will they } 

( mi, shall or jt^iZZ / ?fo< 1 

' thu, sZt«ZZ or wilt thou not '■ /(cac ? 

Nach chiinn 

Cha chluinn 

Cha chhiinii 

( e, s/taZZ or miZZ he not 

I sinn, s/taZZ or will we not ì 

< sibh, sZiaZZ or it'iZZ yc not \ hear ? 
( iad, shall or wtZZ they not j 

( mi, / shall or wiZZ 7iO< ì 

■; thu, </ioH s/mZ< or wilt not > /icar. 

( e, /if s/«(ZZ or will not J 

( sinn, wc shall or a'iZZ ?io< "1 

< sibh, ?/c sZmZZ or will not J-Zicar. 
( iad, they shall or K'iZZ not ) 




' Cldulnniim, / could or would Ì 

Chhiiiiiifadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst \hear. 
[ Cliluinncadh e, he could or would ) 

( Chhiinneamaid, we coidd or would Ì 

Plur. < Chhiinncadh sibh, ye coidd or j(;o«Zd '■ hear. 

( Chluiniieadh iad, they could or would ) 


„. C mi, if I shall or will Ì 

. ,"•'''.■ < tu, i/";/io» s/mZZ or wilt > /jeac. 

^^<='''"'""'^='ne,i/AesAaZZ or i^iZZ ) 

p. r sinn, i/ we s/jaZZ or u'iZZ "1 

, Vi'"^' •' sibh, i/voit s/ioZZor jciZZ J Aau 

,Ia chhi.nncas ^j^j^ ^^^)^^^ ^,,^^,^ ^^ ,^,^;^ ) 




( Cluinneam, let me hear. 
Sing. \ Ciuinn, hear thou, or do thou hear. 
[^ Cluinneadh e, let him hear. 

C Cluinneamaid, let us hear. 
Plur.<. Cluinnibh, hear ye. 

(^ Cluinneadh iad, let them hear. 

A chluinntinn, to hear. 

A cluinntinn, hearing. 




' mi, / was Ì 

thou %uert \ heard. 

C mi, / w( 
} tliu, tho 
{^ e, he wo 


( mi, / shall or ivill be Ì 
< thu, thou shalt or iuilt be V 
( e, he shall or will be ) 


p. (i'mn, %ve ivere Ì 

flur. } ^jj^i ^gj,g K heard. 


. ( sinn, we shall or will 6el 

^,.- \ sibh, ye shall or «7'« be \ heard. 
Cluinnear l^j^^j^ //,ey shall or will be) 


Sing. \ 
An cualadh J 

Phir. ( 
An cualadh J 

Sing. 1 
Nach cualadh | 


mi, was / 

thu, ivert th 
e, was Ae 

we Ì 
hey ) 

/iearrf ? 

heard ? 

smn, were 
sibh, were 
iad, were they 

mi, was / not 1 

thu, wer< thou not > Aeard ? 
e, was he not J 

sinn, were we not "i 

sibh, were ye not y heard? 

Plur. S 

Nach cualadh i;:;;^";-;-^^;^-;;^ j 


C mi, s/ia/Z or will I be Ì 

T"^' -^ thu, shalt or w!7< <Aou be > ^earrf ? 
An clumnear ^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^,-^ ,^^ j^ j 

_, i sinn, s/ia/Z or wiZ/ we èe 1 

. -%'"'■■ •? sibh, shall or wi« ye be \ heard? 
An clumnear ^ -^^^ ^,^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ j^ j 

f mi, shall or wi7Z / not 6ei 

»T , , ^' < thu, sAa/Z ZAo!t 7io< be > Aearrf ? 

Nach clumnear ^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j^^ „^j j^ ) 

r sinn, shall or wi7Z we not be Ì 
-, , ,"!' < sibh, s/ia/Z or will ye not > Aearrf ? 

Nach clumnear ^j^j^ ^;^^;; ^^ ^,-^; ^;;^^ ^^^ 5^) 



mi, / could or would be ì 

thu, </iOH couldst or wouldst be y heard. 
e, Ae coi(W or woidd be ) 

. r sinn, we eoiiZd or would be Ì 

„, , "'"'"• .5 sibh, 7/e could or jfouZrf 6e '• heard. 
Chhunnteadh ^ ^^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^,,;^; j, ^ 

Mu chluinnear 


mi, if I shall or wiZZ be "i 
ZZ èe ^ 

t nil, 

if thou shalt or wiZi 
!/■ Ae sAaZZ or will be 


p. f sinn, if we shall or will be "J 

,, , ,"^' < sibh, i/'?/e s/iaZZ or wz7Z be \ heard. 

Mu chluinnear ^ j^^,^ ^y'^/^^ ^,^^^;^ ^^ ,^^.;; ^^ J 


„. i mi, ZeZ me be ~\ 

^, '^"'S'- \ thu, ie Z/iOM '■ heard. 

f sinn, ZeZ us be 

^,-^""^^- •' sibh, be ye [ 



TRIG, come. 




'3: Khu, 

^"'Sle, Ae 

■^l sibh, 


mi, / came, or cZicZ ^ 

ZAou earnest or cZitZsZ '- co 

ca7/ie or did ) 

sinn, we came, or ditZ Ì 

ye came, or did > come. 
they came, or tZicZ 3 


r mi, / shall or ttijZZ "i 
?■ < thu, ZAoM sAaZZ or wilt \ t 
'° ( e, Ae shall or wiZZ ) 

p, C sinn, we shall or wiZZ "1 
■'1, .'■• ' sibh, ye shall or will \- c 
- (iad, they shall or jfiZZ ) 



An d' thainig 


mi, did I 

didst thou > come : 
id he 

An d' thaini 

rmi, rf/c// "1 

< thu, didst thou >( 
t e, did he ) 

( sinn, did we ì 

< sibh, f/irf ye V( 
" (.'ad, (iirf tliey ) 

An tig 

„■ ( mi, s/i«// or tnll . 

. ^.' < thu, slialt or jciZ^ 

° ( e, shall or m,'ì7/ Ac 

r sinn, shall or wi// M'e Ì 
< sibh, sAaZZ or will ye \ 
(^iad, sAaZZ or will they ) 

I mi, / came not, or did not 

he came not, or did not 

„, ,, f,' . . i thu, /Ziou earnest not, or cZicZst no< 
Cha d thainifir I 


o- C mi, <Z;V/ / not 'J 

Nachd'thainiglf"'' '^''^*' '''"" ""< >^<"»«- 

.e, (Z(fZ he not 
C sinn, rfjd we not ' 
T^ , I'th ■ ' Ì sibh, djrf ye not 

° {_ iad, did they not \ 


Nach ti< 


f mi, s/(nZZ or tuill I not "i 
\ thu, shult or wilt thou not \come i 
f_ e, shall or will he not j 

( sinn, shall or W27Z ?re not ~i 

Narh tiff ) ?'''^' -'''"'' °'' '^''" ^/^ «o< 
^ (^ iad, s/(aZZ or will they not 

Cha tig 

' mi, / shall or jwiZZ no< 1 
shalt or wiZZ no< 
iZZ or will not ' 


( sinn, we came not, or did not ' 
sibh, ye came not, or did not 
iad, Z/iey came hoZ, or did not , 

r-L J. ^i_ • • % sibh, ye came not, or did not > come. 
Cha d tnamig J ■ - - 


(m\, I shah 
< thu, tliou 
\_ e, he shall 


■ sinn, we shall or ivill not "J 
rVi t' Ì sibh, ye shall or will not \ i 
° {_ iad, ZAey sZiaZZ or will not ) 




Thiginn, / would 'J 

Thigeadh tu, thouwouldst \coine. 
Thigeadh e, he would j 

C Thigeamaid, we ivould 'J 

Plur. < Tliigeabh sibh, ye would J- come. 

(^ Thigeadh iad, they would) 

,. ( Tiginn, if I had or ivould 1 

'«.._ \ Tigeadh thu, if thou hadst or wouldst > come. 


( Tigeadh e, if he had or would y 

fj. ( Tigeamaid, if we had or would Ì 
.,_ ' <. Tigeadh sibh, if ye had or would >< 
(^Tigeadli iad, if they had or would j 

Ma thig 

f mi, if I shall or icill 1 
< thu, 2/" thou shalt or jt'iZZ > ( 
\ e, t/" Ac iAaZZ or will j 

■p. C sinn, if we shall or ^oill "i 
T tVi' S sibh, ty 7/e sAaZZ or wiZZ J- ( 
° (^ iad, z/' they shall or liiiZZ J 

„. J Tiginn, ?y / Aa(Z or jt'OHZcZ jioZ 
M k Tigeadh thu, if thou hadst or wouldst not 
t Tigeadh e, j/' he had or would not 

rTicfeamaid, or ) ■- , , u .^ 

ni I 'r 11 ■ } if we had or would not I 
Plur. J Tigeadh sum, ) -^ f 

Mar I Tigeadh sibh, (/"ye Aad or would not ( 

C, Tigeadh iad, if they had or would not J 

( Thi: 

&'%.< Thi 



Thigeam, let me come, 
come thou. 
geadh e, let him come. 

i Thigeamaid, let us come. 
Plur. < Thigibh, come ye. 

( Thigeadh iad, let them come. 


A thishinnn, ) . 
Atheachd, ^^^'"«^• 

A tighinn, 
A tcachd. 

1, 5 


JÌEIR, bear. 


Preterite. Future. 

,,. C mi, / hore. 
*,, •'■ \ thu, thou horcsl. 
° \_\, she Lore. 

„, ( sinn, we bore. 
Plur. ) •, , , 

T. \ sibh, ye bore. 

° (.iad, they bore. 

„. C mi, / sArtZZ or will bear. 

n ■ Ih \ ''^"' '''"" •''''"'' °'' '"''' tear, 
(^ si, she shall or will bear. 

p, . ( sinn, we shall or wiZZ bear. 

■D ■ ■ {t \ sibh, yc sZiaZ/ or will bear. 

{_ iad, they shall or jfiZZ iear. 





„. C mi, did I bear ? 

A J \ thu, didst thou bear? 

= (^i, did she bear? 

p, C sinn, did we bear? 

, J ■ N sibh, did ye bear? 
= f_iad, did they bear? 

Cha do rug 


f mi, 

I bore not, or did not 
thou borest not, or didst not \ bear, 
he bore not, or did not } 


( sinn, we bore not, or did not "i 
„, ^j'"' < sibh, ye bore not, or did not > 
° {_ iad, /Af!/ bore not, or rfirf not ) 


Nach do rug 

Tmi, I 

mi, did I not Ì 

didst thou not V èear ? 
dùf sAe «o< 3 

p. r sinn, (firf jt€ not "i 

^ , J ■ < sibh, did ye not > i 
° {_ iad, rfitf they 7iot ) 

Am beir 

Am beir 

Cha bheir 

Cha bheir 

Nach beir 

Nach beir 

mi, s/ia/Z / bear? 
thu, sAa/t t/iOM iear ? 
i, sAaZ/ sAe èear ? 

r sinn, sAa/Z ji'e bear ? 
\ sibh, sAa/Z ye bear ? 
i^ iad, shall they bear ? 

C mi, / shall or ifi/Z not 'i 

< thu, <Aoi/ shalt or if(7< not > bear. 

t i, sAe s/mZ/ or icill not J 

C sinn, we shall or uiVi not "l 

\ sibh, ye shall or w;ì7Z not > bear. 

(^ iad, tÀf!/ sAoZZ or willnot } 

C mi, shall I not "i 

-J thu, shalt thou not V bear ? 

{^ i, sAa// she not j 

( sinn, shall tve not "J 

■! sibh, shall ye not \ bear ? 

t iad, shall they not) 

C Bheirinn, / could or icould "i 

Sing. < Beireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst \ bear 
(^ Bheireadh i, she could or would j 



■^ C' C ™'' ?^ ' s/iaZ/ or ui7Z 

Ma bheireas J ■ '■ 

tu, if thou shalt or jt'i 
if she shall or wiZZ 



C Bheireadhmaid, we could or would "i p^^^^. f sinn, ?/ jte sAaZZ or «;!7Zi 

Plur. < Bheireadh silih, ye could or wo«Zrf ybear. ^^^ KKo;'rooc"i *''''^' '/^^ ^''"^' °'' "'''^ >-Z>ear. 

,- , - \< 

(.Bheireadh iad, they could or would J 

C Sinn, 
I sibh, 
(iad, !, 

if they shall or 



( Beiream, let me bear. 
Sing.< Beir, bear thou. 

l^ Beireadh i, let her bear. 

C Beireamaid, let us bear. 
Plur. < Beiribh, bear ye. 

{_ Beireadh iad, let them bear. 


A bheirsinn, ) ^ , 
A hhreith, i '" ^""■ 


A beirsinn, ) , 
Abreith, '}*^°"'^' 






( mi, / was "i 

< tu, thou wast V 
(. e, he was } 

( sinn, we were "i 

< sibh, ye were > 
(_ iad, they were j 



o- C mi, / shall be Ì 

^'''''^'ie, he shall be ) 

p. ( sinn, we shall be 
„ ■ ■ ■; sibh, ye shall I 
[^ iad, they shall 

dlbe ) 
II be \i 
all be S 

An do rugadh 

An do rugradh 

mi, icas I 
wert the 
was he 



( mi, was I ~i 

^ thu, icert thou y 
{^ e, was he } 

C sinn, w 
< sibh, jfi 
(_ iad, we: 

bom r 

( mi, / ivas not 

„, J J, < thu, <AoM li'erZ 7iO< 

Cha do rugadh ) , _ , „, 
° l_e, he was not 


ere we Ì 
were ye '- born ? 
were they ) 

Cha do rugadh 

sinn, we were not Ì 
sihh, ye were not \-born. 

{ sibh 

they were not J 




„. ( mi, shall I be ì 

^'''^^''^^' it, shall he be j 

„, f siiin, s/irt// !t'c fee ì 

. , "!'• •{ sibh, s/m// ye be \ born ? 

Cha bheirear 

f mi, / shall not be 'J 
thu, thou shall not be > born. 
_e, Ae shall not be y 

p, f siiui, vc shall not be 1 

Ch-i 1 1 ir •tr \ ^'^^' y shall not be J. 

(, iad, </iey shall not be j 

born . 

Sing. \ 
Bheirtcadli J 

Plur. 5 
Bheirteadh ) 

mi, / could or would be "1 

thu, thou couldst or woitldst be J- io?n. 
e, Ac co!(W or xvould be j 

sinn, we could or would be 'Ì 
sibh, ye couW or luoidd be ' òor/i. 
iad, they coidd or irould be } 

i mi, i/ / cotdd or would be i 

^- I 1111, Cy i CU[(CU Ul (Cl/(C{U (/C I 

ivi u • 1 ji "i thu, if thou couldst or wouldst he ' 6o;n. 
Nam beirteaQh 1 A-/ ,, ,,, i 

f^ e, ?/■ he could or would be 

( sinn, zy we coiiZd or zvould be' 

vT 1 ■ , , u ! sibh, if ye could or would be 

(^ lad, if they could or would be 




i mi, if I shall be "i 

•; thu, if thou shall be \ 

(^ e, if he shall be ) 

p. 1' sinn, if we shall be 


IVIa bheirtear , 

C sinn, if we shall be Ì 
< sibh, if ye shall be > 
(iad, if they shall be} 




Beirthear, Beirtear 

■ mi, let me be '\ 

be thou > born. 

Plur. ( ^ 

Beirthear, Beirtear 1 ■ 

< thu, >,. ...„,. . , 
i_ e, let him be J 
iirin, let us be "J 
iibh, be ye V 1 

ad, let them be j 

Air brcith, born. 

EACH, go. 


Preterite. Future. 

I went, 01 did 1 „. ( mi, I shall 

'.nn 'i'."f.:K.. 

he shall 
sinn, tve shall 
sibh, ye sk 
iad, they sh 

(mi, I went, 
< thu, thou it 
l^e, he went, 

/-11 ■ j'l { thu, thou wentest, or didst \- no 
ChaidhK '■ ovdul S 

p, (%inn, we went, or did^ 

,,, • ,', < sibh, ye went, or did > qo 
Chaidh J • 1 ^,-' ' ■■ I t 

(. iad, they went, or did } 

Tl "rl 1 ^''"' """' *''"'' /"S'"- 
t e, Ae «AaZZ 3 



'lall "1 
a/Z > 30. 


i mi, did I Ì 

* 'hu, didst thov ' 

did he 

Plur. S "T' WW '"' Ì 
< sibh, did ye ' 

\ 1 u 1 thu, riicfs< </iOH V qo ? 
(^c, aid /ic } 


I mi, sAn/Z or !Dì7/ / '\ 

< thu, .s7ia/< or ivilt tho" ' 

s/ia/Z or will he 
i sinn, shall or a)(7/ jte 'J 
■ < sibh, sh(dl or will ye \ go '. 
(.iad, s/ia^Z or will they j 

A 1. .1 ■ 1 ■» thu, shall or wi/< thou )■ qo '. 
An d tliLid J , ,, .,, , i-' 

l^c, shall or will he j 

An d' thcid 


C mi, did I not "J 

< thu, didst thou not }■ go? 

Nach deach ) ""••."7-' ";"" "- /• 
(^e, aid /ic not j 

,-,, i sinn, did we notl 

Plur. J 1 1 , J . f 

■; sibh, did ye not ,■ 

, did they not 

Nach deach Ì """' "'" -'^ ""' i^"" 
(^ lad, did they not ) 

Nach d' theid 1 

( mi, s/i«// or wi7/ / not 1 

< thu, shalt or ?«/< </ìom «o< '.go? 

c, s/'.a// or wj// he not ) 

p, f .sinn, shall or Wi7/ u'e not Ì 

■»T 1 i> '1 '■ 1 \ sibli, shall or ?rj7/ ?/c not ' ^/y ? 
Nach d theid I 1 , ,; ,; // , i ' 

t iad, shall or will they not } 


Cha dead 

I did not 

Cha deach 

( mi, / did 
, < thii, thou 
(^e, he did 
( sinn, we 
< sibh, ye < 
[^ iad, Mf Ì/ 


I shall or ?t';7/ not 

'■ not 

' sinn, we did not 
did not 
did not 

^1 j"^!.'- 1 1 thu, </(ou s/ia/< or wilt not 
Cha d theid 1 


■ JfO. 

Ae shall or wi// Tioi 
r sinn, we shall or Jt'i7^ not "i 

^> " v." i '• I x sibh, i/e s/in7^ or will not \go. 
Cha d theid ^ .^^^^ ^-j^^y ^y^^i ^^ ^^^n „^, J 


( Rachainn, / icould or could 


Siiig.l Rachadh thu, thou ivouldst or couldst \go. 
(^ Rachadh e, he would or cotdd j 

C Rachamaid, we would or could 

Plur. \ Rachadh sibh, ye would or could 

, ■; ixaciuiuu siuii, yc tuuui.u ui Luuti^ > 
f Rachadh iad, they would or could J 


Ma theid 

( mi. '/ 

le,if I 

Plur. J 
Ma theid I 

mi, if I shall or will "1 

;/" thou shall or 
Ae shall or wi// 

sinn, i/ we shall or M'i// 
sibh, (/"y^ shall or WiV^ 
iad, (/■ they shall or jfT 

7 }3o. 


( Racham, let me go. 
Sing.< Rach, go thou. 

{^ Rachadh c, let him go. 

( Rachamaid, let us go. 
Plur.< Rachaibh, go ye. 

(^ Rachadh iad, let them go. 

A dhol, to go. 


A dol, going. 

RUIG, reach. 


I reached, 
thou reachedst. 
he reached. 
( sinn, we reached. 
p, . . < sibh, ye reached. 
° (.iad, they reached. 

„. ("mi, 1 
p^-"^.- \ thu. 

( mi, / shall or wilt 


Sing. ) ^^' ^^^^^ ^j^^ii_ ^j. ^^m f reach, 
^""'^'^"^{e, he shall ox will ) 
Csinn, we shall or will'i 
' sibh, ye shall or will >) 
iad, they shall or 


„ . . ,, N sibh, ye s/io/i or iu!7/ preach. 
Ruigidh ^ j^j^ ^^^^ ^/^y^; p^ ^. -^^ J 


An do ràinia 


mi, rffd / 1 

thu, didst thou V reac/i ' 

e, rfirf /ie 3 

f sinn, did we Ì 
■' ='bh, did ye v 7'£ 

, ,'. . ■^ sibh, rfid i/e ^ 7'e«c/i : 

An rui 

mi, s/m// / 


J. reacA 
he S 

( sinn, s/irt// we "i 

.' cilììi chnìì 1IO V 

r mi, s/m// . 
'. < thu, s/ia/^ 
" t e, shall hi 

. " ■. ■' sibh, shall ye , 
-^"™g (.ad, sA«Z/<Ly 5 



Nach do ràinig 

Nach do rainij 

Nach rui^ 

Nach rui; 


■ mi, dirf / )ioi 
thu, didst thou 
e, dirf Ae not 

Cha do ràinÌ! 

( mi, / reached not, or did wo< Ì 

•J thu, thou reachedst not, or didst not \ reach. 
' (^ 6, he reached not, or did not J 

_, Tsinn, we reached not, or did not 1 

J - • • \ sib^. 2^« reached not, or did no< I reach. 
Cha do ramig ^;^j_ ^^^^ reached not, or did «o<) 

Cha rui< 

Cha rui 

HO? J reae/i ? 


f sinn, did we not 'Ì 
< sibh, did ye not J- reacA ? 
' (^ iad, did they not ) 

( mi, shall I not ì 
■; thu, shall thou not \ reach ? 

' (^ e, shall he not J 

C sinn, shall we not 'Ì 

^<. sibh, shall ye not \ reach ? 

' f. iad, shall they not ) 

mi, / shall or will not 1 

<AoK sAaZ? or wilt not > reach, 
he shall or will not } 

( sinn, ive shall or will not ì 
I sibh, ye shall or ifi/Z not |- n-cic/i. 
(^iad, fAey shall or iti^^ ho? 3 

( mi, 
.< thu. 






Riiiginn, / would 'ì 

igeadh tu, thou wouldst y reach. 
igeadh e, he tvould j 
Ruigreamaid, we would "i 

^ihh, ije would \ reach. 

jeadh iad, they would } 

( Riiiginr 

< Ruigeai 
f Ruigeac 
C Rui^c 

< Ruigil 
i Ruige 


(m'\, if I shall or will Ì 
< tu, if thou shalt or wilt i 
t e, if he shall or will J 


Ma ruigeas 

Plur f ^'""' if'"^^ shall or will Ì 

Ma ruigeas ) '•'^/''.f,f '''f,,"' '''% \ ''^'^- 
° [_ lad, if they shall or will } 



Sing. < Ru 

Ruigeara, let me reach. 
luig, reach thou. 
iuigeadh e, let him reach. 
C Ruigeamaid, let us reach. 
Plur.< Ruigibh, reach ye. 

t Ruigeadh iad, let them reach. 


A ruigsinn, ) 
A ruigheachd, ) 



A ruiffsinn, ) , . 

A ruigheachd, r*«'^^'"^- 

THOIR, or THABHAIR* give. 



' gave, or did "i 

thou gavcst, or didst > give. 
'■ gave, or did ) 

[■ sinn, we gave, or did 1 

ye gave, or did \give. 
, they gave, or did j 


^< thu, t'l 
' i e, he £ 

C sinn, 
° ( iad, I 

c. ( mi, / shall or «ot7Z 


inW or jt)z7Z "1 

iK .s/(ft/< or ii'i7< \ 

nil or wtYZ 3 

II ■) 

II \ 



(^ e, he shr, 
p, . ( sinn, M'c s/ta// or will 
Bhfir 1 ^'bh, 7/e shall or «^7/ j-jfjue 

iad, they shall or mjì 




« C mi, rfirf / 

p. f sinn, did we 'J 

Antuci^'''^''^'''2/e [srife^ 
" (, iad, rfid <Aey J 



mi, / shall or iti// 
thu, thou shalt or 
e, Ae shall or jfi 

2fe sAa^/ or ivill 

ill 1 

or ivilt > < 

( sum 

(7/ Ì 

p, .' -J sibh, ye shall or ?t77/ \ 
(^ iad, </(e!/ sAaZ/ or will y 



( mi, I 

'»: I thu. 

mi, rfid / no< 

dù/s^ <Aou 7iO< 

did he not 

give ' 

p. C sinn, did we not 'Ì 

ml/ 1 sibh, did ye not yqivef 
Nach tug i ■ 1 , , ., .(•' 

" (^ iad, did they not ) 

„. ( mi, / did not ^J 

/-.u ' r ' s thu, thou didst not '.■ 
^^^^■''He, he did not S 

sinn, we did nof^ 
sibh, ye did not \give. 
iad, they did not j 


Plur. \ 

Cha tug ^ 


( mi, did 1 7tot 


give ? 

Naclftugi*''"'.f '*'''*''""'" 
° (. e, did he not 

p, . C sinn, did we not "i 

° t iad, did they not j 


(J ( mi, sAr;// or will I Ì 

An to r » '^"' ^''"^' '''' ™^' '''"" \giv<^ 
{^e, shall or mji^/ he j 

r sinn, sAn/^ or will we 1 

sibh, sAa// or utz/^ ye J-^j'wc' 
[iad, shall or m,'ì7Z they } 


An loir 

Sing . 

( mi, shall or wi// / no< 
.! thu, 

halt or 7r27< <Aoj: not \give'' 

M 1 • • J thu, òAa/< or jri/i <Aoi 
Nach toir i '■ ,, .„ , 

(^ e, shall or mil he not 

sinn, shall or ?t'!7Z jf)e no< ì 
sibh, shall or it';// ye not \ 
iad, sAa// or will they not } 

„. { mi, / sAa// or ivill not 

A\ / ■ \ l''"> thou shall or ivilt not 
Cha toir ' 


Nach toir 

Cha toi 

r mi, / shall or wt7/ no< 1 

< thu, <AoM sAa/^ or ivilt not \ 
(^e, he shall or ?t,77Z ho^ J 

<■ sinn, 7t'e sAn// or will not Ì 
•j sibh, ye shall or M)i// not \( 
{_ iad, <Ac)/ shall or jf^j// no< * 

Thahliuir is also writttn tabhiiii 

f Tu,? is also written d' thug by some of our best writers. 





C Bheirinn, / couid or would 1 

Sing. < Bheireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst ygivc. 

\ Bheireadh e, lie could or would give j 

C Bheheamaid, we could or would ^ 

Plur. < Bheireadh sibh, ye could or would ygive. 

(_ Bheireadh iad, thcij could or would} 


Sinn f '^'' ^-f ^ s'"^^^ or '"^m Ì 

Ma bheir ] ^^\ f thoufhalt or wilt \ give. 
l^e, ij he shall or will } 





lia I 


P?ur. f 
Ma bheir 1 

^ r toirinn, / wo»/rf ?iof Ì 

r.>.o i toireadh tu, thou wouldst not K 

rha « toireadh tu, </iO!« wouldst 
\_ toireadh e, he would not 



rThoiream, thugam, let me give. 
Sing. < Thoir, thug, give thou. 

(Thoireadh e, thugadh e, let him give. 

C Thoireamaid, thugamaid, let us give. 
Plur. < Thoiribh, thugaibh, give ye. 

{_ Thoireadh iad, thugadh iad, let them give. 

tugainn, / ivould not 
tugadh tu, thou wouldst not 
tugadh e, he would not 

tugamaid, toe would not ì 
tugadh sibh, ye tvould not \ 
tugadh iad, they wozild not ) 

sinn, if we shall or will 
sibh, if ye shall or will 
iad, if they shall or wi 

Plur i to'reainaid, we would not Ì 
Cha' Ì '•°'''^*'^'^ s'''^' y^ would not J-; 
(. toireadh iad, they would not ) 


A thoirt, ) , 

A diabhairt, ] '" ?"'«• 


A tdirt, ) . . 

■ give. 



f mi, I was 

Thugadh Jthu, </io«jras< 


_ e, he was 


f Sinn, we were "i 

Thugadh ) ^:^'}'' f '"«'•« [ 

(^ laa, they were y 

■ given. 




C mi, / shall be '\ 
-J thu, thou shall be V 
{^ e, he shall be } 



C sinn, we shall be Ì 
< sibh, ye shall be \ 

{_ iad, they shall be ) 

y given. 

Cha tugadh 


C mi, / was not ^ 

< thu, thou wert not \ 
{_ e, he was not J 


t sinn, we were not 1 

Cha tugadh Ì ''^^',r "'«'•« "<" W'^'"- 
° {_ lacl, they were not ) 

An tugadh 

An tugadh 


C mi, was I ~i 

< thu, wert thou \ 
l_ e, was he ) 

C sinn, iveri 

< sibh, wen 
{_ iad, tuere 

■e we 'Ì 

"eye \ given? 

mi, shall I be 
thu, shall thou be 

An toirear 1 , i, , , 
(^ e, sh(Lll he be 


given ? 

C sinn, shall we be "J 
An toirear ) ^ibh, sAa// ye 6e Uiven' 
l_ iad, shall they be J 

Cha toirear 


mi, / shall not be 

( mi) 

< tlui, 
( e, hi 

le shall not be j 

( sinn, we shall not be "J 
Cha "toirear ) ?''^''' f shall not be ^ given. 
t. lau, they shall not be ) 




C sinn, we icould be 1 
\s.ihh, ye would be \ given. 
(.iad, they would be) 


( mi, / would be '^ 

< thu, thou wouldst be V 
(. e, he would be } 


f,- C mi, if I shall be 

Ma bheirear ) ^^^^Jfthoushalt be 
\^e, ij he shall be 


Ma bheirear ) *"?''. 

( sinn, if tee shall be 

^ sibh, if ye shall be 

if they shall be 

> given. 



C mi, / would not be 
òiiig. } jj^j ^^pi^ u-ouklst not 




( mi, let me iei 

• tllll ^"^ fìinìi '. 

_, , ., I. Ill, be thou \ qiven 
Thugthar Ì ,', , • • i-^ 
' (^ e, let lam be J 


Cha tugtadh ^ 

C sinn, wc u'ouhl not he "i 
< sibh, ye tcould not be '.■ gi 
(.iad, therj icould not be J 


r,, ( sinn, let ns be 

Plur. } 111 
„, ., ; sibh, be ye 

Tl'"gtl«'-(iad, Ze<//,em 

FAIC, see. 




„. f mi, / saw, or did ' 

_, "'„, ■ < thu, thou sawest, or didst 

Chunna, or Chunnaic | , „ j J I 

' ^ e, he saw, or did 

p. C sinn, we saw, or did Ì 

_,, ■, . < sibh, ?/c saiu, or rfirf >sce 

Chunna, or Chunnaic | • , ,',' j- ; I 

' t lad, they saw, or did J 


mi, / sA«// or will 

thou shalt or wilt 
he shall or wì7/ 
p. _ f sinn, we shall or jf iV/ 
p, ." < sibh, ye shall or jui// 
(^ iad, they shall or wi 

■ < thu, 




( mi, I 
'"'9- )thu. 


did I Ì 

rfirf /te 3 

„, C sinn, rfid we ~i 

Pi"'- Kihh riir/,,. I. 

\ sibh, did ye > see? 

Am I'ac J ' "™ i''' (• 
{_ia(\, did they J 

Am faic 

mi, sAaZ/ / 

C mi, sna 

'■ < thu, s/t( 
(^ e, shall 

shalt thou > 
/(6 ) 

p, C sinn, shall ive Ì 

. f ' • , i sibh, sAa/Z ye > see ? 
t iad, s/ta// they ) 

Sing. Cha 'n fhac mi, / did not sec. 
Plur. Cha 'n fliac sinn, we did not see. 

„. C mi, did I not 

XT 1 XI \ thu didst thou not 
Nach thac I ,■ , , . 
(^ e, did he not 

sinn, diet we not 

Nach t'haic 

f sinn, diet we not "J 

< sibh, did ye not \i 
[^ iad, did they not ) 

( mi, shall I not Ì 

< thu, shalt thou not \ 
f^e, shall he not ) 
( sinn, shall we not "1 

< sibh, shall ye not > 
[^ iad, shall they not ) 

w u fu \ sibh, rfi'rf ye not >sce.' 
Wach thac i :,.,, j,^f^gy„gt 


mi, sAa/i / jio< 

thou not 

he not 

p. I sinn, s/ia// ?t'e Jio/ 

»T 1 n ■ \ sibh, shall ye not 
Nach thaic I ■ i . ;; ,/ , i 

Sing. Cha 'ii fliaic mi, I shall not see. 
Plur. Cha 'n fhaic sinn, we shall not sec. 



I ('hithimi, / would ì 

Sing. < C'liltheadh thu, thou wouldst V 

(^ Chillicadli c, /;e ji'ouW ) 

i Chitheamaid, u>e would "1 

Plur. ■( Chitheadh sibh, ye would ' j 

f Chitheadh iad, they would) 

,. f laicinn, (/"/ wo«W or comW '\ 

X'''^ » '^''^cadh thu, if thou wouldst or couldsi \ : 

(^ faiceadh e, if he would or coi(W ' 


„. f mi, if I shall "J 

»« 1 • \ tliu, ;/' <Aou shalt '■ 

Ma chi ) ■',.;' , ,, i 

t^c, if he shall ) 

,,, i sinn if we shall "1 
Plur. } •, , •' . , „ I 

Machil*'^''' ■^y"*'"'" r 
l^ iad, if they shall ) 


r faiceamaid, or ) .. ,, ,,» 

\ ,. ■ I, ■ > z; we would or coiua J 
1 laiCL'iuih Sinn, ) ■' { 

Ì l'airc;i(lli sibli, if ye would or could i ' 

V lUiccadli iad, if they would or could J 


( Faiccam, let me see. 
Sing. < Faic, see thou. 

(_ Faiceadh e, let him see. 

I Faiceamaid, let us see. 
Plur. < F'aicibh, see ye. 

( Faiceadh iad, let them see. 


A dli' fhaicinn, ) , 

1,1 , ,., ■ • I to see. 

uh thaicsmu, i 


A faicinn, 1 
. e ■ ■ i sceiiiq. 
A faicsinn, ) ^ 





„. Cvm, I was 

„, ' "' ji.« < tliu, thou wert 
Chunnacadh' Ì , 

(^e, he was 



( sinn, we were Ì 
< sibh, ije were \s 
(.iad, they were} 





I shall be "] 

thou shall be 

he shall be 

' sinn, %ve shall be ] 

ye shall be 

they siiall be J 

f mi, 1 
\ thu, 
(.e, he 
C sinn, 
{ sibh, 



Am facadh J 

r mi, was I '\ 

\ thu, wert thou >- i 

wns he 

Plur. pinn,,.erfi 

ye \i 

„. ( mi, sAaZi / be 

. .,?' \ thu, shall thou, be 
^""^^'""^^'{e, shall he be _ 
C sinn, shall we be 


.iad, were they . 

Sing. Nach fhacadh mi, Jt'as / not seenf 
Plur. Nach fhacadh sinn, zvere we not seen ? 
Sing. Cha 'n fhacadh mi, I was not seen. 
Plur. Cha 'n fhacadh sinn, we were not seen. 

ibh, shall ye be >seen''. 

(^iad, shall they be j 

Sing. Nach fhaicear mi, shall I not be seen''. 

Plur. Nach fhaicear sinn, shall we not be seen''. 

Sing. Cha 'n fhaicear mi, I shall not be seen. 

Plur. Cha 'n fhaicear sinn, %ce shall not be seen. 




„. f mi, / would be 

_. . "•.. y thu, thou wouldst be 



te, he W' 

ould be 

„. fmi, if I would be 1 

XT r -1 11 \ thu, if thou wouldst be )■ seen. 
Nam taicteadh j ■'^■i ,, , I 

l^e, if he would be j 

p, C sinn, rve would be ' 

PI ■ ■], -! sibh, ye icould be 

f^iad, they would be \ 

p, ( sinn, if we would be '\ 

.T - . ' J, < sibh, if ye would be \scen. 
Nam faicteadh Ì ■ a ■x'A 7j i 4 

(^lad, if they would be} 


i mi, ; 

mi, if I shall be 
1, if thou slial 
if he shall be 


C sinn, if we shall be 

\ sibh, if ^"> t^linil ho 

(. iad, if 

Plur S """' "^ "" """" "" 1 

,, ,.; [ ithh, if ye shall be >; 
Ma chithear ) ;„., 'J A... .i..,, i, j 

they shall be , 


Faicthear, ) , ^ ■, , 

<. ■ > let it be seen. 

laicear e, ) 


Dh' fhaicinn, 
Dh' fhaicsinn 


FAIGH, get. 



Sing. Fhuair mi, / got, or did get. 
Plur. Fhuair sinn, we got, or did get. 

Sing. Gheibh mi, / shall or will get. 
Plur Glieibh sinn, we shall or will get. 


Sing. An d' fhuair mi, did I get? 
Plur. An d' fhuair sinn, did lue get ? 
Sing. Nach d' fhuair mi, did I not get ? 
Plur. Nach d' fhuair sinn, did we not get? 
Sing. Cha d' fhuair mi, / shall not get. 
Plur. Cha d' fhuair sinn, we shall not get. 

Sing. Am faigh mi, shall I get ? 
Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shall we get? 
Sing. Nach faigh mi, shall I not get? 
Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shalt we not get? 
Sing. Cha 'n fhaigh mi, / shall not get. 
Plur. Cha 'n fhaigh sinn, we shall not get. 

Also written Chunnncas. 




( Gheibhinn, / ivould or could 
Sing. ^ Gheibheadh tu, thou wouldst or couldst 

(^ Gheibheadh e, he would or could 


dd or could 

{Gheibheaniaidh, or \ 
gheibheadh sinn, 
Gheibheadh sibh, ye would or could 
Gheibheadh iad, theij would or could 

or ) 

> we wc 
1. ) 


„. C (aighinn, if I would or could Ì 
*"?• J faigheadh tu, if thou wouldst or couldst .get 

{_ faigheadh e, if he would or could ) 

f faigheamaid, or ) .^ ,, ; ; ~1 

„, I r .'^, 1, ■ ? t/ we would or could I 

Plur. ) faigheadh sinii, ) -^ (^ 

Nam J faigheadh sibh, ifj/e would or could i 

(, faigheadh iad, if they would or could J 



(,■ ( mi, if I shall 1 

Tiji ' 1. -1 u \ thii, if thou shall \<iet. 
^''S^''^^le,>f he shall S 

sinn, if we shall 1 

if ye shall \get. 


if they shall} 


( Faigheam, let me get. 
Sing. < Faigh, get thou. 

t Faigheadh e, let him get. 

C Faigheamaid, let us get. 
Plur. < Faighibh, get ye. 

l_ Faigheadh iad, let them get. 


A dh' fhaotuinn, } , . 
A dh' fhaghail, j 


A faotainn, ) 
Afaghail, li'^"'"8 

passivp: voice. 

Preterite. Future. 

C mi, / was 

< thu, thou tcert 

■ found. 


Fhuaradh ) "'",' 
(. e, he 

p, i sinn, we were 

{_ iad, they were j 


„. ( mi, / shall be 1 

(•\ 11 1 '^'"'> "'"" shall he \ got. 
vjiieiuUear 1 i > t, t 1 

(^ c, he sliall be } 

p. ( s'mn, we shall be 'J 

p, .,,' -l nihh, ye shall be \got. 
(^ iad, they shall be ' 



Cm'i, was I 
-' 1 

•'■ ,, < thu, wert thou >■ found 
uiaradh | , i •' 

Sill a 

An d fhuaradh | , i 

{^ e, was lie } 

p. ( sinn, were we "i 

An d- fhuaradh ] ^"^.'^' ""'"'f \ -^"""^ ' 
t^iad, were they ) 

Sing. Nach d' fhiiaradii mi, wtis I not got ? 
Plur. Nach d' fhuaradh sinii, were we iiot got ? 


„. C mi, shall I be 1 

A c ■ L \ thu, s/(«/< thuu be )• qot ? 
Amfaighear^^. J^^^,^/^^^^ K 

p. r sinn, s/iaW wc 6e ■! 

, c ■ \ \ sibh, s/ia// ?/e be )-qot f 
Am faighear J • , , ,, ;, .1 


ad, s/iciZi they be , 

.%((/. Nach faighear mi, shall I not be got f 
Plur. Nach faighear sinn, shall wc not be got ' 



„. t mi, / was 'Ì 

/-.1 1 1 . 11. \ thu, thou wcrt >(lot. 
Gheibhteadh I ,' (■' 

t^ c, he was ) 

p. ( sinn, we were ~i 

r-i 1 i"r' lu \ sibh, ye were Igot. 
Ghcibhteadh^i^j Y,^^,y,^^^^j-^ 


„. ( mi, zy/ shall be 'i 

,, , •^,', ■[thu, if thou shall be I (wt. 
^''S\"''^^''^'ic,,fheshallbe j 

p. i sinn, ;/"«,'(; s/^n// /;e 'i 

., . ., ', , sibli, ifiic shall he '. qot. 

^^S^'^'^^'^'^'ivMl, if they shall bey 

Stng. Nam faighteadh mi, ;/ / would he got. 
Plur. Nam faighteadh sinn, if we would be got. 

Faightear, faighear e, let it be got. 


ABAIR, say. 



„. f mi, / said, or did Ì 

Tu LL • X \ thu, thou saidst, or djds< >say. 
Ihubhairt J , . , ,. , l ^ 

(^ e, he said, or did j 

p/ , f sinn, ire sairf, or rfirf ì 
Th hVi '■ t Ì ^''^'^' y^ sairf, or did > sa?/. 
(^ iad, thei/ said, or rfirf ' 


f mi, 


iilt \ 
e shall or will j 

mi, / shall or 202'// 

</iOM s/ia/f or wilt V sai/. 

p, C sinn, «;e sAo^Z or ivill ^ 

rp, .' -^ sibh, ye shall or ?«('// V 

(^iad, */;py s/ia/Z or w)i7/ ) 





„. f' mi, did I 

'- -"-■ - < thu, didst thou 

;■ say '. 

Andubhairt^^ J^.^^^ j 

p, ( sinn, rftd we "i 

Andubhairt]^'^/^'*f,r \'"y- 
l^ lad, did they J 

An abair 

mi, sAaZZ or w;7/ / 

Cmi, shall 

' ■ < thu, sAa 
air i i 7, 
(^ e, sfta« I 

or will he 

p, C sinn, sAaZZ or will we "1 
. 1 ■ "i sibh, shall or ?«j7/ ?/e \ say i 
(^ iad, shall or wj7Z iAey 3 

Cha dubhairt 

f mi, 

< thu, 

1.6, A( 

I said not, or A'd not 'Ì 

thou saidst not, or didst not '■ 
Ae said not, or did wof y 


p. ( sinn, ive said not, or did not Ì 

rn J 1 i. • .^ ^ sibh, ye said not, or did not >■ saw. 
Cha dubhairt Ì j ,, j , jj ^ ( 

(^ iad, they said not, or did not } 


mi, did / not 

»T L 1 ùu ■_.{ tini, didst thoìi ììot \ say 
Nach dubhairt I ,'. , , , ( •' 


did he not 

p. C sinn, did we not ~i 

KT 1 J 11, ■. \ sibh, did ve no< \say? 
Nach dubhairt I ;^^^^.^^^^^^^ J ^ 



,. r mi, shall or u)iZZ / noi 

■,' • \ thu, s/iaZ< or wilt thou not 
{_ e, shall or ?«i/Z /ie not 

Nach abai 

sinn, shall or tt'i7/ we Hof 'J 
' or ?Wi7/ ye not ' 

Tsinn, shall 

' . < sibh, shall 

{_ iad, shall ( 


sai/ '. 

or wiZZ Mey not j 

„. f mi, / shall or ini// not ì 

/^i > u • \ thu, </iOit s/ia/< or wilt not > sav. 
Cha n abair J . , ;, u ., i 

(^ e, he shall or will not J 

p. C sinn, we shall or will not "1 

r-i, ' V. • i sibh, ye shall ov will not >say. 
Cha n abair ^j^j^ ^j^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ j 


r Theirinn, / would 
Sing. \ Theireadh tu, thou loouldst > say. 
(^Theireadh e, Ae would } 

i Theireamaid, we ivould Ì 

Plur. \ Theireadh sibh, ye would J-sn?/. 

(^Theireadh iad, they would} 

„. i abairinn, abrainn, would I not "1 

jU •'.' ; abaireadh, abradh tu, wouldst thou not '■ 

(^ abaireadh, abradh e, would he not J 

p, ( abaireamaid, abramaid, would ive tiot 'Ì 

^ ,■ < abaireadh, abradh sibh, ivoiild ye not > 

(.abaireadh, abradh iad, would they not } 


„■ f abairinn, abrainn, i/"/ woi(/d 'Ì 

Jr "■ < abaireadh, abradh tu, if thou wouldst >say. 

' (abaireadh, abradh e, if he would ) 

p. r abaireamaid, abramaid, i/'itie woii/d^ 
, . ■ < abaireadh, abradh sibh, if ye would >say. 
^" ' abaireadh, abradh iad, if they would ) 



Ma their 

mi, if I shall or Wi7/ 

( mi, 
< tu, 

(e, i 

if thou shall or wilt 
if he shall or will 


p. ( sinn, if we shall or tvill Ì 

■^ , '. < sibh, i/"i/e sAr(// or Mii7/ 'soi/. 
Ma their ^j^j^ ^^^-^^^ ^j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 


( Abaiream, abram, let me say. 
Siiig.< Abair, soy thou. 

(^Abaireadh, abradh, e, let him say. 

C Abaireamaid, abramaid, let us say. 
Plur. ■; Abairibh, abraibh, say ye. 

' Abaireadh, abradh iad, let them say. 


A radh, to say. 

Ag radh, saying. 




Preterite. Future. 

Sing. 'Thubhradh e, it was said. Sing. Theirear e, it shall be said. 


Preterite. Future. 

An dubhradli e, was it said ? An abairear, abrar e, shall it be said ? 

Nach dubhradh e, was it not said? Nach abairear, abrar e, shall it not be said f 

Cha dubhradh e, it was not said. Cha 'n abairear, abrar e, it shall not be said. 

Preterite. Future. 

Theirteadh e, it would be said. Ma theirear e, if it shall be said. 

Nan abairteadh e, if it would be said. 

Abairear, abrar e, let it be said. 


The defective Verbs are, Arsa, 01, Feudaidh, Theab, Tiucainn. 

ARSA, sa^s, said. 

Arsa, says, said, always precedes its verb, as, arsa Seumas, said James. When it is declined with the personal 
pronouns, it throws them into the emphatic form ; as, 

„. ( mise, said I. p, C sinne, said we. 

r'^' < thusa, saidst thou. ^^^^ I sibhse, said i/e. 

^^^ (esan, or ise, said he or she. (.iadsan, said they. 

FEUDAIDH.f may. 


Preterite. Future. 

^. Cm\, I ivas able. (^- Cmi,l7nay. 

T-vu.l"i^' 1 \ thu, thou wert able. -c' i "lu \ tliUi thou may< 

Dh iheud 1 ,' ,, Feudaidh 1 ;„„, , '' 

\e, he was able. (.e, he may. 

p, C sinn, we were able. p, C sinn, we may. 

Dh'fheud ] ^'^,^',r "'""' °*lt Feudaidh J ^"'/'vf '"'"J' 

{_ lad, they were able. (. lad, they m<iy. 

Am feud 


Future. Fttture. 

C mi, may I? ?• C •"'' ' '""■y '^^ ""<s< not. 

< thu, mayst thou ? p, , ^A. . < thu, thou mayst or must not. 

(^ e, may he ? ^6,^6 may or must not. 

. „ ,< Sibil, /nrn/ !/e.' r^, , n_ ,< s,inh, ye 7nay OT must not. 

Am fuud i • I ' •',/ , Cha n fheud ) ■ , /, ^ „ ,, „„, 

(.lad, may they ? {_ lad, they may or must not 


Preterite. Preterite. 

Dh' fheudainn, / might. „■ C mi, if I may. 

Dh; fhcuda.lh tu, thou mightst. ^^ dh'Theudas ) ^''"' f "'"" "^ 

Dh fheudadh, he might. (.c, if he inay. 

Sing.<D\\' ù\cMàiv\\\ in, thou mightst. y, ipn' , I i\m, if thou mayst. 

Dh' flicudamaid, ?<;c >«!V//i<. p, Csmn,ifwe may. 

Plur. I Dh' fhcudadh sibh, ye might. ^ ,, fi[' ,,i.,, \ sibh, if ye may. 

i Dh' I 

. \ Dh' 1 

( Dh" I 

fhcudadh iad, they might. (. iad, if they may. 

Some writt; dubhrmlh, which rather belongs to the Irish dialect. t Feudaidh rndfcud are often written _/(;i7ifrti(M and/«od. 



Feudaidh is often and elegantly used impersonally, eitlier with or without the compound pronoun. 

^. f dhomh, / ?««5?. 

, *^, •'■j < dhuit, thou must. 
Is iheudar 1 ,. , 

t dha, he must. 

p, rdhuinn, ice must. 

Is fheudar ] "^ 2// '"«*'• 
^dhoibh, they liiust. 

TIUCA INN, come along. 


Sing. Tiucainn, come along. Plur. Tiucainnibh, come ye along. 

THEAB, had almost. 


(m\, I had almost. 

i < thu, thou hadst a 

(.6, he had abnost. 


Plur i *'"") '"■''^ '""^ almost. 
Theaij i ^'^''^' ^^ ^'"^^ almost. 
I iad, they had almost. 


Sing. \ 
An do theab 1 

Plur. ( 
An do theab \ 

Sing. S 
Cha do theab Ì 

Plur. S 
Cha do theab ^ 

mi, had I almost ? 
thu, hadst thou almost? 
e, had he almost ? 
sinn, had ice almost ? 
sibh, had ye almost ? 
iad, had they almost ? 

mi, / had not almost. 
thu, thou hadst not almost. 
e, he had almost. 
sinn, we had almost. 
sibh, ye had almost. 
iad, they had almost. 


Q- C mi, had I not almost f 

Nach do^iheab ) ""!' ''«f*' '''«" ""' «i"'«^' • 
(. e, had he not almost ? 

pi i sinn, had we not almost ' 

Nach do theab J ^i^i /mrfje not almost? 
\_ laa, had they not almost? 
^- ( mi, if I had not almost. 

Mur cb 'theab ■) ^^^^Af thou had^t not almost. 
(_ e, ij he had not almost. 
p< Tsinn, if we had not almost. 

Mur do'' theab] *''^'^' '^-'^ ''"^^ '"^' almost. 
l_ iad, if they had not almost. 


The Adverb, in Gaelic, e.\presses Place, Time, and 
an adverbial meaning. 

Adverbs of Place, 

1 . Motion or rest in a place. 
A bhàn, bhàn, down, dowmcards. 


{ upwards and downwards. 

A bhos, bhos, on this side. 

A mach, mach, out, without. 

Air astar, afar. 

Air deireadh, ),,,., 

Air dheireadh, ] ^"'^' hmdermost. 

Air thoiseach, ) ^ , ^ 

Airtoiseach, ^frst, foremost. 

Air tùs, Jirst, foremost. 

Am fad, afar. 

Am fagus, near, at hand. 

An cein, afar. 

An cois, near. 

An gar, near. 

An laimh, in custody, in hands. 

An sin, there. 

An so, here. 

An sud, yonder. 

An taic, close, adjoining. 

A steach, steach, within. 

A stigh, stigh, within. 

A thaobh, sideways. 

Bhàn, down, downwards. 

Manner or Quality. Gv, before any adjective, miparts to it 

are such as signify, 

Bhos, on this side. 

C'àite, where. 

Deas, south. 

Ear, east. 

Fas as, Ì 

Fad air falbh, \far away. 

Fad air astar, } 

Fao-us, ) 

-r. ° > near. 

r ogus, ) 

Far, where, in which. 

lar, ivest. 

r ' > below there. 
ioras, J 

Mach, ) 

Muigh, 5 ' 

Oir, east. 

Ris, exposed, bare. 

Shios, east, below there, or yonder. 

Shuas, west, up there, or yonder. 

Tarsuing, across. 

Thall, on the other side. 

Thar, ~i 

Thair, > over. 

Thairis, } 

Tuath, north. 

Uthard, vp. 

■ without. 



2. Motion to, or towards a place. 

A leth-taobh, aside, to a side. 

A 'a airdf, upwards, up. 

A nail, to this side. 

A null, } , .1 ,, ■ > 
. > to the otiier side ; over. 

A nunn, ) 

Air ais, backwards. 

Air adhairt, Ì j. , , 

. ■ 1 • 11 ? forward, onward. 
Air aghaidh, ) "^ 

A sios, eastwards, downwards. 

A suas, upwards, westwards. 

„■ , ^ ,,^'y whither? in what direction? 
Cia n taobh f ) 

C ionadh ? whither? to what place? 

-^ '• 1 J [to the south, southward. 

(jus an airde deas, J 

Gus an airde an ear, to the east, eastward. 

^ ■ J ^ ^\ [ to the north, northtvard. 

(jus an airde tuath, ) 

H-uig agus uaitlic, to and fro. 

Le leathad, down hill. 

Leis, with, or down, the stream. 

Mu 'n cuaiit, round. 

Nail, hitherwards. 

fj 'Wo the other side. 

Ri bruthacb, upwards. 
Ri leathad, downwards. 
Sios, east, castumrds. 
Suas, west, ivestwards. 

3. Motion from a place 

A deas, from the south. 

A nuas, nuas, down, from above. 

A tuath, yrom the north. 

O 'n ear, from the east. 

O 'n iar, from the west. 

Adverbs of Time are twofold; namely, such as signify. 

Some spcrijic period, either past, present, future, 
or indefinite. 

A cheana, cheana, already. 

A chianamh, chianamh, a little while ago. 

A chlis^*;, chlisge, soon, quickly. 

A choidhch, choidhch, ) ^ 

A chaoidh, chaoidh, ) 

A ghnàth, always, usually. 

A nis, Ì 

, ■ > now. 

A nise, J 

Air ball, immediately. 

Air bhò 'n de, yesterday. 

Air bhò 'n raoir, the niyht before last. 

Air bhò 'n uiridh, the year before last. 

Air deireadh, ),,,., 
A ■ ji ■ 11 ^ last, fandermost. 
Air dheireauh, ) ' 

Air a mhionaid, immediately , this moment. 
Air an uair, presently. 
Air thoiseach, ) ,. , ^ 
Airtoiscach, ]f'^f' foremost. 

Air thus, ),/,./. 

Air tùs, J a-f first, foremost. 

Air uairibh, at times, occasionally. 

A la, by day. 

Am bliadhna, this year. 

Am fad agus, whilst. 

Am feadli, ) , ., , 

An fheadh,^ "''"'*■'• 

Am feasd, for ever, never in future. 

Am màireach, to-morrow. 

An ceart 'air, ) . ,• , , ■ , 

. . . > tmmediately, lust now. 

An ceart uair, ) -" •' 

An dc, yesterday. 

An dcaras, since, seeing that. 

An deigh laimh, afterwards. 

An diugh, to-day. 

An dràsda [an tràth so], at this time. 

An car-tlirath, Ì ,, , ^. 

An iar-thrath, ] ^''^ '^"V "^'^^ to-morrow. 

An la roiiiih, the other day. 

An nochd, to-night. 

An raoir, ) , . , 

• ■ 11 ■ /■ last mqht. 
An reidhir, ) ■' 

An sin, then, thereupon. 

An so, then, hereupon. 

An tràth, when. 

An traths ,1 , ,l- i- 

. ^ , 1 > now', at this time. 

An trath-so, y 

An uair, when. 

An uiridh [an uair ruith], last year. 

Aon uair, once. 

A so suas, henceforward. 

As iir, a-new. 

C'uine, when. 

Do la, do lath, by day. 

Dh' oidhfhe, 4)/ night. 

Dh' oidhche is do la, by night and by day. 

Fathast, fhathast, yet, still. 

FÒS, yet, still. 

Idir, at all. 

Mar tha, as it is. 

Mu dheireadh, at last, at length. 

Ni 's mo, any more. 

Nur [an uair], when, whilst. 

O cheann fad, long ago. 

O oheann ghoirrid, lately. 

O ehian, of old. 

Rianih, ever, (in reference to the past.) 

Roimh laimh, beforehand. 

Searh, seachad, past. 

Uair, otice, once on a time. 

Uair irin, ) 

,T . "^. . > sometime. 

Uair eigin, ) 

Continuance, vicissitude, or repetition of ti 
A ghnàth, ) , 
Do ghnàth, \ "''^"^^- 
Ainmig, seldom. 

Air uairibh, at times, sometimes. 
Am l)iillirantas, ) ,. ,, 
A 1 • 11 < continually . 

An coiulniuidh, J •' 

An t'uinaint, commonly. 

Cia fliad ? how long ? 

Cia miiiic ? ) , /-^9 
^- . . , > /ioto often ? 
Cia trie ; ) •' 

Fad, /owjr. 

Fhadsa, as long as, so long. 

Gu bràth, i ^ 

/•-■ i\ 1 1 >.i 1 for ever. 

Gu li\ bhrath, ) '' 

Gu dilinn, to the end, or failing of time. 

Gu minig, often. 

Gu sior, ) J. 

r, ■ 11 i for evermore. 

Ou siorruidh, ) •' 


Gu siorruith, Ì 

Gu suthainn, >fo'' evermore. 

Gu suthainn siorruidh, ) 

Gu trie, frequently, often. 

O so suas, henceforward. 

Ma seach, Ì 

iVIu seach, \ alternately, by turns. 

Mu 'n seach, ) 

Re seal, Ì ^ 

Re sealladh, \ >'" " '"'"■ 

Adverbs of Manner and Quality. 

somehow or other. 

Ach beag, almost. 

Ach gann, nearly. 

Air aehd, '\ 

Air mhodh, > in a mam 

Air sheòl, } 

Air athais, leisurely. 

Air a chuthach, ) , 
. ■ , , -I ' ;• mad. 

Air bhoil, ^ 

Air chall, lost. 

Air cbarn, outlawed. 

Air choir, aright. 

Air chor, in a manner. 

Air chor eigin, ) 

Air chor no chor eigin, j 

Air chuairt, sojourning. 

Air chuimhne, in mind, by heai f. 

An chuthach, mad. 

A dh' aon obair, ) , 

A dh' aon ghnothuch, \ P^'^PO'^h- 

A dheòin, spontaneously. 

A dh' aindeoin, in spite of. 

Air eigin, ivith much ado. 

Air fògradh, ) . ., 

A f> lu } "■' exile. 

Am fogradh, j 

Air ghleus, in trim; tuned; ready for action. 

Air iomadan, adrift. 

Air iomroll, astray. 

Air ionndrainn, amissing. 

Ah lagh, ready for action. 

Air mhodh, 2« a manner. 

Air seachran, astray. 

Air sgeul, found, not lost. 

Am bidheantas, habitually. 

Am feabhas, convalescent. 

Amhain, o«/(/. 

Amhuil, ) ,., 

Amhiuidh, 1 ''*^' "'• 

An coinnimh chinn, ) , ,, 

An comhair chinn, ] '^^'^dlong. 

An coinnimh chùil, ) , , 
»„ 1 • 1 \-i Ì backwards. 

An comhan- chuil, ) 

A dhith, wanting, without. 

An deidh, ) , . . , 

An geall, r^"™"*' '" ^""^- 

An nasgaidh, gratis. 

An tòir, in pursuit, after. 

Araon, together, both. 

As an aghaidh, outright. 

As a cheile, asunder, loosened. 

Car air char, rolling. 

Cia mar ? hoiu ? 

C arson ? juAy ? 

C ionnas ? Aom; ? 

Cha, nof. 

Comhladh, ) , ,, 
Comhhmth, 5 "'^^'^^'■- 

Cuideachd, together, in company. 

Cuige? whyf whertfore'. 

Cuime? why^. for ivhat'^ about what ^ 

Dh' aindeoin, in spite of. 

Dh' aon ghnothuch, ) , 

Dh'aon obair, j ' I ^ V- 

Do dheòin, spontaneously . 

Do dhlth, a wanting. 

Do rireadh, really, actually, indeed. 

Fa leth, severally, individually. 

Far nasgaidh, gratis. 

Gle, very. 

Gu beachd, clearly. 

Gu baileach, ) ,, ,, , ,, 

Gubuileach, J '^'"■'"'S'^^ì'' «'''"%■ 

Gu dearbh, truly, certainly. 

Gu deimhin, truly, verily. 

Gu fior, truly, in truth. 

Gu leir, altogether, wholly. 

Gu leoir, enough. 

Gu taobh, aside. 

Gun amharus, doubtless. 

Gun chàird, incessantly. 

Idir, af aZ/. 

Leth mar leth, half and half. 

he cheile, together. 

Maraon, together, as one, in a body. 

Mar an ceudna, also. 

Mar chomhladh, ) , ,, 

Mar chomhluath, J '''^""'^'■- 

Mar gu, as ?/". 

Mar sin, .10, in that manner. 

Mar so, thus. 

Mar sud, in yon manner, so. 

Ma seach, "j 

Mu seach, \ alternately. 

Mun seach, ) 

Nar, I "" ' "" 

Nach, 7iot. 

Nasgaidh, gratis. 

Ni, not. 

Ni h-eadh, /io, ?ioi so, it is not so. 

Os àird, openly. 

Os iosal, privately, secretly. 

Rireadh, j ^ , „ 

r,- I ; trull/, really. 

Ro, very. 

Roirah cheile, prematurely, hurriedly. 

Seadh, yes, it is so ; really ! 

Thar a cheile, disordered. 

Theagamh, perhaps. 

Troimh cheile, in confusion ; stirred about. 

Tuille t'os, tnoreover. 

Uidh air an uidh, by degrees. 




Prepositions, in Gaelic, are either simple or compounded. 


A, as, of, out of. 
Ag, aig, at. 
Air, on, after. 
An, ann, in. 
Bhàrr, off. 
Car, during. 
Do, of, to. 
Eadar, between. 
Fa, iipon. 

Fo, fodha, fu', fuidh, beneath. 

Gu, gus, to, until. 

he, leis, with, by, along. 

Mar, like to, as. 

Mu, about. 

O, from. 

Os, above. 

Re, during. 

Re, ri, ris, to. 

Ro, roimh, before. 

Scach, past, in comparison with. 

Tar, thar, thair, thairis, over, across. 

Thun, to. 

Tre, troimli, throimh, through. 

Trid, through ; by means of. 



The Compound Prepositions are, for the most part, 
commonly govern the Noun in the genitive case. 

A chois, 7iear to. 

Air beulaobh, before, in front of 

Air cheann, at the end, against. 

Air cùlaobh, behind. 

Air fad, throughout, during. 

Air feadh, throughout, during. 

Air muin, on the back, on the top. 

Air sgàth, for the sake. 

Air son, for, on account. 

Air tòir, iìi pursuit. 

Am fianuis, ) • 
. n , . J ire presence. 
Am tochair, ) '^ 

Am measg, among, amidst. 

An aghaidh, against. 

An ceann, in the end. 

An codhail, ì ^ 
. \, i to meet. 

An coinneanih, ) 

An cois, near to. 

An dàil, to meet hostilehj, towards. 

An deaghaidh,'J 

An deigh, V after. 

An dels, j 

An eiric, in recompense. 

An làthair, in presence. 

An lorg, ) . 
. . ■'" ; in consequence. 

As easbhuidh, ) .,, 
A \. ■ i ivithout. 

As eugmhais, ) 

made up of a Simple Preposition and a Noun. They 

As leth, in behalf. 

A bhrigh, because. 

A choir, near. 

A chum, to, tou'ards. 

A dhith, /or want, without. 

A rèir, according to. 

A thaobh, concerning. 

Do bhrigh, because. 

Do choir, near. 

Do chum, to, totvard. 

Do dhlth, /or loant, without. 

Dh' easbhuidh, ) „ 

i~ii ' ■ 11 11 1 for want. 

Dh uireasbhuidh, )•' 

Dh' fhios, ) , ^ / 

T-,, , ■ ■ ,, [to, towards. 

Dh lonnsuidh, S 

Do reir, according, in proportion to. 

Do thaobh, concerning , with respect. 

Fa chomhair, i .. . 

r 1 I i opposite, aqainst. 
Fa chomhar, S ^'^ ' ^ 

Fa chùis, because, by reason. 

Ghios, (contr. for dh' ionnsuidh), to, towards. 

Mu choinneamh, opposite. 

Mi thimchioll, around, about. 

O bhàrr, yVom the top. 

Os ceann, above. 

Re, during. 

Tareis, after. 


There are various syllables, viz. an, ain, ana; aim, aimh ; ao, ca, eu; eas, ais, ath ; bith, co, com, comh, con ; di, do; 
im, lom; in, ion; mi, mio ; neo, and so, which may be called Inseparable Prepositions, being found oidy in composition 
with other words, the signification of which they change or modify. 


"' V 
Aim, C 

Aimh, J 

Ao, 1 



Negation or privation. 

Ain-colach, ignorant. 
An-aoibh inn , joyless. 
Aim-bcartas, poverty. 
Aim-lealhann, narrow. 
Aodochas, "J 
Eadochas, J- despair, 
Eudochas, j 
Easonoir, dishonour. 



An, ) 
Ain, \ 
Ana, ) 
Ais, } 
Ath, S 
Co', -\ 
Coi' \ 
Coimh, i 
Com, } 

Im, > 
lom, 5 
In, ) 
Ion, J 
Mi, ^ 

Mio, ;. 



Immoderate degree, or excess, 

Frequency, or repetition, 

Together, community, or equality, 

Evil, difficulty. 

About, complete. 

Ease, gentleness. 

An-stroghail, prodigal. 
Ain-tighearn, an oppressor. 
Ana-miann, lust. 
Ais-eirigh, resurrection. 
Ath-bhuail, strike again. 
Bith-labhairt, incessant talk. 

Comh i '^'^^^"oail, bind together. 
Coi' lion, ^ ^ , 
Coimh-lion, j-/"y*'- 
\ as / Comith, eating together. 
Di-chionnt, innocence. 
Do-dheanta, impracticable. 

lora-ghaoth, whirlwind. 

lonmholta, worthy of praise. 

Mi-bheusach, unmannerly. 
Mio-runach, spiteful. 
Neo-chruadalach, not hardy. 
So-thuigsinn, intelligible. 


An Interjection is an indeclinable part of speech, and expresses some sudden emotion of the mind. 
Grief; as, och ! ochain! ochòin ! och nan ochain ; och is ochain nan och aire! mo chreachadh ! mo nuar ! 

Icon ! mo thruaighe ! mo thruaighe lèireadh ! mo sgaradh ! 
Wonder ; aobh, aobh ! obh, obh ! O ! 
Aversion; tut! afa, ab! fuigh! 
Disgust; ach ! ach ! 
Shame; monàire! mo mhasladh ! 
Laughter; ha, ha! ah! 
Demonstration; feuch ! faic! seall ! 
Calling; h-aoibh ! h-oilò. 
Terror; h-ugad! h-ugaibh. 


A Conjunction is an indeclinable part of speech, and serves to join words and sentences togethe'r 

3, i "^• 

Ach, but. 

.4 chionn, because. 

Agus, as, and. 



Cuideachd, likewise. 

FÒS, yet. 

Ga, though. 

Ged, giodh, though. 

Gidheadh, yet. 

Gu, gur, that. 

Is, and. 

Ma, if. 

Mar, as, like as. 

Mur, if not. 

There are also several phrases which have a conjunctive force; as, 
Chum as gu, or a chum as gu, ^ 

Chum is gu, or a chum is gu, ' so as that, in order that. 

Chum agus gu, or a chum agus gu, j 
Chum is nach, or a chum is nach, so as that not. 
Air chor is gu, so that. 
Air chor is nach, so that not. 
Air eagal gu, lest, for fear that. 

■ before, ere. 



Mus an, 

Na, than. 

Nach, that not. 

Nam, nan, if 

No, or. 

O, on, since. 

Oir, before. 

Os-barr, moreover. 

'S {for agus), and. 

Sol, suil, before that. 

Tuille eile, tuille (òs, further. 

Uime sin, therefore. 


Air son gu, by reason that. 

D' eagal gu, lest, for fear that. 

D' eagal uach, lest not. 

Do blirigh gu, by reason that. 

Do blirigh nach, by reason that not. 

Bheil fliios, ) ••. , r I 

■ I /1 ■ > IS it known, I wonder. 

L Ihios, y ' 

Ged tha, notwithstanding. 

Gun fhios, not knowing, in case. 

lonnas gu, so that. 

Mar sud agus, so also. 

Ma seadh, ma ta, if so, then. 

Mur bhiodh, were it not. 

Mur bhiodl) »u, were it not that. 


Gentile, or Patronymic Nouns, end in ach, and are derived from other proper substantives, as names of 
natives; Albannach, a &o< ; Sa.s\xmrdch, an Englishman ; Suaineach, a 5ii'erfe ; Lochlinneach, a Z)a/ie ; so also, an indi- 
vidual of a clan, as, from Stiùbhart, Stiùbhartach, a Stewart ; from Grannd, Granndach, a Grant. 

Diminutive Nouns in an and ag are formed most commonly from substantives; as, leabhar, a book ; leabhran, a 
little book; caile, a girl; caileag, a little girl; sguab, a sheaf; sguabag, a little sheaf; leanabh, leanaban, a little child. 

Collective Nouns are not confined to any particular termination; of these some are primitives, as, clann, a clan; 
sluagh, people: and some derivatives, as, òigridh, a band of youth; laochraidh, a band of warriors. Some collectives 
end in ach; as, duillearh,_/o/(a^f, from duille, a leaf. 

Nouns, denoting Agexts, in air, ear, oir, ach, iche, are derived from other substantives; as, sgriobhair, a writer, 
from sgriobh ; sgriosadair, a destroyer, from sgrios ; sloightear, a knave, from sloighte, knavery ; ciontach, o culprit, from 
ciont, guilt; oibriche, a workman, from obair, work. 


Comparatives are often used as abstract nouns; as, doille, blindness; truime, heaviness; gile, whiteness. 

Abstracts in ad are formed from the comparative; as, bàinead, fairness, from bàine ; lughad, littleness, from lugha, 
less; teircezd, fewness, from teirce, more few. 

Some substantives in as are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives; as, ùghdarras, authority, from 
ùghdar; luathas, swiftness, from luath; cruadhas, hardness, from cruaidh. 

Some substantives in nc/(d are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives ; as, iasgaireachd, ^sAery, from 
lasgair; caonntachd, parsi»io«2/, from caonntach, saving. 


Adjectives in ach are formed commonly from substantives; as, ballach, spotted, from ball, a spot ; grianach, sunny, 
from grian, sun; peasgach, gashed, from peasg, a gash. 

Adjectives in agach, anach, from diminutives in ag and an: as, bachlagach, curled, from bachlag, a curl ; badanach, 
tiifly, from badan, a tuft. 

Adjectives in mhor, or in its contractions, ar and or, are derived from substantives ; as, from sluagh, people, sluagli- 
Ti.lior, sluaghar, populous : and from adjectives ; as, treunmhor, strong, from treun. 

Adjectives in ail and eil, are derived from substantives; as, feumail, needful, from feum, iieed; lathail, daily, from 
lath, day; duineil, manly, from duine, man; gaisgeil, brave, from gaisgc, bravery. The terminations ail and a7 art- 
contractions of amhuil, like, and have a strong affinity with tlio English termination ly ; as, friend/y, i. c. friend/i/if , 
nian/i/, nian/iie, gentleman/y, gcntlemanMe. 

Adjectives in da or ta are derived from substantives ; as, macanta, gentle, from mac ; caillcachanla, cowardly, from 
cailleach, an old woman. 

Adjectives deaoùng practicability or facility commonly have so prefixed; as, so-thuigsinn, intelligible ; so-dheanamh, 
easily done. 

Adjectives denoting impoisihilily or difficulty commonly have do prefixed ; as, do-thuigsinn, unintelligible ; do- 
dheanamh, not easily done. 


Verbs in aich are formed from adjectives or substantives characterised by a, o, or u; as, teannaich, tighten, from 
teann, tight ; crunaich, blame, from cron, ill. 

V'erbs in ich are formed from adjectives characterised by i; as, cruinnich, gather, from cruinn, round; minich. 
(mooth, from min, smooth. 



Composition is effected in Gaelic by prefixing to substantives, adjectives, participles, and verbs a substantive, adjec- 
tive, verb, adverb, or preposition. 

A Substantive with a Substantive. 
Grian-chrios, the zodiac ; grian-chearcall, a solar halo ; marc-shluagli, cavalry ; cuach-fhalt, curled hair. 

Adjectives with the Substaiitives prefixed. 
l9.oh\\ \.\.\?L\\i, north country; bru-dhearg, a retièreas^; ceann-lora, iare-Zteaded. 

Substantives with the Adjectives prefixed. 
Droch-bheart, mischief; treun-laoch, a warrior ; fuar-bheann, a cold hill; dubh-fhocal, o dark saying. 

Adjectives with Adjectives. 
GoTia-eutTom, light blue; dubh-dhonn, livid; liath-ghlas, greyish; gorm-bhreachd, blue spotted; uile-chumhachd- 

ach, almighty. 

Verbs with Substantives. 

Cuairt-imich, loalk around ; cridh-bhris, heart-break ; corp-shnàs, anatomise. 

J erbs with Adjectives. 
Geur-lean, persecute ; CTumdYi-vmth, run speedily ; heo-sgar, divorce ; min-phronn, puZuen'se. 

Verbs with Prepositions. 
Eadar-dhealaich, separate; as-tharruing, extract; roimh-orduich,/ore-07dajn. 

Substantives ivith Prepositions. 
Eadar-sgaradh, separation; timchioll-ghearradli, circumcision ; fo-bhuille, an under-stroke. 

Adverbs with Substantives. 
Ro-dhuine, an excellent man; ro-fheum, much need; mach-bhailtean, suburbs. 


Syntax is the right arrangement of the words of a language into sentences or phrases. Its parts are two, 
viz. Concord, and Government or Regimen. 

Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in Gender, Number, Case, or Person. 

The article is placed immediately before its substantive, 
and agrees with it in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Am bord. 
A bhean. 
An fhoid. 
Na sluic. 

The table. 
The woman. 
The turf. 
The pits. 

Sometimes an adjective comes between the article and its 
noun ; as, 

Is tu an droch leanabh. 
Is e am fior laoch. 

Duine saibhir. 

Bean ghasd. 

Tighean mora. 

A rich man. 
A chaste wife. 
Large houses. 


The possessive pronouns mo (ray), do (thy), a (his), precede 
the substantive, and throw it into the aspirated form ; as. 

Thou art a bad child. 
He is a real hero. 


An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, num- 
ber, and case ; as. 

Mo dhorn. 

Do chas. 

A chlaidheamh. 

My fist. 
Thy foot. 
His sword. 

The substantive most commonly precedes its adjective ; 

Lann geur. 
Duine she. 

A sharp blade. 
A wise man. 



Some monosyllabic adjectives precede their substantives, 
and then the substantives assume the aspirated form ; as, 

Droch dhuine. 
Garbh chuan. 

A bad man. 
A young ivife. 
A rough sea. 


If is be the verb of a sentence, the adjective comes before 
the noun ; as, 

Is domhainn do ) I ^. ..; j 

, , J y-, > Veep IS tlty wound. 

clireuchd. — pss. J | i j 


Two or more substantives in apposition, or signifying the 
same thing, ought to agree in case ; as, 

*Oscar 'mac ''Oisein 
■"mhic ''Fhionnghail 
mhic Chumhail. 

Oscar the son of Ossian, 
the son of Fingal, the 
son of Cumhal. 

Numerals precede their nouns; as, 

Tri lathan. I Three days. 

Seach fir. | Seven men. 

Such instances as the following are excepted : 

Righ Seoras a ceithir. | King George the Fourth. 

Righ Uilliam a h-aon. 

King William the First. 


When the possessive pronoun a (her) precedes a substan- 
tive beginning with a vowel, h- is inserted between them ; as, 
A h-aire. I Her attentio7i. 

A h-oillt. I Her terror. 


When the possessive pronouns ar (our), hliur or ur (your), 

precede a noun beginning with a vowel, n- is inserted 
between them; as, 

Bliur n-althrichean. | Your fathers. 

Possessive pronouns are of the same number with their 
antecedents ; as, 

Aig a dhorus. | At his door. 

Folt a cinn. | The hair of her head. 


If a sentence or a clause be an antecedent, the pronoun 
is put in the 3d singular masculine ; as, 

Though I was tired, I felt 
it not. 

Ged bha mi sgith, cha 
d' aithnich mi orm e. 

The nominative is commonly placed after the verb; as. 

Tha iad. 
Theasd iad. 
Ghabh e. 

They are. 
They died. 
He took. 


The nominative to the verb is often understood with tht 
poets ; as. 

Ghabh [e] tiiiiiidh. 
Bhuail [e] craobh Loduinn. 

He dwelt. — Oss. Lod. 
He struck the tree of Lodtn. 
— Oss. Lod. 

The relative pronouns a, nach, na, come before the verb ; 

An oigh a sheinn. 
Cridhe nach bris. 
Gleidh na fhuair thu. 

The maid who sang. 

A heart that zvill not break. 

Keep what you got. 


GovEiiNMEJJT is that power which one part of speech has over anotlur, in determining its Form, Mood, Tense, 
or Case. 


RULE 1. 

One substantive governs anotlier in the genitive when 
it signifies a different thing ; as. 

Inneal ciùil. 
Lòd dhaoine. 

An instrument of music. 
A crowd of men. 


If a second genitive follows, the former substantive is go- 
verned in the nominative ; as. 

Tigh year na bainnse. 
Ainm 7nuc an Righ. 

Tiie bridegroom's house. 
The name of the king's son. 


When a svibstantive governs another definitely 
genitive, the article is placed before the latter only ; 

Tigh an Righ. 
Solus na gieine. 
Airde nam beann. 

The king's house. 
The light of the sun. 
The height of the hills. 


A noun governed without the article is commonlv in the 
aspirated form ; as, 

Claidlicamii Shuniais. I James's su'ord. 

Tigii Dhonihnuill. | Donald's house. 



.'Vdjectivcs of plenty, fulness, satiety, govern tiic genitive, 
and are followed by the preposition dc, eitlier simple or 
rompoundtd ; as, 

Lan arljliair. 
Buidheach bidii. 
Sgith dheth. 

Full of corn. 
Filled witli food. 
Tired of him or it. 




Adjectives signifying merit or demerit, knowledge, re- 
membrance, and some other affections of the mind, are 
commonly followed by the preposition air, either simple or 
compounded ; as, 

Airidh air peanas. 
Eòlach air Seumas. 
Cuimhneachail orm. 
Deidheil air fion. 

Worthy of punishment . 
Acquainted with James. 
Mindful of me. 
'Fond oficine. 


Adjectives signifying likeness or unlikeness, compassion 
or friendship, generally require the preposition ri, either 
simple or compounded ; as. 

Cosmhal ri d' athair. 
Trucanta rithe. 
Cairdeil ris. 

Lihe your father. 
Compassionate to her. 
Friendly to him. 


Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, nearness,* and 
relationship, commonly require the preposition do, either 
simple or compounded ; as, 

Maith do gach neach. I Good to all. 

Feumail dhuit. | Useful to thee. 

Fagus do Lunnumn. 
Cairdeach dhomh. 

Near to London. 
Related to me. 


Adjectives followed by a noun of measure take the prepo- 
sition air ; as. 

Seachd troidhean air airde. 
Tri mile air fad. 
Da shlat air leud. 

Seven feet high. 
Three miles long. 
Two yards in breadth. 


The comparative degree,t when preceded by ni 's, requires 
the particle jia; as, 

Ni 's luaithe na 'gbaoth. 
Ni 's milse na mil. 
Ni 's fhearr na 'n t-or. 

Swifter than the wind. 
Sweeter than honey. 
Better than gold. 

RULE vn. 

Superlatives require the preposition do or dhe, either 
simple or compounded ; as, 

An te 's grinn dhiubh uile. j The f nest woman of them all. 
Am fear is airde do 'n triùir. | The tallest man of the three. 



An active verb governs its object in the nominative case, 
vhich is sometimes put after the verb, and sometimes before 
t ; as, 

Buail an sgiath. 
Caomhain do sholus. 
Mo lann do neach cha i 


Strike the shield. — Oss. 
Spare thy light. — Id. 
My sword to none shall 
yield. — Id. 


Some active verbs require between them and their objects 
a preposition, either simple or compounded ; as. 

Leig leis. 

larr air. 

Labhair ri Seumas. 

Let him alone. 
Desire him. 
Speak to James. 

Verbs in the passive voice have after their nominative 
the preposition le, simple or compounded, expressive of the 
agent or the instrument, either expressed or understood ; 

Leònadh e le claidheamh. 
Mharbhadh e leatsa. 

He or it was wounded with 

a sword. 
He or it was slain by thee. 


Verbs used impersonally commonly require after them 

the preposition le, compounded with a personal pronoun, 
either expressed or understood ; as, 

Direar (leinn) an tulach. I iVe ascended the hill. 

Seallar(leinn)mu'ncuairt. | We looked around. 


Bu, was, aspirates the word which follows it ; as, 

Bu chruaidh do chàs. I Hard was the case. 

B' fhuar do chridhe. , Cold was thy heart. 

Bu mhise a rinn e. | It was I who did it. 


The dentals d and t are sometimes aspirated, and some- 
times not ; as, 

Bu dorch a laithe. 

Bu thaitneach do shluagh 

a thir. 
Bu taitneach dha. 

Dark were his days. — 
Oss. Fing. 

Pleasant to his country- 
men. — Id. 

Pleasant to him was. — Id. 

The infinitive of active verbs governs the genitive ; as, 
A chosgadh feirg. | To appease wrath. 

A thogail creich. 

To gather booty. 

.adjectives of nearness have also the preposition air, either simple or compounded ; as, fagus orm, near nie. 
t There is a form of comparison, already mentioned, among the Gael, which has sometimes the meaning of a substantive, and some- 
tmies of an adjective ; as, feairrd, meisd, moid, bighuid, giorraid, leoithid. Is feairrd mi so, I am the litter for this ; a dol am feairrd, 
growing better, literally, advancing in betterness. The rest are construed after the same manner. 





Participles of the present time govern the genitive ; as, 

Ag iarruidh comhrai;;. 
A siubhal an fhruoicli. 
Ag ath-cheaniiuchadh ) 
na h-ainisir Ji 

Wishinrj for battle. — Oss. 
Traversing the heath, — Id. 

Redeeming the time. — Stew. 


Participles of the past time are followed by the preposi- 
tion le, signifying the agent or the instrument, either simple 
or compounded ; as, 

Buailte le claidheamh. I Struck with a sword. 

Lconta le Seumas. | Wounded by James. 



Ro, glc, as also Jior, sàr, used adverbially, aspirate the 
noun to which they are prefixed ; as, 

Gle ghrinn. 

Very good. 
An excellent man. 
Fine enough. 
Truly handsome. 


The negative cha aspirates the following verb, if it begins 
with a labial or a palatal ; as, 

Cha mhair e. 
Cha chluinn mi. 

He, or it will not last. 
I shall not Itear. 

Cha phòs iad. 
Cha ghuil i. 

They xvill not marry. 
She will not weep. 

Cha sometimes aspirates a dental, and sometimes not; as. 

Cha dean e feum, 
Cha sir mi ni. 
Cha tuit iad. 

It will do no good. 
I will seek nothing. 
They shall not Jail. 

Cha inserts n before a vowel or f aspirated ; as, 
Cha n-ann leis fein 
Cha n-fhiach e. 

leis fein 1 
.—Oss. j 

The hero was not alone. 
It is of no value. 
The negative ni inserts h before an initial vowel ; as, 
Ni h-eadh. I Not so. 

Ni h-e. He is not. 



The prepositions, aig, air, an, &c. govern the dative, and 
sometimes the nominative, and are always placed before ; 

Aig a chluais. 

Tonn air tràigh. 


Air clann nan seòd. 

At his ear. 

A wave on the shore. — Oss. 

In his sight. — Id. 

On the sons of the brave.--Id. 

Air sometimes governs the dative in the aspirated form; 


. ,, •, , . I ( On the tops of the waves. — 

Au' bharraibli nan tonn. -i /^ ' '' 

I I Oss. 


The preposition gun governs the aspirated nominative 
and dative, but oftener the dative ; as, 

Gun chcann. 
Gun chloinn. 

Without head. 
Without children. 


The prepositions gu, or gus, and mar govern a definite 
noun in the nominative ; as, 

Gus an solus. I To the light. 

Mar a chraobh. | Like the tree. 


But if the article be not prefixed to a noun, gu or gus 
commonly governs the dative, and mar either the nomina- 
tive or dative ; as, 

Gu cr'icii na cniinne. I To the world's end. 

Mar sholus corr. | As a bright light. 


The prepositions de, do,fo, orfuidh, fa, gun, mar, 7nu, 
0, tre, or troimh, are commonly followed by an aspirated 
nominative ; as, 

Do dhuine. 

Fo bhròn. 

Gun mheirg. 

Mar thonn. 

Mu chcann na h-oigh. 

Troimh ciuuadal. 

To a man. 

Under grief. 

Without rest. 

As a wave. 

About the jnaiden's head. 

Through hardship. 


Eadar governs sometimes the nominative in the simple 
and sometimes in the aspirated form; as, 

Eadar talamh is athar. 
Eadar bheag is mhòr. 

Betwixt earth and air. 
Both great and small. 

Compound prepositions govern the genitive ; as, 

Throughout the land. 

Air feadh na tiro. 

Air deircadh na feachd. 

A dh' ionnsuidh na h-aimhne. 

In the rear of the army. 
Towards the river. 


Some interjections are followed by the preposition do, 
either simple or compounded ; as. 

Is an-aoibliinn duit. | Woe tinto thee. 

Mu nnirc ! is followed by the preposition air, either 
simple or compounded, expressed or understood ; as. 
Mo naire ! [ort] I Shame I [upon thee] 

Mo naire ! [oirbh] | Shatne ! [upon ijou] 


Mo thruaighe is often followed by the nominative case ; 


Mo thruaighe mi ! 
Mo thruaijrhe e ! 

Woe's me! 
Woe be to him ! 



The conjunctions ayus, as, or is, and 7io or na, couple 
like cases and moods; as, 

i Sweeping turf and stones. — 
I Ullin. 

i He shall not enjoy peace nor 
\ comfort. 
He shall come, or shall not. 

A sguabadh chlod 's chlach. 

Cha mheal e sith no solas. 
Thig no cha tig e. 


Co, or cho, as, may have after it an adjective in the as- 
pirate or initial form ; as, 

Cho or CO chninteach ) • , , , 
„, • . , > ris a bhas. 

Cho cninteach 3 

Cho jrlan ) ■ 

„, "1 1 > ris an or. 

Cho ghlan j 

As sure as death. 
As bright as gold. 


Mur, gnr, and gu, gum, or gun, precede the interrogative 
mood ; as, 

If he shall not come. 
That we are. 

Mur tige. 
Gu bheil sinn. 
Gum faic sinn. 
Gun toir e. 

That we shall see. 
That he will give. 


Nam or nan, has after it the preterite substantive ; as, 

Nam faighinn. I If I got. 

Nantuitinn. | If I fell. 

Ged may precede any mood except the future indicative. 


The great excellence of any language consists in the power which its sounds possess, of communicating certain im- 
pressions or meanings. 

The Gaelic, being a branch of the primeval tongue, has this quality in a far superior degree to any language, the 
structure of which is concocted or complex. It is a language of nature ; and its sounds may be truly said to be echoes 
to the sense. Hence arises its success in descriptive poetry, and in all its addresses to the passions. When the nature 
of the object described is harsh and hard, sounds of a similar kind are employed, which impel their meaning to the mind, 
by noisy, hard-sounding consonants : whereas, in subjects of tenderness, solemnity, or of mournful interest, scarcely is any 
sound perceived, but the music of mellow vowels and diphthongs. 

Mr. Shaw, to whose ill-requited labour the Gaelic owes a great deal, observes correctly, that the combinations ai, ei, 
are cheerful and soft; and ao, solemn. He might have added that oi, ao, aoi, are significant of softness and affection, and 
«!, ua, uai, of sadness. Among the consonants, II is soft and mild; so is the gentle aspiration mh, as in caomh, mild; 
seimh, quiet; cr, dr, and tr, are hard, loud, and violent. 


The Gaelic Bards had peculiar facilities in composing ; as they were not restrained by any fixed law of verse. .\ 
termination of lines by similar letters was never deemed requisite ; for, if the closing syllable, or the penult of corresponding 
lines, were somewhat similar in sound, it was reckoned sufficient for the purposes of rhyme, and was all that they usuailv 
aimed at. 

The folloioing Verses exemplify this Remark. 

Thug an deise do Ainnir gaol, 

Ach air GoU bha 'gorm-shùil chaoin, 

B' e cilis a h-aisling anns an oidhche, 

'S cùis a caoidh mu 'n chaochan choiUteach. — 

Cha b' ionnan is Garna na gruamaich, 

Mar lasair 's an tòit ag a cuartach.' — Oss. Cathluno. 

Another method of rhyme consisted in a conformity of sound between the last word, or part of the last word, of a 
foregoing verse, and some word, or part of a word, about the middle of the following. 

Ciod am fa bhi 'g udal cuain, 

Is eilean J'uar na geotha crom, 

A sgaoileadh a sgiath na'r coinneamh. 

Gu 'r dion o dhoinionn na h-oidhche. — Ullin, 

Mar dha bheum sleibh o 'n fhireach 
Le cheile a sireadh gu gleanntai. - Oss. 


Sometimes there is a conformity of sound between the last word of a forcijoing verse, and a word in the beginning of 
the following. 

Cha do thuit e gun chliù san ùraich, 

Bu yhàìihaidh le moran 'imeachd ; 

Mar thorunn ro' choillte, no mar dhealan, 

'G a. f alack an deigh an leir-sgrios. — Ardar. 

In some stanzas of four lines, there is sometimes observed a double conformity; that is, in the concluding words of 
each couplet, and in other words throughout the preceding line of every couplet. This kind of verse possesses great 

Sheid gaoth dhileas air beaxn 

'S cha b' FiiANN air buillean 'g a cògiAnadh ; 

Sinn a bualadh mhuUach nan tonn, 

'Sgach soNN is a sluul ri comhimg.— Ullin. 


The poetry of the ancient Gael, as it has come down to us, resembles that of the present day, in its setting every law 
of scanning at defiance. Ossian, and the poets of his time, adapted their compositions to the song; in other words, they 
set them to music : and there seem to be but two suppositions on which we can account for the irregularity of their verses. 
Either the music itself must have been very anomalous, or, the strains having been forgotten, and thus the guides to 
uniformity lost, the poems must have suffered from the liberties which had been taken with them, by the rehearsers of 
succeeding ages. I am inclined to think, however, that tlie music was simple and uniform, and that the poetry was 
correctly adapted thereto. However irregular the music may be imagined to have been ; as the bards must have 
accurately set their verses to it, there would be observable in their poems a regular recurrence of similar irregularities. 
This is not the case. The anomaly of their verses must, therefore, be owing to the reciting Bards, who, in some parts, 
suffered words and turns of expression to fall into oblivion through their indolence ; and introduced, in others, expressions 
which their own conceit informed them were superior to the original ; for there never yet was a poet so transcendently 
good, that a worse did not suppose himself in many respects better. 

Add to this, that the language was pronounced differently in different districts, and at different periods of time ; yet 
in these abused fragments of ancient poetry — these remains of Ossian's ruins, we have numberless displays of the might 
and magnificence of his genius. 

Notwithstanding the freedon\s which have been taken with the works of the Fingalian poet, they afford numberless 
examples of correct and measured rhymes; and this circumstance affords a strong presumption that the rhyme, or at least 
the measure of the poetry, was uniform and regular throughout. 

The verses of the Fingalian poets seldom exceed eight syllables ; and most frequently the second foot and the third 
are dactyles, with a short syllable at the beginning of the verse, and a long syllable, or a trochee at the end. 

T/ie Pleasure. 

Tha I 'Ceumannii | flàthàil air | lorn, 

Nur I thog lad ri | lighaTdh niin | tom ; 

Is I b' eagal dT | sealladh an | righ 

A I dh' fhag t am | Atha nam | frith. — Tcmora. 


Cuir I OscaTr ciiir | mise san | uaigh. 

Cha I glieill mT an | cruas do | threun 

'S mi 'n I tòiseàch na | strlghe fo | chruaidh, 

Gabh ( còlìis nam | biiàdh uìim | fèin. — Fimjal. 

The ancient poems published by Dr. Smith of Campbelton, are still more irregular in their measure than those 
collected by Macpherson ; it being seldom that the same measure applies to four successive lines. They cannot be 
scanned, therefore, by any set of rules I can devise. In one of these poems, entitled Conn, there is preserved a wild 
effusion — an incantation of the Scandinavian priests. It consists of five stanzas of lour lines each. The last line of each 
.staff has six syllables, consisting of a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee; the rest four, consisting of a trociice and a 


The Measure. 

" I " " I ' ' I fourth line. 

« » » 

Cheo na | Lanna 

Aom nan | cara ; 

'S buair an | codal, 

Chruth I Lodda nan | leir-chreach. 

Sgap do I dhealan ; 

Luaisg an | talamh ; 

Buail an | anara ; 

'S na I maireadh ni | beo dhiubh. 

The modern Gaelic poems are more regular and measured, as they are almost all composed to some known air. 

Iambics of four feet. 

O cair I ibh mi | ri taobh | nan allt, 

A shiubh I las shuas | le ceum | aibh ciùin ; 

Fo sgàil I a bharr | aich leig- | mo cheann, 

'S bi thus, I a ghrian | ro chàird | eil rium. — The Bard's Wish. 

Macintyre, our Burns, an uninstructed shepherd, and a man of extraordinary talents for poetry, wrote pieces which 
may stand comparison with the pastoral and descriptive poetry of any land or age. As the structure of some of them is 
peculiar, a view of their measure may not here be unacceptable, or misplaced. His best poems are Coire Ckeathaich, Bcinii 
Dobhrain, and Mairi Bhùn hg. The first of these is divided into strophes of eight verses each; but they might have been 
more judiciously arranged in stanzas of four lines. The measure repeats at every second line. There is, moreover, in 
every first line, a conformity of sound between the first syllable of the second and third foot ; and in the second line, 
between the first syllable of the second, and the middle of the third, foot. This poem may be scanned by an ampliybracli 
and trochee alternately on the first line ; the second line is the same, excepting that it terminates witii a long syllable. 

'S a' mhàdàinn | chiitin gheal, | ann am dhomh [ rffisgadh 

Alg bun na | sttiice | b' e 'n siii^radh | leam ; 

A chearc le | sgeScan | a gabhall | ^McAàin, 

'San coileach | cuirteil | ag rfiirdail | trom. 

An dreathan | siirdàil, | 's a rlbhid | chiUil aige 

A cur nan | smuid dheth | gu Ziithàr | binn 

An triiid sam | bri« dhearg | le mòràn | iinaich 

Re ceileir | si/nntach | bii shjfibhlàch | rann. 

Or, thus: 

Three first, | - - - | - - 
Last, - - - I - 

'Sa mhadainn | chiuin gheal 
Ann am dhomh | dùsgadh, 
Aig bun na | stùice, 

B' e 'n sùgradh | leam ; 
A chearc le | sgiùcan, 
A gabhail | tùchain 
'S an coileach | cùirteil 

A diirdail I trom, &c. 

Beinn Dobhrain is similar in measure to a much older poem, entitled, Moladh Mhhruig. It contains three distinct 
measures : first, the urlar ; secondly, siubhal, quicker than the zirlar ; and thirdly, crùn-luath, the most rapid of the three. 
These terms are taken from corresponding strains in piobaireachd. The first stanza, nrlar, consists of spondees and dartvles. 



B' 1 sin I a mliaois | leuch Uuiineach 

Feadh | oganan ; 

Bioliiichean | nam bruach 

'S aite I còmhnuidh dlu 

DuiUeàgàii | nan craobh, 

Criomagan | a gaoil. 

Cliu b' e 'm I fotaras. 

A h-algn | e eu | trom suiirc ; 

Gu À0 I bhach ait | gun ghruaim 

A ceann | bu bhrais | e ghuan | aiche, ^ 


A chre | bu chean | alt stuaim. 

Chalaich | I gu | buan ; 

Aim gleann | a bharr | iiich uaine. 

Bu I nosalre. 

The Second Part, or Siubhal, 

May be scanned thus ; the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines, a short syllable, a dactyle, apyrrhic; tor the 
second, fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee. 

'S Ì 'n I eilTd bheag | bhinneach, 
Bu I ghunaiche | sraònadh, 
Le I cuinnean geiir | biorach, 
Ag I sireadh na | gaoithe ; 
Gii I g-iisganach | speireach, 
Feadh | cbrèachàn na | beinne, 
Le I eagiil ro | theine, 
Cha I teirTnn i | aonath. 

The Third Part, or Crun-litath, 

Consists of a short syllable, a dactyle repeated, for the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines ; and for the second, 
fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a spondee, or a trochee. 

Cha I b' aithne dhomh | co | leiinadh T, 

Do I fliearei nil | roinn Eorpa; 

Miir I faiccadh e | deiigh | ghean orra, 

'S tighinn | fariisdii | na | c5-dhail ; 

Gu I faiteiich bhith | 'n a | li-earalas, 

Tighinn | 'm fliigse dh' T | ni' an | carraich T, 

Gu I fiiicealach | gle | earalach, 

Mu 'm I fairich T | na | coir e. 

The beautiful love song, entitled, Marai hhàn bg, so often imitated, but never equalled, may be scanned thus ; a short 
syllable, three trochees, and a pyrrhic, for the first line ; and, for the second, a short syllable, a trochee, a dactyle, and a 
long svllablc. 

Do I chuach-flialt | ban air | fas chu | barrail ; 
'.Sa I bhi\rr Ian | chamag is | dhual ; 
T' aghaidh ghlan | mhalta, | nàrach, | bhanail : 
Do I dh;\ chaol- | mhala gun | ghruaim. 
Si'iil ghorm, | liontach, | mhin-rosg | mheallach, 
Oun dith I cur fal' ann | do ghruaidh ; 
Dciid gheal | iobhrai | dhionach | dhaingean, 
IScul I billi nach | Ciiiiadh acii | stuaim. 

I shall conelude this exemplification of Gaelic verse with one of those famous songs of intilenienl to battle, called,] 
Drosnacluidh cutha. These songs were not all precisely in the same measure ; but they were all quick, rapid, and ani-1 
mating, descriptive of hurried movements, activity, and exertion. The whole song measures like the first staff. 


À mhac I ain cherinn, 
Nan cur j san strann. 
Ard leum | nach righ | nan sleagh, 

Lamh threun | 's gach cas, 

Cridhe ard | gun sgath. 

Ceann airm | nan roinn geur goirt ; 

Gearr sios gu bàs. 

Gun bharc-sheol ban, 

Bhi snamh mu dhiibh Innistore. 

Mar thairnich bhaoil, 

Do bhuiir a laoich, 

Do shùil mar chaoir ad cheann ; 

Mar charaig chruinu, 
Do chridhe gun roinn, 
Mar lasan oidhche do lann. 

Cum fuar do sgiath. 
Is craobh-bhuidh nial, chith o reul a bhàis. 

A mhacain cheann, 
Nan cùrsan strann, 
Sgrios naimhde sios gu làr. 





• Boxhorn's Lexicon of Old British Words. 

- Carricthura. 

- Chronicles. 

- - - - Colossians. 

- - - Comala, one of Ossian's Poems. 

- - - - Daniel. 

- Dermid, one of Ossian's Poems. 

- Deuteronomy. 

- - - - Ecclesiastes. 

- Ephesians. 
Mag. - - Etvmologicon Magnum. 

- - - Exodus. 

- - - - Ezekiel. 

- Finan and Lorma, one of Ossian's Poems. 

- Fingal. 

- Stewart's Gaelic Bible. 

- M'Intosh's Gaelic Proverbs. 

- Genesis. 

- Galatians. 

- Hosea. 

- Isaiah. 

- Jeremiah. 

- Leviticus. 

- Mac Codrum. 
Macdonald's Gaelic Vocabulary. 

jyr ^ _ y Macdonald, the Author of Alt an t-siucair, 

'l &c. 

JEol. - - - - .ailolic dialect of the Greek. 

Alb. - - - - Albanian. 

Anglo-Sax. - - Anglo-Saxon. 

Arab. - - - Arabic. 

Arm. - - - Armoric dialect of the Celtic. 

Armen. - - - Armenian. 

Alt. - - - - Attic dialect of the Greek. 

Basq. and Bisc. Biscayan dialect of the Celtic. 

Boh. - . - . Bohemian dialect of the Sclavonic. 

Braz. - - - Brazilian. 

Calm. Tart. - - Calmuc Tartar. 

Carinth. - - Carinthian dialect of the Sclavonic. 

Cam. - - - Carniolese dialect of the Sclavonic. 

Chald. ... Chaldaic. 

Chin. - - - Chinese. 

Cimb. - . - Cimbric. 

Copt. - . - Coptic, or old Egyptian. 

Corn. - - - Cornish. 

Cro. - - - - Croatian dialect of the Sclavonic. 

Dal. - - - . Dalmatian dialect of the Sclavonic. 

Dan. - - - - Danish. 

Dor. - - - - Doric dialect of the Greek. 

Du. - - - - Dutch. 

Ethiop. - - - Ethiopic. 

Macfar. - - 

ISIacfar. Vac. 

Macint. - 

Mac K. - - 

Mac Lach. - 

Mai. - - - 

Matt. - - 

Mic. - - - 

N. T. - - 

Nah. - - 

Obad. - - 

Oiiiam. - 

Orr. - - - 

O.T. - - 

Ps. - - 

Q. B. ref. 

R. - - 
R. S. 

Sm. - - 
Statist. Ace. 

Truth. - 
Ull. - - 

Fr. . 
Gr. - 
Heb. - 
Ion. - 
Ir. - 
Isl. - 
It. - 
Jap. - 
Lat. - 
Lus. - 
Mai. - 
Mol. - 
3Ior. - 
Nor. - 
Pah. - 
Peg. - 

Macfarlane's Collection of Gaelic Poems. 

Macfarlane's Gaelic Vocabulary. 

Macintyre, the Poet. 

MacKav, a Gaelic Poet. 

Mr. Mac Lachlan, of Aberdeen. 




New Testament. 




Oigh nam mòr-shùl, one of Ossian's Poems 

Orrau, a Fingalian Bard. 

■ Old Testament. 

■ Psalms. 

( References to the Edinburgh Quarto Edi 
j lion of the Gaelic Bible. 

- Ross, the Poet. 
John Roy Stewart. 

Smith's Metrical Version of the Psalms. 
Sinclair's Statistical Accounts. 

• Stewart's Gaelic Bible. 

- Temora. 

• Trathal. 

• Turner's Collection of Gaelic Songs. 

- UUin, a Fingalian Bard. 

- Zechariah. 


Ionic dialect of the Greek. 
Irish dialect of the Celtic. 
Islandic dialect of the Teutonic. 

Lusatian dialect of the Sclavonic. 
Madagascar, a language spoken in. 

The language of the Molucca isles. 
Manks dialect of the Celtic. 
Moravian dialect of the Sclavonic. 




- . 


Phaen. - 

. - 


Pol. - - 

- - 

Polish dialect of the Sclavonic. 


- - 



- - 

Prussian dialect of the Sclavonit 

Pun. - - 

- - 


Run. - - 

- - 



- - 

Russian dialect of the Sclavonic 

Sain. - 

- - 


Sax. - - 

- - 


Sclav. - 

- - 


a. - - 

. . 

Adjective noun. 

adv. - - 

. - 


aff. - - 

- - 


art. - - 

- - 


com. - - 

- - 

Comparative degree. 

camp, and compd. 


conj. - - 

- - 





d. or dat. 

- - 

Dative case. 

dim. - 

- - 


fern. - - 

- - 


fut. - - 

- - 


g. or gen. 

- - 

Genitive case. 

id. - - 

. . 


Ì. e. - - 

- - 

Id est. 

imp. - - 

- - 



- - 



- - 



- - 



- - 


m. - - 

- - 

Masculine gender. 

n. - - 

- - 

Nominative case. 

Sco. - 


Stir. . 


Stir. - 





Van. ■ 




Stirian dialect of the Sclavonic. 








Welch dialect of the Celtic. 

neg. - - - - Negative. 

p. ... - Passive voice. 

pi. - . - - Plural. 

poss. - - - - Possessive. 

prep. . - - - Preposition. 

pret. - - - - Preterite. 

priv. - - - - Privative. 

pron. - - - - Pronoun. 

^ i Marginal References in Stewart's Gaelic 

''^J- - - - -\ Bible. 

rel. - - - - Relative. 

s.f.- - - - Substantive feminine. 

s. m. - - - - Substantive masculine. 

sing. - - - - Singular number. 

sub. - - - - Subjunctive mood. 

V. a. - - - - Vevh active. 

V. irr. - - - Verb irrregular. 

V. n. - - - - Verb neuter. 

t Obsolete. 

- - - - - Grave accent. 

Acute accent. 

' Apostrophe. 




A, a. (ailm, the elm.) The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
It has three sounds : (1.) both long and short. Long, like 
a in bar, car ; as àl, brood, àr, slaughter. Short, like a in 
fat, cat; as fait, hair, cas, foot. (2.) Both long and short, 
when immediately preceding dh, and gh ; in which state it 
has no corresponding sound in English. Long, as adhradh, 
worship; &g\\mhor, fortunate. Short, as lagh, fa:;; ; tagh, 
choose; adharc, horn. (3.) Short and obscure, like e in 
hinder; as an, am, a, the; ma, nam, nan, if; and the 
plural terminations a, or an, as laghanna, la-a-s, beanntan, 
mountains. In the interrogative pronouns an and am, a is 
scarcely ever pronounced. 

A, article. The. Used before words beginning with aspiration; 
as, a chraobh, the tree ; a bheinn, the hill, or mountain. 

A, rel. pron. Who, which, whom, what, that. An duine a 
bhuail mi, the man whom I struck ; mar aisling cliaoin a 
chaidh seach, like a pleasant dream that has passed. — Ull. 
B'esau a rinn so, it was he who did this. 

A, pus. pron. His, her, hers, its. Caireadh gach aon air a 
leis a lann, let evcri/ one gird his sword on his thigh. — Ull. 
Grad theichidh a geillt 's a brnadar, speedili/ her terror and 
her dream shall vanish. — Oss. Taiira. Where the succeed- 
ing word begins with a vowel, this pronoun is ellipsed ; as, 
thuit e bharr' each, he fell from his horse : in speaking of a 
female, however, the pronoun is used, and, to prevent an 
hiatus, h, with a hyphen (h-), precedes the noun ; as, thuit 
i bharr a h-each, she fell from her horse ; but the pronoun is 
omitted if the preceding word end with a vowel ; as, a dùs- 
gadh le h-osnaich, awakening -with her sobs. — Oss. Taura. 
Si/r. ha, ah. Heb. a. Chald. eh. Jrab. ha. I'crs. on. 
Gr. ÒV. Tr. a. Manx. e. Corn, e, i. 

A', (fur ag), the sign of the present participle. If the parti- 
ciple begin with a vowel, ag, or 'g, is most frequently used, 
and a', if it begin with a consonant. A gaol 'g a caoidh 
is ise ag acain, her beloxed deploring her, and she wailing 
bitterly. — Oss. Taura. Le h-osnaich o cadal a dùsgadh, 
with her own sobs awakening from her sleep. — Id. Ta h-anam 
ag imeachd gu neoil, her spirit is travelling to its clouds. — Id. 
It may be said, that in general this particle is used, though 
with infinitely more elegance and propriety, in the same 
sense as the English use a, when they say, he is a walking, 
he is a fishing, tha e ag imeachd, tha e ag iasgachadh. 

A, the sign of the infinitive, To. 

A, the sign of the vocative. O. {Corn, a.) Caomhain do 
sholus, a ghrian, spare thy light, sun. — Oss. Trathal. 
A Sheallama, theach mo ghaoil ! Selma, thou home of mi/ 
heart ! — Oss. Gaul, 

A, (for ann), prep. In, into, within, on. Ciod chuir sin a 
dcheann, what put that into your head? A d'chridhe, in 
your heart. 

A, sometimes a sign of the preterite tense. Nuair a thuirt e 
rium, when he said to me. — Sm. 

A, obj. pron. Him, her, it. Cha n'urrainn iad a thogail 
no'fhagaii, they could neither lift nor leave him. Oss. Derm. 
Theab iad a marbhadh, they had almost killed her. 

A, pers. pron. [for e.] Him, he, it. A is never written for e, 
but, in many districts of the Highlands, e, he or him, is 
pronounced a ; as, Bhuail iad a, they struck him ; ihainig 
a, he came. 

A, prep, and used before a consonant. Out, out of, from ; 
also in, Na h-earb a foirneart, trust not in oppression. 
Stew. 0. T., a so, from this time. Arm., a so. 

A is often used before many adverbs, prepositions, and conjunc- 
tions, and some numerals : a bharr, besides, a blios, here, un this 
side, a choirilicli, Jur ever. A cbeana, already; a clK^ile, each 
other, a cbianamlij a little ago. A cheann, because; a cblisgeadh, 
in a start, soon. A chum, in order to; a dhà, two; a dbà dheue;, 
twelve. A ghiiath, always; a h-aon, one; a h-aon deug, eleven ; 
a hitha 's adh'oidliche, day and night; a lalhair, present. A leth- 
taobti, aside; a niach, out; a nihain, only; a rauigh, without ; 
a nail, hither; a nios, up. A nis, a nise, now; a nuas, doicn 
hither; a null, a nuiui, thither, across; a reir, according to. 
A ris, again. A sios, downwards ; a suas, upziards. 

f A, s. A chariot, car, waggon. — Glossary of Colum Cille. 

t A, s. An ascent, hdl, promontory. 

t Ab, negative particle ; as ablach, i. e. ab-laoch, a brat. 

Ab, g. aba, s.f. An ape ; a spell, anciently any little crea- 
ture. Dan. abe. Du. aap. Swed. apa. ÌV. epa. Sclav. 
apinia. Finland, apini, an ape. 

t Ab, aba, s. m. A father, a lord, an abbot; n. ;;/. aban, 
or abaunan, abbots. Hcb. ab, or abh. Chald. ab. Turk. aba. 
Greek, a.^va. Dor. D. aw^o!. Lat. abbas. Span. abad. 
Calmuc Tartars, abagài. Hung. apa. Grisons, bab. Syra- 
cusan and Dithyniqn, pappas. Syr. abba. W. abad. Arm. 
and Corn, abatfe, abad. //. papa. Hottentots, bo. Antilles, 
baba. Herodotus tells us, that the Scythians called father 
Jove papeeus ; a modern author says that the Scythian tcrni 
for father was pappas. 



t Ab, aba, s. m. Water. Fers. ab, rker. Turk, ab, Mogul, 
ab, river. Hcb. saab, carry water ; from sa, carry, and ab, 
mattr. Ethiop. abbi, -uflic. ^raen. ahp, puot. Vers, ab, 
ap, av, water. Jap. abi, aa«// with uatir. 

Tliis word is found in Martin's description of tlie Hebrides, and 
in Irvine's nomenclature on tlie word Avus, wliicli is tlie name ot 
a lake and river in Argyllshire (Awe) ; so Ab-us is a name given 
to the llumber. Wjttleet, in bis Supplement to Ptolemy's (.eo- 
graphy, calls the place where Columbus first landed in America, 
Cuanabi, or Guaiiahani. Both these words have the same sii^nili- 
cation, meaning a bay, harbour, or sea of water. Cuanh a harbour, 
and nb is water, and i seems to be an Indian termination, (juana- 
hani: Guan is the same as cunrn g and c, being palatals, are easily 
changed the one into the other, and uii [see an] or iian is water : 
the t^as in the former instance, is an Indian adjection. 
Aba, gen. sing, of ab ; of an ape ; of an abbot. 
Aba, s. m. A cause, attair, matter, circumstance, business. 

Syr. and Chald. aba. 
Ab.\b ! interj. Tush ! fie ! oh ! for shame ! nonsense ! pshaw ! 
t Abac, aic, s. m. See Abhag. 

t Abach, aich, s. m. Entrails of a beast; pluck ; also pro- 
clamation. /;■. abhach. 
Abaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A ripening, the circumstance of 

ripening ; a growing to maturity. 
Abachadh (ag), pr. part, of abaich. Ripening. Tha 'n 

t-arbhar ag abachadh, the corn is ripening. 
fABACUD, i./. Exploits; gain, lucre. 
Abach D, *•. /'. Ripeness, maturity. CoH^r. for abaicheachd, 
the regularly formed, though not used, derivative, of abaich. 
t Abact, s. /'. Irony, jesting.— G/osiwr^/ of Culum Cillc. Now 

written ab/iac/nl. 
t Abadh, aidh, s. m. A lampoon, a satirical poem; n. pi. 

Abaich, a. Ripe, mature, at full growth ; ready, prepared, 
expert. Cum. and sup. abaiche, more or most ripe. Ir. 
abaidh. Manx, appee. li'. adhved. 
Abaich, r. Ripen ; bring or grow to maturity. Pret. ii. ah' 
abaich, ripened; fut. ajf. a. abaichidh, shall or uill ripen; 
fut. pass, abaichear, shall be ripened. 
Abaichead, eid, s. m. and/. Ripeness, maturity ; increase 
in ripeness, advancement in ripeness. Air abaichcad 's gum 
bi e, huiceier ripe it shall be. Tha e dol an abaichcad, 
it is growing mure and more ripe. 
Abaichear, fut. pa.u. of abaich ; shall be ripened. 
Abaichidh, fut. aff. a. of abaich ; shall or will ripen. 
Abaid, aide, s. f {i. e. ab-aite, the place of an abbot), an 
abbey; also an abbot. I'crs. abad, a bimth; plur. abadan. 
Dan. abbedie. Spun, abbadia. JV. /;/. abaide, or abaidean, 
abbri/s. Lios an abaid, the abbot's court. Arm. les an abad. 
Abaide, gen. sing, of abaid. 
Abaideachd, «./. (from abaid), an abbacy. 
Abaidh, gen. sing, of abadh. 
•)■ Abaidh, s. f. A bud, blossom. Hcb. and Chald. abi, 

green fruits. 
t Abail, s. f. Death. /Irab. Hebil. 

Abailt, .?./. An abbey; more frecjuently abaid ; which sec. 
t Abailt, s.f. Death. Arab. Hebil. 

Abaiii, v. irr. Say, speak, utter, pronounce. Prct. a. thu- 
bliairt, s-d\<i; Jut. aj/. a. tlieir, shall or will say ; fut. neg. 
dubliairt. Abair ri, ris, riu, say to her, him, them ; na 
h-abair sin, or, na abair sin, do nut say that. IV. ebru. 
//■. abair. Eng. jabber. Du. jabberen. Ilrb. dabar. 
ABAinEAM./n-.v/ sing, impcr. a. of abair. Let nic say, speak, 

utter, or pronounce. 
Aba I KEA R, fut. atid impcr. pass. Shall be said, let be said ; 
abairear c, let it be said. It is often contracted abrar.— 
Stew. Luke, ri/. 

A B H 

Abairt, i.y. (yrom abair.) Education; politeness, breeding; 
• speech, articulation. Ir. abairt. 

t Abairt, s.f. Custom, use, habit, usage. See Abhairt. 
Abait, aite, s.f. (ab-aite). An abbey, 
t Abaoi, s.f. Sunset, descent. Engi eve. 
t Abar, air, s. m. Speech. 

Abar, air, J. ?«. A marsh, bog, fen ; marshy ground. Arab. 
ybr, margin of a riier, and abar, wells, lieb. by met. 
baar. Ir. abar. 
Abaracii, a. {from abar.) Fenny, boggy, marshy; of or 
pertaining to a marsh ; likewise of or pertaininjj,' to Loch- 
aber; a Lochaber-man ; also bold, daring. Gu haghmhov 
abarach, in a brave and bold manner. — Old Song. Com. 
and sup. abaraiche, bolder, boldest. 
Abaraciid, s. f. Marshiness, bogginess. 
Abardair, s. m. (from abair.) A dictionary. 
Abardaiuiche, s. m. (from abardair.) A lexicographer. 
AiiARTACH, a. (^from abair.) Bold, daring, forward, impu- 
dent, talkative. Cum. and sup. abartaiclie, more or must bold. 
Abartachd, s. f (from abair.) A mode of speech; an 

idiom ; talkativeness. 
AnARTAiR (//-om abair), s. A dictionary. 
Abautairiciie, s. »i. (y}-om abartair.) A lexicographer. 
Aber, i. m. (Corn. aber. Hcb. habar, to join together; 
haber, a companion ; heber, a junction ; Chald. Syr. Ethiop. 
habar, to unite.) A place where two or more streams 
meet, a confluence, a conflux, as Aberfeldy ; a place where 
a river falls into the sea, as Aberdeen, in Scotland ; 
Aberistwyth, in Cardiganshire. " Sen mari," says Box- 
horn, " sen duo fluvii junctis aqnis consociantur, locus in 
quo fit ha'c conjunclio Britannicè vocatur aber." The place 
where a river falls into the sea, or where two rivers join, 
is, in the old British tongue, called aber. Boxhorn seems 
to think that aber is a Phenician word. In some districts 
of the Highlands, as Breadalbane and Strathtay, this word 
is improperly pronounced obair. 
Abu, i. m. A landing net; a sack net; an instrument, 
t Abh, s. m. Water. Tonq. hài, sea. Shans. ab, and aw, 
water. Arab, ahha, pool. Pers. awe. Or. jEol. à(p-ci. 
Lat. a-qua. Dan. aae. W. aw. Fr. eau. Cothic, a. 
Isl. aa. Low Germ. aa. Swed. a, a rixer. Old Sax. 
a, ea, eha. See also An. 

Abh, in its original acceptation, is a Jluid, and from this root 
are derived all words that nnply fluidity, or the action m motion 
of fluids, as well as many words which imply motion. Hence also 
aninis, a river, and ahhuinn, a river; properly abti-an, the flowing 
element. See also unili. 
Abiiac, aic, (more properly abhag.) A terrier ; a dwarf, a 
sprite; also, in derision, a petulant person. N. pi. abhaic, 
or abhacan. 
Abii-ciùil, s f A musical instrument. 
Abhacan, n. pi. of abhac. Terriers. 

AniiACA9,'«. m. and /! Diversion, sport, ridicule, merriment; 
boisterous day. Ball abhacais, a laughing stock. — Stew. Jer. 
Vc'M na h-abliacais, a merry fellow, a man for merriment. 
I .'VuiiACn, a. .Joyful, glad, humorous; sportful, merry. 
Cump. and sup. abhaiche, more or most joyful ; now written 
aobhach; which see. 
.ABHAICHE, com. and sup. of abhach, more or most joyful. 
AniiACiiD, s.f. (from abhach.) .loy, humour, hilarity ; gibe; 
irony; jesting'; also capability. Ri h-abhachd, merry 
making. — Macint. A togail abhaehd, raising joy. — Old 
Abhachdacii, a. Humorous, merry, joyous, joyful ; jolly, 
corpulent; inclineU to gibe, jesting, or raillery. Gu \i-a.h- 
\r.ichdi\c\i,joyfuily. — Macint. Com. and sup. abhachdaiche, 
more or most humorous. 

A B H 

A B L 

Abhachdaiche, s. m. {from abhach.) An humorous person; 
one who is fond of jesting or raillery, a railer. 

Abhachdaiche, com. and sup. of abhachdach. More or 
most humorous, joyful or jocose. 

Abh ACHDAii., a. [frain abhach.) Joyful, humorous, jocose. 
Tlie terminations ail and f;7 of adjectives are butsmoothings 
and contractions of amhuil, like; abhachdail, therefore, is 
abhaclid-amhuil. The case is the same in English : as, 
gentlemanly, i. e. gentlemanlike; cowardly, cowardlike. 

Abhachdas, ais, s. m. ( /row abhach.) Merriment, ridicule, 
sport ; clamorous joy. 

Abhadh, aidh, .s. m. An instrument; abhadh-ciùil, a musical 
instrument. — Stew. Eccles. 

Abhadh, aidh, i. m. A landing-net, a sack-net; a fold; 
a hollow. 

Abhadh, aidh, 4. OT. A flying camp. 

AnHAiiH-citJiL, «.m. A musical instrument. — -Steto. Ecc. 

Abhac, aig, s. »!. A terrier; a contemptuous name for a 
petulant person ; rarely a dwarf; a spectre. An abhag 
bh' aig Fionn, tlie terrier which Fin gal had. — Fingalian 
Puem. Neas-abhaig, a ferret. Heb. abhak, dust. 

Abhagach, a. {Jrom abhag.) Like a terrier ; of or relating 
to a terrier; petulant, snappish, waspish. 

ABitAGAiL, i.e. abhag-amhuil, a. {from abhag.) Like a 
terrier; waspish, snappish. 

Abuagan, 71. pi. of abhag. Terriers. 

ABHAG.4.S, ais, *. m. A report, a rumour, a surmise. 

Abhaic, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhac. 

Abhaig, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhag. 

Abhail, gen. sing, of abhal. 

t Abhail, s. m. Death. //•. Disc. Hivil. 

Abiiaill, gen. sing, of abh;dl. 

Abhaixn, {i. e. ahh-an, the Jloiiiiig element; see abh and an), 
s. f. gen. abhann, or aibhne. A river, a stream. Bruach 
na haibhne, the bank uf the river ; n. pi. aibhnean and 
aibhnichean, ruithidii na h-aibhnean, the rivers flow. — Stew. 
Pro. Written also anihainn and abhuinn. Lat. amnis. 
W. afon, or avon. English, f afene. Sued, aen, o)- an. 
Arm. afou. Ir. abhan. Corn. auan. JSIanx. aon. Germ. am. 
One may venture to assert that all over the globe, more especially 
in Europe and Asia, the names of rivere eiuiintr in an, ane, en, 
eine, ein, in, on, onne, &c. are derived from the old Celtic root, 
an, signifying an element, water; seeoji. Tlie Seine is a contraction 
of seimli-an, the smooth mater ; and a more descriptive name of that 
majestic river could not he given. Rhen-us, the Rltiiie, is reidh- 
an, the placid tcater ; a name which well accords with the general 
appearance of that river. Garumn-us, Garonne, is garbh-an, the 
rough zcater. RIarne, inarbhan, the dead water. So also l*ad-an-us, 
the Pu ; and the Asiatic rivers, Arn-on, Jord-an, (jib-on, Jih-on, 
&c. I have been agreeably surprised to find that in some of these 
remarks I had been anticipated by a few learned and ingenious 

-Abhail XKACH, (7. (/;om abhainn.) Fluvial; abounding in 
rivers ; of, or pertaining to, a river. 

AsHAia, gen. sing, of abhar. 

+ Abhais, *.y". A bird. Jrm. afais. Laf. avis. 

Abhaist, aiste, .5. /". (ffei. davash.) Custom, habit, usage, 
manner, consuetude ; also adjectively, usual, wont. A 
leanachd an abhaist a b' aoibhinn, following the habits that 
once were pleasant. — Ois. Gaul. Cha b' e sud abhaist 
Theadhaich, that was not the manner or custmn of Tedaco. — 
01.1 Legend. Tha.thusa an sin, a chnoc an easain, ann ad 
sheasamh mara b' abhaist, hillock of the dark torrent, thou 
art there standing as usual.— Macint. N. pi. abhaiste and 

Abhaisteach, a. {from abhaist) Customary, usual, ha- 
bitual, adhering to custom; according to use, custom, or 
habit. Comp. and sup. zhhaASUche, more or woit custnman/. 

Abhaistiche, camp, and sup. of abhaisteach. I\Iore or most 

Abhal, ail, s. in. n. pi. abhlan. An apple; an apple-tree. 

Abhal fiadhain, a crab-apple ; cranti abhail, an apple-tree. 

— .Stew. G. B. Ruaidhe nan abhal, the ruddiness of apples. 

— Old Song. jr. aval. Dnn. aeble. Ir. abhail. Arm. 

afall and aval. Corn, aval and avel. Obi Germ, effel. 

Mod. Crenn. apfcl. Lith. apfal. Old Pruss. wabelko. 

and Procopius, in Chcrson Taur. apel. Servia, iablo. 

Turk, and Hung, alma, by transposition for amal. The 

right orthography of this word is abhail, being derived 

from the pure Celtic term ball, any round body : in Stiria 

and Carinthia they say iablan ; in Bohemia, gabion ; Isl. 

eple ; Runic, eple ; Little Tartar)/, apel. 
Abhal ghort, or, abhall-ghort, gen. abhall-ghoir, s. ?;i. 

An orchard. Sometimes written all-ghart. Dan. aeble- 

gaart. IF. afallach. Ir. abhal-ghort. 
Abh ALL, aill, s. m. An apple; an apple-tree. Ar n' abhail 's 

ar ùbhlan, our apple-trees and apples. — Old Song. Written 

also ahhal. 
Abhall-ghout ACH, (7. .\bounding in orchards; of or 

pertaining to an orchard. 
A BnÀN, adv. Down, downwards. See Bhàn. 
Abhar, air, s. m. A reason, cause, motive. Chald. abhor; 

more frequently written aobhar, which see; n. pi. àbhair 

and àbharan. 
t Abharach, aicb, 5. m. A youth under age, who acts as 

a man. Gr. ùB^à, a delicate female. 
Abhlaix, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhlan, which see. 
t Abhl.ìbiira, a. Dumb, mute, speechless. 
Abhlan, n. pi. of abhal and abhail. 
Abhlan, ain, s. m. {Dan. ablad. Ir. abhlan.) A wafer; 

a round cake ; whatever is taken with bread in the way of 

sauce, or condiment, vulgarly called kitchen. — Shaw. 

A bhlas mar abhlain, its taste like wafers. — Stew. Exod. 

N. pi. abhlain and abhlana. Abhlan, signifying kitchen, is 

more frequently written and pronounced annlan, which 

see. Abhlan coisrichte, a holij wafer. 
Abh LAN ACH, a. Like a wafer, wafery. 
Abhlan-coisrigte, s. m. A holy wafer,such as is used by 

the Roman Catholics in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 
Abh-mhathaiu, mhathar, s.f A mother abbess. 
t Abiira, a. Dark. — Shaw\ 
Abiira, abhradh, *. tn. The eye-brow. Cr. c(p^i;. Jrm. 

abrant. Jr. abhra. 
Abììrais, gen. sing, of abhras. 
t Abhran, ain, *. ?«. A song. — Shaw. 
Abhran, s. pi. Eye-lids. Jl'. amrant. Corn, abrans. 
Abhras, ais, s. m. Yarn; flax and wool, stuff for spinning; 

also a ready answer. Ag abhras, spinning. Ir. abhras. 
ABHRASACH,a. (y>oOT abhras.) Of or belonging to yarn, 
t Abiisan, ain, .9. ?n. A hollow; a furrow. 
Abhuinn, aibhne, i.y. A river. See Abhainn. 
Abhuinneach, a. (from abhuinn.) See Abhainneach. 
Abhuist, s.f. See Abhaist. 

i Abhus, uis, s. m. Any wild beast; also a stall for cattle. 
Ablach, aich, s. tn. A mangled carcass ; carrion; the re- 
mains of a creature destroyed by any ravenous beast ; a 

term of personal contempt, a brat. Ablach gun deo, a 

breathless carcass. N. pi. ablaich anr/ ablaichean. In the 

sense of a brat, ablach ought perhaps to be written ablaoch. 
Ablaich, g-cw. and roc. sing, and n. /)/. of ablach. Ablaich 

tha thu ann ! i/ou brat, that you are ! 
.•\blaichean, Ti. /)/. of ablach. Carcases. 
AiiLAOCH, laoich, s. m. (ab neg. and laoch.) A brat; a 

pithless person. .Vblaoich tha thu ann ! You brat, that you art! 

A C A 

A C D 

Ablaoicii, gen. sing, of ablaoch. 

t Abrad, a. Exalted; far removed. /?;ni. brat, sovereign. 

Aeram. Contracted for abaiream, which see. 

t Abrann, s. m. Bad news. 

t Abrann, a. Lustful, lecherous, lascivious. 

Abraom, aoin, s. m. April. Ir. abran. 

Abrau, for abairear, y^i^ and iinper. pass, ofabair. Shall 

or will be spoken. 
Abstoil, gen. sing, of abstal. 

Abstol, oil, s. m. An apostle. Gr. avaaroX-o'^. Lut. apostol- 
us. Ir. absdol. Tr. t apostre. Arm. apstol. Corn. 
abestel. The letter of the apostle, litir an abstoil ; the 
htteri of the apostles, litrichean nan abstol. N. pi. abstoil 
and abstolan. 
Abstolacii, (7. (yi-om abstol.) Apostolical; of or belonging 

to an apostle. 
Abstolaciid, s./. (/ro/n abstol) Apostleship. Gràs agus 

abstolachd, grace and apostleship. — Stew. Rom. 
Ar.u ! iiitcrj. The war cry of the aiicient Irish 
Abuciiadii, aidh, s. m. The process of ripening, the circum- 
stance of ripening, a ripening, progress toward maturity. 
Written also aiachadh. 
ABUCitADii, (ag) pr. part, of abuich. Ripening, mellow- 
ing, maturating. 
Abuich, t. Ripen, mellow, maturate. P;-f^. o. dh' abuich, 
ripened ; fut. aff. a. abuichidh, shall or will ripen; fut. 
pass, abuichear, shall or will be ripened. 
Abuich, a. Ripe, mellow, mature. M' arbhar abuich, mi/ 

ripe corn. — Stew. 0. T. Ir. abuidh and abuigh. 
Abuichead, cid, i. Ripeness, advancement in ripeness. 
Tha 'n t-arbhar dol an abuichead, the corn is grouing riper. 
Anvicuv-AR, fut. pass, of abuich. Shall or will be ripened. 
ABUiCHEAS,y"H<. sub. a. of abuich. Used with the conjunc- 
tion ma, if, nur, when ; ma dh' abuicheas e, if it shall ripen. 
t Abulta, a. Strong, able, capable. Gaisgich abulia, 

able u-arriors. — Old Poem. Ir. abulta. 
t AiiULTACHD, *.y. (/ro7H abulta.) Strength, ability, capa- 
bility. Abultachd ur feachd, the strength of your army. — 
Old Poem, 
i Ac, aca, s. m. A denial, a refusal ; also a son. Hence, 

mac, a son. 
+ Ac, aca, s. m. Speech ; tongue. 

Aca and ac', comp. pron. (Corn, aga, theirs.) Of them, with 
them, on their side, at them, on them, in their possession; 
also their. Tha mòran ac' ag radh, many of them say. — 
Smith. Tha e aca na sheiiblieiseach, he is with them as a 
servant ; aca sud, in the posstsiii^n of those people. — Smith. 
An tigh aca, their house ; i. e. an tigli ih' aca, literally, the 
limise uhich is to them ; chaidh ac' air, they conquered him ; 
theid ac' orm, they shall cuncjucr, or get the better of, w/e. 
■f AcADAMH, daimh, s. m. (ac, speech, and + damh, learning.) 
An academy. Or. aKaJu/iia. academia. Ir. aca- 
AcAiD, s.f (Ir. aicid.) Pain ; hurt ; a transient lancinating 
pain. Is trom an acaid tha 'ni lot, intense is the pain in my 
utiund. — Macint. 
AcAiDEACH, a. (yror?( acaid.) Painful, uneasy ; also groan- 
ing. Comp. and sup. acaidiche, more or most painful. 
"1 AcAiDEADH, idh, s. m. An inhabitant, tenant. 
Acaidiche, comp. and sup. of acaideach. JMore or most 

AcAiN, *./. (perhaps ath-chaoin.) 11'. a9wyn and oqain. 
A moan, a sob, plaintive voice; wailing, weeping, nuirmur; 
rarely a tool, tackle, furniture. Acaiii 'g a taomadh an 
conihnuidh, his plaint ixe voice pouring forth incessantly. — 
Oss. Fin. and Lor. Acain air acain, moan vpun moan. — 

• Oss. Dargo. When acain is preceded by 'g or ag, it is, as 

are most substantives in a similar situation, rendered as the 

present participle. Crathaidh e a cheann 's e 'g acain, 

he shall shake his head, moaning ; literally, and he moaning. 
AcAiNEACH, a. (from acain.) if. a^wynawl, a. Plaintive; 

distressful; causing sorrow or wailing; sobbing. Guth 

acaineach, a sobbing voice ; comp. ^nà sup. acainiche, more 

or most plaintive. 
AcAiNEAR, ir,i. m. (acain, oHrf fear.) A complainer, mourner, 

weeper, wailer; one who ails. ÌV. aqwynwr. 
Acainiche, s. m. (from acain.) A wailer, a mourner, 

a sobber, weeper, complainer. 
Acainiche, comp. and sup. of acaineach. More or most 

AcAiR, s.f. A ship's anchor; n. pi. acraichean, anchors; 

acair an anama, the anchor of the soul. — Stew. Heb. Ceithir 

acraichean, _/òi(r anchors. — Stew. Acts. Ir. accair. 
AcAiu, s.f. An acre of ground; n. pi. acraichean, acres. 

Pers. akar. Gr. ay^o;. Lat. ager. Maeso-Goth. akrs. 

hi. aknr, akker, and akkeri. Swedo-Golh. aker and akrs. 

Swed. acker. Dan. ager. Anglo-Sax. acere. /;•. acra. 

Arm. acre. Germ, aknr, akare, aclire, acker. High 

Germ, acker. Low Germ, akker. Heb. ickar, a ploughman. 

Syr. akoro. Arab, akkoro. This is one of the few words 

which have come down to us from the original language of 

AcAiR-PHOLL, phuiU, s. m. (acair and poll.) An anchorage, 

a harbour, a road for ships ; n. pi. acair-phuill. Ir. id. 
AcAiiiSEiD, (from acair,) s.f. A port, harbour, haven; 

anchorage; a road for ships ; n. ^/. acairseidean, ^ariour*. 

Ir. id. 
t AcAis, t.f. Poison. Ir. id. 
t AcALLA, s. Conversation. 
AcANAicii, s.f. (from acain.) Wailing, moaning, sobbing, 

weeping; grief. ladsan a b' aille m' acanaich, they who 

would desire to partake of my grief. — Old Song. 
t AcAR, a. (Lat. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour, bitter. 
AcARACH, a. Gentle, obliging, mild, moderate, kind, com- 
passionate, merciful ; respectful. Comp. and sup. acaraiche. 
AcARACHD, s. f (from acarach.) Gentleness, kindness, 

mildness, moderateness, compassionateness, mercifulness ; 

respectfulness. Gun acarachd, without mercy. — Smith. 

Ghlac e sinn le h-acaraclid, he grasped us four hands) with 

kindness. — Old Seng. 
■\ AcARADH, aidh, i. ?n. Profit; the loan of anything; 

usury. See Ocar. 
Acaraiche, comp. and sup. of acarach. More or most 

gentle, kind, respectful, mild, or compassionate, 
t AcARAN, ain, s. w. Lumber, 
t AcARTHA, a. See Acarach. 
AcASA, acasan. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. aca, 

which see. 
AcASDAiR, s. m. An axle tree. K. pi. acasdairean. Ir. 

Acasdairean, n. pi. of acasdair. 

Acastair,.?. 7n. An axle-tree. K. pi. acastairean, aiVc-^rfM. 
AcASTAiREAN, n. pi. of acastair. 
.'Vcastarain, gen. sing, of acastaran. 
+ Acastaran, ain, s. m. An axle-tree. N. pi. acastarain, 

or acastarana. 
AcDUiNN, s. f. Tools, instrument, utensil, tackle, tackling; 

furniture; equipage, harness; also a salve. — Macjar. 

Acduinn gunna, the lock if a gvn ; acduinn cich, horse 

harness; written also acfuinn, ucfhuinn, and achduinn ; 

ti. pi. acduinnean. 
Acduinn EACH, a. Of or pertaining to tools, tackiine, 

harness; equipped, harnessed; expert, able, sufficient, 

A C H 

A C R 

active. Com. and sup. acduiniclie, written also acfuinneach, 
acflniinneach, and achduinneach. 
AcDUiXNE AN, n. pi. of acdiiinn. 
AcDUiNNiciiE, comp. and sup. of acduinneach. 
AcFuiN.N, s.y". Tools; instrument, utensil, tackling-, tackle, 
harness, equipage, furniture ; also a salve. — Macfar. Ac- 
fuinn gunna, l/ie lock nf a gun; acfuinn is inneal ciilil, 
instruments of death. — Smith. Acfuinn sgriobhaidh, uriliiig 
utensils. — Steiv. Ezek. Acfuinn na hiinge, t/ie tackling of a 
ship. — Steic. Acts. 2V. pi. acfuinnean ; written also 
acduinn, acjltuinn, and achduinn. 

Acfuinneach, a. (from acfuinn.) Of or pertaining- to tools, 
tackling, harness, or furniture ; equipped, harnessed ; 
expert, able, sufficient, active. Comji. and sup. acfuinniche, 
more or most expert. Ir. acfuinneach. 

Acfuinnean, n. pi. of acfuinn. 

AcFHUiNN, s.f. See Acfuinn or Acduinn. 

AcFHuiNNEACii, (7. {from acfhuinn.) See Acduinneach, 
or Acfuinneach. 

AcFHUiNNEAX, n. pi. of acfhuiuu. See Acduinn, or 

AcH, conj. {Goth. ak. Ir. ach. Lat. ac. Germ, auch.) But. 
except, besides. Cha do rinn neach ach tfiusa e, none but 
you did it ; ach co sud air a charraig mar cheò, hut who is 
yonder on the hill like a mist. — Oss. Dh' fhalbh iad uile 
ach h-aon, the>/ all departed but one ; ach beag, almost. 

Ach! ach! An interjection expressive of disgust. 

t Ach, acha, s.f. A skirmish. 

Ach, s. m. A field. See Aciiadii. 

t Acha, ai, s.y. A mound or bank. — Bisc. Acha, a rock. 

AcHADH, aidh, s. m. {Sax. haga. Scotch, haugh.) A field, a 
plain, a meadow ; a corn field. An t-achadh a cheannaich 
Abraham, the field that Abraham bought. — -Stexc. Gen. A 
ceangal sguab san achadh, binding sheaves in the corn field. 
— /(/. jN\ pi. achanna. 

AciiAiDH,^f/i. sing, of achadh. 

t AcHAiun, s. f. An abode, a home. This vocable is 
seldom or never used by itself ; but it is very common to 
say, dachaidh and dh'achaidh, home or homewards ; n. pi. 

AcHAiN, «.y. A prayer, entreaty, supplication ; a wailing 
voice ; petition. B' arahluidh sin achain nan slosh, 
such nere the prai/ers of the people. — Mac Lach. The 
proper orlhograjjhy of this word would seem to be ath- 
chuiiige, which see. 

AcHAiNEACH, fl. {froiu 'dchain.) Supplicatory; perhaps 
ath chuingeach. 

AcHAiNicuE, s. m. A petitioner; perhaps ath-chuingiche. 

+ Ac HAM AIR, a. Soon, timely, short, abridged; perhaps 

t AcHAM aireachd, S.f. Abridging, abridgment; per- 
haps ath-chuimireachd. 

t AcHAR, air, s. >n. A distance. 

t AcHARADH, aidh, s. m. A sprite; a diminutive person. 

Acii-BEAG, aA-. Almost, well nigh. Jr. acth beag. 

.4cHD, s.f. {Dan. act. Sued, ackt, purpose. Germ, echt, a 
iau.) An act, statute, decree ; deed; case; account; state, 
condition ; way, manner, method. Air an achd so, in this 
■way ; air aon achd, on am/ account, in any case. — Smith. 
Achd parlaraaid, an act of parliament. 

t Achd, s.f. A body ; peril ; a nail ; a claw. 

AciiDAiR, S.f. An acre. See Acair. 

AcHDAiR, s. /'. A ship's anchor; n. pi. achdraichean, 
ar n-achdair, ar siùil 's ar be airtean, our anchor, our 
sails, and tackling. — Macfar. Written also acair, which 

AcHDAiRPiioLL, phuiU, s. m. A Toàà for ships; written 

also acairpftoll. 
AcHDAiRSEiD, S.f. An aiichorage, a harbour, port; a road 

for ships. See Acairseid. 
t Achdra, ai, *.y. A naval expedition, 
t AciiDRAN, ain, s. m. An adventurer, a foreigner. Ir. id. 
t Aciidran.icii, aich, s. m. A foreigner, an adventurer. 
t Achdranach, 0. Foreign; adventurous. 
Achduinn, s. f. Instrument, tools, tackle, harness, 

equipage, furniture ; also a salve. Grinn achduinn na 

h-eachraidh, tiie beautiful harness of the stud. — Old Poem. 

iV. pi. achduinnean, written also acduinn and acfuinn. 
Achduinneach, a. Of or relating to tools, harness, or 

furniture ; also equipped ; expert, able, sufficient. Comp. 

and .sup. achduinniche. 
t .'Vchiar, a. {Ir. id. l,at. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour, 

t AcL.iDH, aidh, s. m. A fishery, 
■f AcL.iiDH, a. Smooth, fine, soft. 
AcHLAis, aise, .«./". The arm, armpit; bosom, breast. Lag 

na hachlais, the armpit. X. pi. achlaisean. Raimh ann 

achlaisean ard-thonn, oars in the bosoms of lofty surges. — 

Macfar. Ir. achlais. 
Acii'LAis, gen. sing, of achlas. 
AcHLAiSE, gc«. .sing, of achlais. 

AcHLAS, ais, s. f. A bundle ; a little truss ; also the arm- 
pit, the arm. 
t AcHMHAiNG, a. Powerful. 
AciiMHASAiN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of achmhasan. 
AcHMiiASAN, ain, s. m. ; achmhasain. {Corn, acheson, 

guilt.) A reproof, reprimand, scold, reproach. Thug 

athair achmhasan da, his father rebuked him. — Stew. Gen. 

Achmhasain teagaisg, the reproofs of instruction. — Stew. 

Pro. Fuath no eud no achmhasan, nor iiate, nor jealousy, 

nor reproach. — Old Pucm. 
AcH.MHASANACH, fi. Causing a rebuke; liable to rebuke; 

of or pertaining to a rebuke; prone to rebuke; repre- 

hensive. Comp. and sup. achmhasanaiche, more or most 

prone to rebuke. 
Achwhasanaich, v. Rebuke, reprove, chide, censure; 

pret. a. dh'achmhasanaich, rebuked ; fut. aff. a. achmha- 

sanaichidh, shall or Kill rebuke. 
Achmhasanaiche, s. m. One who rebukes or censures. 
Achmhasanaiche, comp. and sup. of achmhasanach. 
AcHMHASAXAiCHiDH, /u?. aff. a. of achmhasanaich. Shall 

or will rebuke, 
t AcHRAN, ain, s. m. Intricacy, entanglement, perplexity. 
+ AcHRANACii, ff. Intricate, entangled, perplexed. 
AcHUiNGE, 4. /". (/Ò;- ath-chuinge.) A supplication, prayer, 

petition, request. See Atii-chuinge. 
AciiuiNGE.icn, r/. {from achuinge.) Petitionary; prone to 

supplicate or pray ; of or pertaining to a petition or 

t AcoMAiL, I. Heap together ; increase; congregate, 
t AcoMAiL, s.f An assembly, a meeting, a gathering. 
t AcoN, ain. A refusal, denial, 
t AcoR, oir, s.f. Avarice, penury, covetousness; written 

now ocar. 
AcRACH, a. (?r. a^rev. Gr. ax-^o;, faint.) Hungry; also an 

hungry person. Ant-anam acrach, the hungry soul. — Steiv. 

Pro. ref Biadh do 'n acrach, yòo(/ to the hungry.-- Smith. 

Cump. and suji. acraiche, more or most hungry ; written also 

ocrach, which see. 
Acraiche, comp. and sup. of acrach. 
AcRAicHEAN, n. pi. of acair. See Acair., 

A D H 

A D H 

AcRAis, gen. sing, of acras. 

t AcRANN, ainn, s. in. A knot ; perplexity, entanglement. 

t AcRANNACH, 0. Knotty, knotted ; perplexed, entangled. 

AtRAS, ais, s. HI. {Gr. ax^aj-ia, /i linger ; and axfoi;, fuint. 
Jr. acras.) Hunger; famine. Tlia acras orm, I <iin /inngri/ ; 
tha mi air acras, / am hiingn/ ; bheil acras on, oirrc, air, 
oirbli, orra, art thou, is she, he, are you, they, hungry ! mar 
mhiol-clioin air acras, like hungry dugs. — Ruy Stczcart. 

AcsA, acsan ; emphatic form of uca, which see. 

iAcviL,s.f. An eagle. J,h/. aqiiil a. /c. aciiil. 

AcuiNX, s.f. A tool, tackle, tackling, equipment. See 


AcuiNNEACii, a. (from acuinn.) Provided with tools, 
tackling, harness; equipped, harnessed; of or pL-rtainiiig 
to a tool or harness. 
+ Ad, s. w. Water. /;•. id. 
Ad, aid, s.f. A hat. Ad a bhile oir, the gohl-laced hat.~ 

Macint. Bile na h-aid, the rim uf the hat. 
Ad, proiincialfor iad. 

Ad, a. prun. (for do.) Thy, thine. Ann ad ghialaibh, in thy 

jaws. — Steu\ Ezek. 'N a/1 chluais, in thine ear. — Oss. 


A' d', AD, {fur ann ad, or, ann do.) In thy, as a. Na bi 

a'd'uamhas domh, he nut a (as a) terror to me. — Steu\ Jer. 

t Ada, adai, «. /. Victory. 

Adag, aig, s. f. {Ir. adag.) A shock of com, consisting of 

twelve sheaves ; by the Lowlanders called stook ; also a 

haddock. adagan; an da chiiid nah-adagan agus an 

t-arbhar, loth the shocks anil the standing corn. — Siew. Judg. 

Adagacii, a. {from adag.) Abounding in shocks of corn; 

of or pertaining to a shock of corn. 
Adagachadh, aidh, s. in. The employment of making 

shocks of corn. Scotch, stooking. 
Adagaihadh, (ag), pr. part, of adagaich. Gathering corn 

into shocks. 
Adagaich, r. Gather corn into shocks. Prc<. a. dh'adagaich ; 
fut. off. a. adagaichidh, shall or will gather corn into shocks. 
Adagaichte, p. part, of adagaich. Gathered into shocks. 
Adagan, n. pi. of adag, which see. 
t Adamhair, «./. Play, sport, diversion. 
+ ADAMIIA1R, V. Play, divert, sport, 
t AoAMiiKADii, aidh, .V. m. {Lat. admiratio.) Admiration; 

+ Adii, adha, 5. w. A law. 

Adh, adha, s. m. Prosperity, good luck, happiness, joy; also 

an heifer ; a hind ; but in these two last senses it is oftener 

written agh, which see. Is mòr an adh, great is the joy. — 


t Adii Acii, a. {from adh.) Prosperous, lucky ; happy, joyful. 

Cunip. and Slip, adiiaiche, 7norc or must prusperuus. 
Adhacud, «./. Prosperousness, luckiness, happiness, joy- 
Adii AIL, gen. sing, of adhal. 
t AuiiAiLO, «./. Desire; will, inclination. 
Adiiainn, /;^c/i. sing, of adhann ; written more frequently 

aghann, which see. 
Ann A IRC, gen. sing, of adharc. 
Adii AiRCKACii, a. (from adharc.) Horned; having large 

horns. Bo adhairceach, a horned cow. Jr. adharcach., n. pi. of adharc. Horns. 
Adh AiiiCF.AN, ein, s. m. A lapwing; written also adharcnn. 
Adiiairt, gfji. of adhart. 
Adiiairt, i. Forwardness, front; van. /r. adhairt. See 

Adiiai, ail, s. m. A flesh-hook. — Shaw. 

Adhalacii, a. (/row adhal.) Like a flesh-hook ; of or per- 
taining to a flesh -hook, 
t Adhall, (7. Deaf; dull, stupid, senseless, 
t Adiiall, aill, i. m. Sin, corruption. /;•. id. 
\ Adhallacii, a. Sinful, corrupt, perverse. Comp. and 

sup. adhallaiche. 
t Adiialtan, ain, s. m. A simpleton; a dull stupid fellow. 
AniiALTRANACii, aich, s. m. An adulterer; n. pi. adhal- 

y\DH ALTRANACii, «. Adultcrous. Ginealach adhaltranach, 
an ailulteruus genet ution. — Steu\ ISJat. Lcanalih adlialtran- 
nach, an adulterous child; urr adhaltrannacli, an udul- 
tiriius chilli. 
Adiialtranachd, s.f. The practice of adultery. 
Admaltranaicii, gen. sing, of adhaltranach. 
.\diialtran'aiciiean, n. pi. of adhaltranach. Adulterers. 
Adii Ai.TRANAis, gen. sing, of adhaltranas. Fear adhal- 

tranais, an adulterer. 
Adhaltranas, ais, s. m. Adultery. A dianandi adhal- 
tranais, committing adultery. — Stew. Jer. Làn do adhal- 
Iranais, full of adultery. — Stew. O. T. 
Adiialtras, ais, s. tn. Adultery. Urr adhaltrais, an adul- 
terous child ; written also adhaltrus. 
Adiialtrasacii, fl. (y/-o?;( adhaltras.) Adulterous. 
Adiialtrasachd, s.f. The practice of adultery. 
Adhaltrus, uis, *. »;. Adultery. Luchd adhaltruis, <;(/«/- 

terers. — Stew. 0. T. 
Adiialtrusacii, a. Adulterous; guilty of adultery. 
Adhaltrusaciid, s.f. The practice of adultery. 
Adiiamii, s. m. Adam; J~roin adh, bless; and' literally 

meaning the blessed person. 
Adhann, gea. ; adhainn and aidhne, s.f. A pan ; a goblet ; 

more commonly aghann ; also coltsfoot. Jr. adhann. 
Adhanmta, rt. Kindled; exasperated, inflamed, 
t Adiianntacii, a. Bashful, modest. 
+ Adhanntachd, s.f. A blush; bashfulness. 
Adharadh, aidh, *-. w. andy. Worship, adoration; more 

frequently written auradh. 
Adhar, ^rn. adhair a/ir/ adheir, s. 7n. {Jleb. aver. ^yr. air. 
Gr. ajij. Croatian, aier. Dal. aor. Brazilian, arre. 
aer. Span. ayre. Jt. aria. Corn, and IV. awyr. Jr. acdhar.) 
The atmosphere, the air, firmament, sky, cloud. Tlia 'n 
f hardocii gun druim ach adhar, the dwelling has no roof 
but the ski/. — Oss. Gaul. Boisge teine o 'n adiiar bholg- 
dhubh, flashes uf Jlunie j rom the dark liellying cloud. Id. 
Adharach, a. {from adhar.) Aerial, atmospheric; airy; 

Adii A RAIL, a. (i. e. adhar-amhuil), from adhar. Aerial, 

atmospheric. 11'. awrawl. 
A I) II ARC, aire, i.y. A horn; a sounding horn. Bisc. aduna. 

Jr. adharc. 
Adharcach, a. Horny; also horned. 
Adiiarcan, ain, s. m. A lapwing. Adharcan luachrach, 

a lapwing. — Stew. Lev. 
Adiiarc-fiiùdair, i./. A powder-horn. 
Adharcan-luaciirach, .v. tn. A lapwing. — Stew. Lev. 
Adhart, airt, .V. )H. (//-.adhart.) Linen ; bed-linen; pillow; 
bolster. B'i m'adiiart a chreug, the rock was my pillow. — 
().v,s. Conn. 
A 11 II A Ri', airt, .?. m. Forwardness; seldom used but in 
Cdiniexiou witli tlie prep, air, as, ihig air d' adiiart, cum< 
/i>nvard,adiancc ; air d' aghart, come on, go un; tlia i teachd 
air a h-adhart, she is xery furward, she is coming on. 
Adiiartach, a. (/row adhart.) Like linen, of or belonging 
to linen. 

A G 

A G A 

Adhartach, (7. Forwards; having a wish or a tendency to 

be onwards or forwards ; progressive ; dihgent, assiduous. 
Adhartax, n. pi. of adhart. A pillow, a bolster; linens, 

bed linens, 
t Aduartar, air, s. m. A dreamer. 
+ Adiias, a. Good ; proper. 

Adii ASTAR, air, s. m. A halter ; properly aghasfar, which see. 
t Adhbha, ai. s. m. An instrument ; a musical instrument. 

See also Abhadh. 
t Adhbiiadh, aidh, s. m. A house, palace, garrison. 
+ Adiibiiaghan, ain, s. m. (dim. of adhbha.) A musical 

Adiibiiar,, air, «. w. Cause, reason. Air an adhbhar sin, 

fierefure. — Steiv. Gen. ref. Adhbhar mulaid, a cauae of 

grief. — yiacint. Written also aobhar. 
t Adhbharas, ais, s. m. Carded wool; also yarn. See 

t Adhbiiarsacii, aich, s. m. A comber or carder of wool. 
t Adhbhuidii, s.f. Joy, merriment. 
Adhlac, aic, .$. f. A burial, interment, funeral. Aitc- 

adhlaic, burying ground. 
Adiilacadii, aidh, s. m. The ceremony of interring. Aito 

adhlacaidh, a burning ground. Ir. adhlacadh. 
ADHLACAnn (ag), /j;-. part, of adhlaich. Burying, interring. 
Adhlacair, s. m. (adhlac-fhear.) A burier, an undertaker. 
Adhlaic, v. Bury, inter. M' anam adhlac' an scleò, to 

bury mi) spirit in the mist. — Oss Cart/ion. Pret. a. 

dh'adhlaic, buried ; fut. uff. a. adhlaicidh, shall or 'u:il/ 

bun/ ; p. part, adhlaicte, buried. 
t Adhl.uc, s.f. A longing desire for what is good. 
Adhlaicear,/ì//. pass, of adhlaic. Shall or will be buried. 
Adhlaicidh, fut. aff. a. of adhlaic. Sliall or will burv. 
Adhlaicte, p. part, of adhlaic. Buried, interred. /;■. 

t Adhlax, ain, s. m. A hero, champion. — Ir. 
Adhmhoire, cow;?, and sup. of adhmhor. 
Adhmhol, r. Praise, extol. P;f?. o. dh' adh-mhol, prawrf ; 

fut. aff. a. adhmholaidh, shall or will praise. 
Adh-mholadii, aidh, j. m. Praise. 
Adhmhor, a. (from adh.) Prosperous, fortunate, lucky, 

joyous, happy ; comp. and snp. adhmhoire. Ir. adhmhor. 
Adhsadh, aidh, «. OT. A kindling of fire. • 
Adh'or. See Adhmhor. 
Adhrach, a. (/;-om adhradh.) Devout, religious; written 

also aorach. 
Adhrachail, a. (i. e. adhrach-amhuil), from adhradh. 

Devotional. Dleasnasan adhrachail, deiotional duties. 
Adhradh, aidh, .v. tn. (Ir. adhradh. Dan. aere, honour.) 

Worship, adoration, devotion. Thoir adhradh, uorship ; 

bheir mi adhradh, / v:ill xcorship ; written also aoradh, 

which see. 
Adh-uamharra, a. Abominable. 

Adh-i'amharrachd, s. Abomination, abominableness., s.f. Felt, 
t Aduadh, aidh, *■. m. Horror, detestation, 
t Aduarra, a. (i. c. ad-uaraharra.) Horrid, detestable. 
Afraighe, s.f. A rising or preparing for battle.— /c. 
Ag, (perhaps another form of a;o:), ;)re;). At. It is the siirn 

of the present participle. Ag iarruidh, ag iass;achadh, 

ag acain, u-^king, /ishing, nailing ; literally at a^sking, at 

fishing, at -mailing. It is prefixed to words beginning witli 

a vowel, though sometimes it is seen before words begin- 

nmg with a consonant; as, agruidh a reis, running a race : 

ag dol a mach, going forth. — S/nitli. 

Ag, aig, s. m. (Sued, agg, grudge.) Doubt, scruple, hesita- 
tion, contradiction ; a hesitation, or lisp in speech. 

Ag, r. Doubt ; hesitate ; refuse, contradict. Pret. a. dh'ag, 
doubted ; fut. aff. a. agaidh, shall or ■will doubt. 

t Aga, s.f. The bottom of any depth. 

AGACH,a. Inclined to doubt or refuse; scrupulous; sceptical ; 
stammering, lisping. 

Ac. \v, comp. pron. (aig awrf tu.) At thee, on thee, with thee ; 
in thy possession, j-lgad is also used in the sense of 
a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigh agad, a bhean agad, thy 
house, thy xiife. This use of agad is not often met with in 
our classical writers ; but in conmion language it is very 
frequent. Tha, is or are, is understood, as, a bhean 
th'ag-ad, your -liife ; uxor quit est tiln. The same remark is 
applicable to all the pronouns compounded of aig, as, 
again, aige, aice, againn, agaibh, aca. 

Agadh, aidh, .s. m. Doubt, hesitation, contradiction. Gun 
agadh sam be, ■without any contradiction. — Stew. Heb. ref. 
Ir. agamh. 

Agadsa, agadse. Emphatic form of agad, which see. 

t Agag, aig, s.f. An habitation or settlement. 

Agaibh, comp. pron. made up of (h'^ and iiM. At you, on 
you, with you; in your possession; of you; from among 
you. Co agaibh do 'n iarrar i? nhom of you is she sought 
for! — Fingalian Poem. Chaidh agaibh ona, you got the 
better of them. It is also used as a possessive pronoun, 
your; as, an tigh agaibh, your house; in which sense it 
seems to be contracted for a th' agaibh ; as, an tigh th' 
agaibh, your house ; literally, the house which is to you ; 
which, though bad English, is as correct in Gaelic as 
it is in Latin. 

Agaibhse. Emphatic form of agaibh, which see. 

Agaidh, gen. sing, of agadh. 

Agaii.. (i.e. ag-arnhuil), a. Doubtful; injeopardy; scep- 
tical: suspicious; lisping. 

.Ag AiLEACHD,.s. /'. (from ag.) Doubtfulness, suspiciousness ; 
scepticism; a tendency to lisp, a habit of lisping. 

Agaixx, comp. pron. (Corn, agan, ours,) made up of aig and 
sinn. At us, of or from amongst us, with us, or in our 
possession. Gràs do gach aon againn, grace to every one 
of us. — Stew. Eph. It is also, like all the pronouns com- 
pounded of aig, used as a possessive pronoun, our ; as, an 
1 rodh againn, oi/r ((7^//? ; in whicli sense it is contracted 
fur a th' againn, which is or are to us. 

Agaixx-ne. Emphatic form of againn, which see. 

-\gair, r. Plead, plea, accuse, charge, lay to one's charge, 
crave; require, demand. Pret. a. dh' agair, pled ; /i//. 
a//', a. agairidh, or, agraidh. Cha d' agair mi cruaidh e, 
/ di<l not plead hard with him. — Old Song. Na agrar orra e, 
let it not be laid to their charge ; agraidh se, he will demand. 
— Stew. 2 L'hron. 

Ag.wkg, s.f. (agaricus.) A species of mushroom. — 

Agairidh, /i/<. aff. a. of agair. 

Agairt, .s. /". Pleading, plea, accusing; craving. Annan 
agairt a chùise, in the pleading of his cause. — Stew. Pro. 

AoAiT. *./. An agate,— .1/acrf. 

Agaiteach. a. Like an agate, of or pertaining to an agate, 
full of agates. 

Agall, ail, 5. »n. Speech; dialogue. Ir. 

Agall .*ch, a. Conversational ; of or pertaining to a 
speech or dialect. Com. and sup. agallaiche. 

Agam, coinp. pron. (Ir. agam), made up of aig and mi. At 
me, with me, on me, or in my possession. Cha 'n ei! mo 
ghunn agam, I have not my gun ; chaidh agam air, I got 
the better of him. — Smith. Asam, like all the pronouns 
compounded of aig, is used also as a possessive pronoun. 

A G H 

A I C 

mi/, mine; as, an claidheamh agara, m\/ suord ; which 
expression seems to bu a contraction of an claidheamh a 
th' agani, (gladius qui est niihi), the suord KÌiich is to me, 
consequently niy sxiord ; againn fhein, at or with oursehcs. 
Corn, agan honan. 

t Agan, a. Precious, dear. 

Ag ARACii, aich, s. m. {from agradh.) A claimer, a pretender. 
Ir. id. 

Ag ARACII, a. {from agradh.) Prone to plead, plea, or 
crave, or accuse; litigious; vindictive. Comp. and sup. 
agaraiche, more or iiwst prone to plea. 

-Agartacii, n. {from agairt.) Inclined to accuse, plead, or 
plea; accusatorv; litigious; quarrelsome. Cum. and sup. 
agartaiche. Ir. id. 

.•\gartaciid, s. y. (from agairt.) Quarrelsomeness; liti- 

Agartaiche, com. and sup. of agartach. More or most 

Agartas, ais, s. ni. A plea, a suit at law; prosecution, 
accusation. Agartas coguis, remorse; fein-agartas, self- 
reproaeh, compunction ; iiintinn saor o f hein-agartas, a mind 
free from self reproach. — Mucfur. Ir. id. 

Ac II, aighe, s. A heifer, ayoungcov/; a fawn; rarely an 
ox, bull, or cow. Agh thri bliadlina dh' aois, an heifer 
three i^eurs old. — Stetv. Gen. Reamhar mar agh, fit as a 
heifer. — Stexc. Jer. Air toir nan agha ciar, in pursuit of the 
duski/frwns. — Oss. Luaithre aighe, the ashes of an heifer. 
—S'teu: Ileb. 

Agii, aigh, s. ni. Joy, happiness ; success, prosperity ; 
also joyful, happy. Choinnich sinn Lochlinn 's cha b* 
agh dhuinn, xce met Locidin, and it was nut a gay meeting. — 
Ull. Bidh agh aig na naoimh, the huh/ shall have joi/. — Smith. 
A threin a b' fliearr agh, thou hero who excelledst in success. 
Old Song. Written also adh. 

Agh, aigh, s. m. Fear, astonishment, awe. Gr. ayr,, 

t Agh, aigh, s. m. Battle, conflict. 

Aghach, a. [from agh.) Warlike, brave, prosperous, suc- 
cessful, conquering; joyous, happy. Com. and sup. 
aghaiche, more or most warlike. 

AoiiAinii, .s. y. Face, visage, countenance ; brow; surface. 
Aghaidh ua talmhainn, the face uf the earth. — Stew. O. T. 
Tlioir aghaidh dha, oppose him ; gabh air d' aghaidh, pass 
on, go on. go forwards. — Stew. Pro. Cuir an aghaidh is 
flicarr dh' fheudas tu air, put the best face on it you can; 
an aghaidh, ///(• face, also against; cuir «n aghaidh, 
oppose, contradict, thwart ; cuir na aghaidh, oppose him, 
thwart him. — Stew. Evod. Cuir na haghaidh, oppose her ; 
cuir nan aghaidh, oppose them; as an aghaidh, outright. 

Aghaidh, (an), prep, governing the genitive. Against, in 
opposition. An aghaidh na gaoithe, against the wind ; an 
aghaidh mic an righ, against the lung's sun.— Stew. 1 Chron. 

.•\gii AiDiiuiiTr., a. {from aghaidh.) Opposed, opposing; 
fronting, facing ; confronted. 

Aghais,*./'. Ease, leisure. See 

Aghaiseach, (7. (from aghais.) Easy; slow; at leisure. 

t Aghanaich, s. m. An advocate, a pleader. 

Agiiart, airt,«.fn. (from aghaidh.) Advance; forwardness. 
Air d' aghairt is buail, forward anil strike. —Oss. Tan. 
Hach air d' aghairt, go on. 

A(;h AN.N,^'r«. aghainn, fl«(/ aighnc, s.f. A pan; a goblet. 

Aghastar, air, s. m. (aghaidh-stiùir.) A horse's halter. 

Aghmhou, and Agh'ok, a. (from agb.) Pleasant, joyful, 
prosperous, happy ; bold, brave, (iu li aguihor, abaiach, 
in a hold and braxe manner. — Old Song. Mun do bhoisg 

an solus gu agh 'or, ere the light shone Joyfully. — Os). 
Ir. aghmhar. 

Agrach, a. (from agradh.) Accusatory; pleading, craving; 
inclined to accuse, plead, or crave. 

Agradh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of agair, which see. 

Agradh, aidh, «. m. An accusation; craving, pleading. 

Agraidh, gc/i. sing, of agradh. 

Agraidii, (for agairidli),_/"«/. a/f. a. of agair, which see. 

Aqr.xr, fut. pass, of agair. Shall or will be accused. See 

t Agsal, a. Generous, noble. /;■. 

Agus, conj. (Dan. og. Corn. ag. Lat. ac.) And; as. 
Thusa agus mise, thou and 1 ; tha e ceart cho rahath agus 
a bha e, it is just as good as it was. The contracted form 
[is or 's] of agus is used both in prose, poetry, and com- 
mon language. See is, and 's. 

t Ai, .9. A controversy; a cause; a region, territory; in- 
heritance of land, possession. 

t Ai, s. A herd ; a sheep; a cow; also a swan. /;■. iil. 

t AiBii, s.f. Likeness, similitude, resemblance. /;•. id. 

.AiBHF, ! inferj. (Lat. ave. /c. aibhe.) Hail! all hail! 

AiBiiEis, s.f. The sea, ocean; a gulf; boasting; empti- 
ness. Ri aodann aibheis, on the surjace of the sea. — 
Macdon. Ir. id. 

AiBHEisEAR, ir, s. m. The adversary, the devil. 

AiEiiGHiTiR, s.f. Alphabet. Lat. abgetorium. 

AiBiiiDEACii, a. Great, monstrous, enormous. 

AiBiiiRSEAii, ir, .V. ?n. The devil. Ir. See Aibhistear. 

AiBiiiST, «. /". Huin, destruction; an old ruin. Ged tha e 
'n diugh na aibhist f huar, though it be to-day a cold ruin. — 
Oss. Conn. 

AiEHisTEACii, o. ( /"raw aibhist.) Full of ruins; like a ruin. 

Aibhistear, ir, ,?. ?«. The devil ; a destroyer. This is the 
old Celtic term for the devil. Diiibhol (whence Jl5(,')o^of, 
diabolus, diavolo, diable) is much more modern. It 
literally means, a man of ruin. «. 

AiBHisTEARACiiD, S.f. Demouism, the conduct of a devil, 
of a destroyer; destructiveness. 

AiBHLE, s.f. Fire, spark; more frequently written cihhlc. 
Jr. id. 

Aij'.iiLEAG,i.y. ( dim. q/"aibhle.) A burning coal; a little 
tire ; rarely a flake of snow. See Eibhleag. 

AiHHLiTiR, i.y. Alphabet. A^ ;</. aibhlitirean. 

AuiiiLiTiREACii, «. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibhlitireach, 
alphabetical order. 

AiiuiNE, gen. sing, of abhaiun, which see. 

AiHHNEACii, a. (from abhaiun.) Fluvial; abounding in 

AiiiHNicHEAN', n. jd. of abhaiun. Rivers, streams. Ri 
taobh nan aibhuichean, beside the streams. — Smith. 

Auui.ìE, s. m. A spectre; sprite; a diminutive creature. 
Ir. id. Ilcncc taibhse. 

AiBHSEACii, a. (from aibhsc.) Like a spectre or sprite; 

t AiRiD, .s. y Habit. Ir. id. La/, habit-us. 

Ai III DEAL, eil, s.f. Alphabet. iV. pt. aibidealan, alpliabits. 

Aiiiinr.AEACii, a. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibidealach, a//)/(a- 
bctical order. 

t Aic, aice, v. /'. A tribe, family ; a nourishing ; a desire; 
a pro]). Ir. 

An r,, comp. prun. At her, with her, on her, in her posses- 
sion ; in her remembrance. Tha duslach òir aice, it hath 
gold dust. — Stew. Job. Aice, like all the other compounds 
of «;^, is often used as a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigh 
aice, her house, which may be considered an abbreviated 
form of an tigh a th' aice. 

A I D 

A I G 

■}■ AiCE, ad". Near, close, at hand. 
AicEAR, a. Angry, severe, cruel. Lat. acer. 
AiCHBiiEiL, s. f. Revenge, vengeance. Thoir dhomh 
aichbheil, re-ceiigeme. — Steic. G. B. Written also o/c^yn^ri/. 
AiCHBiiEiLEACii, a. {from aichbheil.) Revengeful, vindic- 
tive, full of vengeance. Com. and sup. aichbeiliche, more 
or most rexengejul. 

AicuBiiEiLEACHD, s.f. (from aichbheil.) Revengefulness, 

AiCHEADH, s. ni. Refusal, denial, disavowal, recantation. 
Cuiras aicheadh, deny, disaxo-u: ; thug e dhomh an aicheadh, 
he gave ?ne the refusal. 

Aicheadh, r. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. 
Pret. a. dh'aicheadh, refused ; fut. aff. a. aicheadhaidh, 
shall refuse; aicheadhaidh mise esan, / u)Y/ deny him. — 
Stcn: Mat. 

Aicheadhaidh, /u/. aff. a. of aicheadh. Shall or will deny. 

AiciiEUX, V. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. 
Pret. a.à\ì ■aichevca, denied ; fut . aff. a. aicheunaidh, shall deny. 

t AiciiiLL, a. Able, powerful ; dexterous, handy. //•. 

t Aichilleachd, «.y". Strength; dexterity. Ir. 

t AiciD, s. y. A disease, sickness; accident; a stitch; a 
sudden pain. 

AiciiMirEiL, s. f. Vengeance, revenge; written also 

Aichmheileach, a. Revengeful, vengeful; written also 

t Aid, s. m. A piece, portion, morsel. 

Aideachadii, aidh, s. m. Confession, acknowledgment. 

Aideaciiaidh, gen. sing, of aideachadh. 

Aideachail, (i. c. aideach-amhuil), a. Affirmatory ; con- 
fessing, acknowledging. 

t AiDiiBHEAN, s. in. A stranger, foreigner. Ir. 

t AiDiiBHEiL, 5. A wonder ; a boasting. 

t AiDBiiEiL, s. Huge, enormous, vast. 

t AiDHBHSEAN, cln, s. m. A spectre, a phantom, sprite. 

t AiDHEACH, ich, s.f. A milch cow. — Sha-w. 

AiDiiEAR, ir, i. w. Joy, gladness ; firmament. Dhuisg an 
aidiiear, their joy broke forth. — Oss. Trath. Rinn e an 
t-aidhear, lie made the firmament. — Stev:. Gen. ref. Written 
also, except in the last sense, aighear, which see. 

.\iDHEAUAcn, 0. Joyful, glad. 

-AiDHLE, s.f. A cooper's adze. 

t AiDHME, i. /". Dress, decoration. See Aigiieam. 

"t AlDHNE, S.f. Age. 

AiDicji, r. «. Confess, own, acknowledge; affirm, avow, 
avouch. Pret. a. dli'aidich, confessed ; fut. aff. a. aidichidh, 
shall or ziill acknowledge ; fut. neg. aidich, cha n àidich mi, 
I -trill not confess. 

AiDiciiEAJi, (for aidichidh mi), 1 sing. fut. aff. a. of aidich. 
I will confess. Aideacheam thn, / will confess thee. — 
Stezi:. Rom. 

AiDiciiEAM, 1 sing. imp. a. of aidich. Let me confess, own, 
or acknowledge. 

AiDicnEAR,yu^ pass, of aidich. Shall be confessed, owned, 
or affirmed. 

AiDiciiTE, p. part, of aidich. Confessed, owned, acknow- 
ledged, affirmed. 

AiDMHEiL, s.f. Confession, profession, declaration, ac- 
knowledgment. A reir bhur n-aidmheil, according to your 
profession. — Ste-ii:. 2 Cor. Aidmheil na firinn, the acknou- 
ledgment of the truth. — Steiv. 2 Tim. 

AiDMHEiLEACH, a. (/ro/n aidmheil.) Of or belonging to a 
confession ; declaratory. 

AiDMiiEiLEAR, ir, s. m. (aidmheil-fhear.) A confessor, a 
professor; a declarer. 

AiDMHEiNT, s./. (La^ adv&ntus.) The advent. — Shaw. 
AiDMiiicii, V. a. Confess, own, acknowledge. Pret. a. 
dh' aidmhich, coi f cased ; fat. aff. a. aidmhichidh, shall or 
icill confess. 
AiByiiiiCHT'E, p. part, of aidmhich. See Aidich. 
t Aifir, s.f. Blame, fault. 

AiFRioxN, inn, s. m. The Romish mass. Ir. aifrionn. 
AiG, prep. At, on, or in possession. Tha claidheamh aig 
an duine so, this man has a sziord. Aig often imparts to 
the noun it governs, the signification of a genitive case, 
and then it may be considered as an abbreviated form of 
th'aig ; as, an stoc aig Fionnghal, Fingal's horn ; (i. e. an 
stoc a tha aig Fionnghal.) — Oss. Fing. 
t Aig, s.f This ancient vocable is now gone into disuse; 
but it is seen in composition with other words ; as, 
aigeal, aigean. It means the source of all substances ; 
also a sea, a shoal. The word aigo, in Languedoc and 
in Cantabria, has the same signification. 
AiGE, comp. pron. At him, with him, on him, in his posses- 
sion ; at it, with it ; also his ; its. /;■. id. 
t AioBHEiL, s.f. Terror ; now written eagal. 
+ AiGBiiEiLEACH, «. Terrific, terrible, fearful ; now written 

AiGEACH, ich, i. m. (aigli, mettlesome, and each, horse.) A 

Aigeal, eil, s. m. (from f aig.) The deep ; an abyss ; pool ; 
sea ; bottom of an abyss. Do bhreacan air uachdar 
aigeil, thy plaid [Jloats] on the surface of the pool. — Old 
Song. luchair an t-sluichd gun aigeal, the key of the 
bottomless pit. — Stew. Re'.\ ref. jV.^/. aigealan. ir. aigiol, 
the bottom if a valley ; written also aigean, which see. 
AiGEALACii, a. (from aigeal.) Of or pertaining to an 

abyss ; full of abysses. 
AiGEAL.ix, n. pi. of aigeal. Abysses, seas, pools. 
AiGEALLACH, o. Pufl'ed up, elate; spirited, mettlesome, 
gallant. Com. and sup. aigeallaiche, viore or most spirited. 
AiGEALLADH, aidh, s. m. Speech, conversation, language; 
a dialogue. Ag eisdeachd aigeallaidh do bheòil, listening 
to thy speech. — Old Song. 
Aigeallaiche, com. and ii/p. of aigeallach. More or most 
spirited. Is e 's aigeallaiche na thusa, he is more spirited 
than thou art ; is tu 's aigeallaiche dhe 'n triùir, thou art 
the most spirited of the three. 
Aigeallax, s. m. A breast-pin ; a jewel; ear-ring; tassel; 

toy. /;-. aigilin. 
AiGEAS, ein, s. m. (from t aig-) Gr. oxiav-o?, ocean. Jl'. 
eigiawn. 7r. aigean. An abyss ; deep; pool; sea; the 
bottom of an abyss. Aghaidh an aigein, the surface of the 
deep. — Stew. Gen. Writf'jn also aigeal. 
AiGEAXACii, a. (from aigean.) Of or belonging to an 

abyss; full of abysses. 
AiGEAxxACH, a. (from aigne.) Spirited, mettlesome ; mag- 
nanimous ; cheerful. 
AiGEA.vNACiiD, ^.(//■om aigne.) Mettlesomeness ; sprightli- 

ness ; magnanimity ; cheerfulness. 
AiGEANTACH, a. (from aigne.) Spirited; sprightly; mettle- 
some; cheerful; magnanimous; ■written &]so aigeannach. 
AiGEAXTACHD, S.f. ( /Vom aigne.) Spiritedness, sprightli- 
ness; cheerfulness; magnanimity; written ?lÌso aigeannachd. 
AiGEiCH, gen. sing, of àigeach, which see. 
Aigeil, gen. sing, of aigeal. Of an abyss ; of a pool. 
AiGEiN, gen. sing, of aigean. 

AiGH, a. Happy, prosperous; liberal; auspicious; proud; 
mettlesome ; glorious. An reul aigh lulorno, the glorious 
star lulorno. — Oss. Dargo. 
Aigh, s.m. Happiness; prosperity ; joy ; mettlesomeness; 

A I L 

A I L 

liberality; gloriousness, glory : auspiciousness; also deer. 
An do tiireig thu mi sho'.uis m' aigh? hast thou If ft me, 
thou light (beam) 'jf mi/ joy ? — Ois. Dargo. Meirg righ 
Lochlinn an P'.gh, the standard of the king of Lochlinn the 
glorioi'i ; aigh do choillte fein, the deer of thine own woods. 
Oss. Cathula. D'aighean ciar, thi/ dusky deer. Id. 
AiGHE, gen. sing, of aighe. Of a heifer. — Stexv. Heh. 
AiGHEACH, a. (/ro7H aigh.) Happy, joyous. Ir. id. 
AlGHE.\>;, H. pi. of aigh. Deer. Aighean siilbhlach, the 

wandering deer. — Macint. 
AiGiiEANACli, aich, s. m. A thistle; a place where thistles 

grow. I 

AlGHEANK.vicH, gcn. sing. of aigheanach. 
.AlGHF.ANN, aighne, s.J'. A pan; a goblet; a skillet; a 
small kettle or boiler. N. pi. aigheannan ; aigheannan 
a gliabhail luaitiire, pans to contain ashes. — Stew. 0. T. 
Written also adhann and oigheunn. 
AiGHEAR, eir, s. Gladness, mirth, joy, gaiety, festivity. 
Tha aighear a bruchdadh na shùil, gladness bursts from 
his eyes. — Ull. Ceòl is aighear, tnusic ii mirth. — Oss. 
Derm. Aighear d' òlge, the joy oj' thy youth.— Smith. 
Wriiten also aidhtar. 
AiGiiEARAcn, a.(fro7n aighear.) Glad, mirtliful, joyous, 

gay, festive. 
AiGMEARACHD, s.f. (from aighear.) Gladness, mirthful- 

ness, joyousness, festivity. 
AlGHNE, gen. sing, of aghann and of aigheann, which see. 
t AiGHNEACii, a. Liberal. Comp. and sup. aigniche, more 

or most liberal. 
AlGLEAN, ein, s. m. An ear ring, a tassel, a toy. 
AiGLEANACH, a. Hung with tasscls ; gaudy, beauish. 
AlGNE, s.f. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, affection, 
thonght. Is cianail m' aigne, sad is my mind. — Ardar. 
Written also aigneadh. Ir. aicne. 
.4IGNEACH, a. ( from aigne.) Spirited; afTectioned; of or 

belonging to mind, temper, affection, or thought. 
AiGNEADii, idh, s. m. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, 
affection, thought. Fionn an aignidh chianail, Fingal 
■whose mind is sad. — Death ofCarril. Lean mi le h-aigneadh 
neo-ghlic, I J ol lowed with unwise aviation. — Mac Luch. 
Written also aigne. 
Al0NlDii,gc/i sing, of aigneadh. 
Ail, gen. sing, of àl, which see. 
Ail, s. m. A mark, impression, trace. Ail do chois, the 

trace of thy foot. 
t -iViL, s. m. A mouth; a rebuke; a stone; a request; 

AiLBUE, .V. /". A flint; a stone ; a rock. A^ ;</. ailbhean. 
AiLBiiEACii, «. (from ailbhe.) Flinty, stony, rocky. Cam. 

and sup. ailbhiche, more or most rocky. 
AiLBiiEAO, eig, s.f. A ring; a ring of any coarse metal. 
N. ]d. ailbheagan. Ailbheagan airgiod, silver rings. — 
Mac Lach. Ailbheag cluais, «w ear-ring. 
AiLBiiEAU.ACii, (/. (from ailbheag.) I'ull of rings; like a 

ring ; of or behmLcing to a ring. 
AiLhiiKiNV, s.J'. (ajl and beinn.) A (hut; a rock; a 

mountain rock; written also ailbhinii. 
AiLuiiiNN, s./. (ail-bheinn.) A rock ; a flint ; a flinty rock; a 
mountain rock. Ag imeachd air an ailbhinn oillteil, walk- 
ing on Ihr dreadful precipice. — Oss. Dargo. Do sgiath mar 
ailbhinn, thy shield like a rock. — Oss. 
\ AiLE, s. f. A stone ; also behaviour, manners, 
f AiLCNE, *. pi. Paving stones. 
\ AiLCNEACJi, ich, s. m. {from ailc.) A pavier. 
AiLE, s. {Or. AioA-of. Lat. jEoI-us, wind; also halo, 
breathe ; and perhaps ae^^a. Corn. aual. Ir. aile, smell.) 

The atmosphere, air, breath ; smell, savour ; the sense of 
smell. Tra chaidleas sa ghleann an t aile, -.chen the air 
sleeps [is stilt] in the valley.— Oss. Duthona. 
AiLE, a. Handsome; more properly ai/Zf ; which see. 
AiLEBEART, beairt, i.y. A halbert. JV. /j/. ailebeartan. 
AiL-EACii, eich, -s. m. (f ail, stone, and each, horse.) A stone- 
horse, a stallion. 
AiLEACii, a. {from aile.) Atmospheric, aerial; savoury; 
of or belonging to the atmosphere, air, breath, or sracll. 
longantas àileach, an atmospheric phenomenon; ionnTintas- 
an àileach, atmospheric phenomena. 
AiLEACu, a. {from ivile.) Causing marks or impressions. 
AiLEADH, aidh, s.m. A smell, odour; the sens* ol smell ; 
air, atmosphere. Aileadh deadh bholaidh, an odour of 
sweet smell. — Stew. Eph. Sroine gun aileadh, noses without 
the sense of smell. — Smith. Written also àile. 
AiLE.vo, eig, s.f. Hiccup. — Macint. Ir. id. 
AiLEAGACii, a. {from aileag.) Causing the hiccnp, hiccupy, 

relating to the hiccup. 
AiLEAN. n. pi. of ail. Marks, impressions, traces. 
AiLEAN, ein, s. m. A meadow, a plain. Cath air an aileun 

reith, a battle on the level plain. — Mac Lach. 
t AiLEANTA, a. {from aile.) Atmospheric, aerial. 
AiLEAR., eÌT, s. m. A porch. — Stew. Jets, ref. Ir. id. 
Ai'leatiian, a. (/or aimh leathan.) Narrow; strait; light. 
AiLE-BliEATiiAiL, 0. Vital air, oxygen. 
AiLE MUEiDH, s. (aile and meidli.) An anemometer. 

N. pi. ailemhcidhean. 
AiLGiiios, s. f. {perhaps àill-fhios.) Will, pleasure, longing, 
desire, pride. Nach lùb air ailghios na garbh ghaoith, 
that will not bend at the pleasure of the [rough zcind] storm. 
— Ull. Ailghios dhaoine, the pride of men. — Smith. 
Fearann gu 'r n ailghios, land to your will. — Mac Co. 
Ir. ailgheas. 
AiLGiiiosACii, a. {from ailghios.) Wilful, headstrong, 

proud. Co7n. and sup. ailghiosaicho, 7nore or most wilful. 
AiLGiiiosACiiD, s.f. {from ailghios.) Wilfulness, pride. 
AiLGiuosAiciiE, torn;), and sup. of ailghiosacli. 
AiL-iNNisEAN, ein, s. m. {from aile, atmosphere, and innis, 

tell.) An anemoscope, 
t AiLL, s.f. A rugged bank ; a rough steep ; a steep river- 
bank; a bridle, course, place, stead, 
t AiLL, s.f. Praise. 

An.L, s.f. Desire, will, pleasure. Na "s ilill le chridli, 
what his heart desires. — Smith. Literally, that which is 
a pleasure to his hrart ; an ni nach b' àillo, the thing I 
would not. — Sle-w. Rom. Ciod a b' àill leat ? what wouldst 
thou haxc'^ ma 's àiUe leibh cliù dliuibh fein, if you desire 
fame for t/our.selves. — Old Song. Is ;\ill leam so na sin, / 
prrj'er this to that. 
AiLLBiiiL. A bridle-bit. Ir. 
AiLL-iuiRUACii, aich, s.J'. A steep; a rugged bank; a 

rocky steep. 
AiLL-BHRUACii ACii, «. Stecp, nigged, rocky. 
AiLLE, a. (Co;;;, ailla.) Handsome, fair, comely. B' aille 
Cridhmhor, handsome was Crimoru.—Oss. I'ing. B' aille 
na silil-sa blia Ossian, fairer in her eyes was Ossian. — Id. 
Tluiit a cheann aille air an t-sliabli, his comely head fell on 
the hilt.— Id. 
Aille, s.f. Beauty, handsomeness, comeliness. Thainig 
i na li-àiUc, .v/;;' came in her bcauti/. — Oss. Fing. Aille 
talmhaidh, earthly beauty. — Smith. Ir. aille. 
AiLLEACU, a. {from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely. 
AiLLEAcnn, s.J'. {from aille.) Beauty, beautifulness, hand- 
someness, comeliness. Ailleachd iMbhir-chaomha, the 
beauty of Evircoma. — Osx. Caul. Bha h-ailleachd gun 

A I M 

A I M 

choimeas, her handsomeness was unequalled. — Oss. Deim. 

A h-ailleachd, her beauty. 
AiLLEAG, eig, s.f. {from aille.) A jewel ; a gewgaw ; a 

pretty young maid. Nach cuimhne leat an ailleag? dust 

thou nut remember the beauteous maid! — O0S. Taura. 
Aii.LEAGAN, ain, s. ni. (/rom aille.) A little jewel ; a term 

ofatiection for a young person; a pretty maid. Soraidli 

slainnte do 'n ailleagan, health to the pretty maid. — Old 

.Song. N. pi. ailleagain and ailleagana. 
Ailleagan, n. pi. of ailleag. Gewgaws, ornaments, jewels ; 

pretty girls. 
Ailleagana, n. pi of ailleagan. 
AiLLE.tN, ein, s. m. {from ail.) A causeway. 
Aillean, ein, «. wj. Elecampane; a young beau ; a minion. 

— Macd. Ir. aiiean. 
Ailleanta, a. {from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely, 

delicate, bashful; having an imposing appearance. 
Ailleantaciid, i. f. {from ailleanta.) Personal beauty; 

delicacy, bashfutness, modest reserve. Is i ailleantachd 

maise nam ban, delicacy is the orna/nent of females. 
Ailleig, gen. sing, of ailleag, which see. 
AiLLEiN,gf«. sing, of aillean. 
Aillidii, a. Bright, resplendent, beauteous, fair. Lasair 

nan lochran aillidh, thejlame of the resplendent lamps. — Oss. 

Gaul. Og-mhnaoi a b' aillidh leac, a virgin of the fairest 

cheeks. — Oss. 
t AiLLiN, a. Another. Lat. alien-us. 
AiLLSE, s.f. A fairy; a ghost; a diminutive creature; 

rarely a cancer ; delay. Ir. aillse. In some parts of the 

Highlands this word is pronounced tuillsv. 
AiLLSEACii, a. {from aillse.) Like a fairy, of or pertaining 

to a fairy ; spectral. 
AiLM, s.f. A helm, stern. An ailra na asgaill, the helm in 

his arm. — Macfar. 
AiLM, s.f. The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet; also, 

though rarely, the elm-tree. (/;■. ailm. Dan. aim, an elm. 

Surd. aim. Lat. ulm-us.) i\'. pi. ailmean. 
t AiLMEADH, eidh, s. m. A prayer. 
AiL.MEAG, eig, *./. {dim. of Mm.) A little elm, a young 

elra. jV. pi. aihneagan. 
AiLMEAGAN, «. pi. of ailmeag. 
Ailmean, «./)/. of ailm. Elms. 
.\iLMEiG, gen. sing, of ailmeag. 
AiL.MSE, s. »1. A spectre; a spectral-looking person; a 

.\iL5isEACii, a. (/;wn ailmse.) .Spectral; ghastly. 
AiLNE, s.f {Corn, ailne.) Beauty, comeliness, 
t AiLP, s. m. A protuberance ; any gross lump ; a mountain. 

Lat. Alp-es, the Alps. 
t AiLP, fl. White. G;-. aX^o; and a^.srof. Lrt/. albus. Hence 

too. perhaps, and not from ailp, a mountain, may be 

derived .4lpcs, Alps, as being always white with snow, 
■f ."ViLT, s.f. A house. Lat. alt-us, high. 
AiLT.a. Stately; beautiful, comely. (Lc;^ alt-us.) Aghaidh 

is ailte lith. a face of the most beautiful colour. — Fingaliaii 

Poem. Com. and sup. ailte, more or most beautiful. 
AiLTE, com. and sup. of ailt. 
AiLTEACHD, s. f. {from ailt.) Stateliness; comeliness, 

beauty, handsomeness. Barrachd air d' ailteachd, superi- 
ority oxer thy handsomeness. — Macint. 
AiMBEAiRT, gen. sing, of aimbeart, which see. 
AiMBEART, beairt, s.f. Poverty, want, indigence ; calamity, 

mischief. Cridh fial an aimbeart, a generous heart in 

po\ erty. — Old Song. 
Ai.Mr.EARTACii, a. (ain, prir. and beartach.) Poor, needv, 

indigent, necessitous ; also mischievous ; calamitous. Tha 
mi aim-beartach, / am indigent. — Sm. 

AiMBEARTAS, ais, .5. in. (aim, pWi). a«(/ beartas.) Poverty, 
indigence ; calamitv, mischief. 

fAiMHEAN, a. Pleasant, agreeable, smooth. 

AiMHLEAs, eis, s. m. (aimh. priv. and leas. Ir. aimhleas.) 
Hurt, harm, mischief; ruin, mi.sfortune; perverseness, folly. 
Luchd aimhleis, unfortunate people ; agiarruidh m'aimhleis, 
desiring my harm. — Stew. 0. T. Aimhleas air a chlaigionn, 
mischief on his head.--Sm. A labhairt aimhleas, uttering 
perverseness. — Stew. G. B. Ni thu d' aimhleas, thou wilt 
harm thyself. — Fingalian Poem. 

AiMiiLEASACH, o. {from aimhleas.) Unfortunate; mis- 
chievous; ruinous; foolish, imprudent. Comp. and sup. 
aimhieasaiche. wfre or most unfortunate ; nithe aimhleasach, 
mischievous things. — Smith. 

AiMHLEASACHD, S.f. {from aimhleas.) The condition or 
state of being unfortunate; mischievousness ; ruinousness, 
imprudence, foolishness. 

AiMULEAS.viciiE, com. and sup. of aimhleasach. More or 
most unfortunate. 

AiMHLEASG, a. (aimh. intens. and leasg.) Lazy, indolent, 
inactive, drowsy, sluggish. //•. id. 

AiMHLEATHAN, (7. (aimh. priv. and leathan.) Narrow, strait, 
tight. Is aimhieathan an t slighe, narrow is the way. — 
Stew. Mat. 

AiMHLEATHANACUD, s. f (from aiuilileathan.) Narrow- 
ness, straitness, tightness. 

AiMHLEisGE. s.f (aimh. intens. and leisge.) Laziness, indo- 
lence, inactivity, drowsiness, sluggishness. 

AiMiiNEART, neirt, s. in. (aimh. intens. and neart.) Ir. aimh- 
neart. Force, violence, oppression ; more frequently 
written ainncart ; which see. ' 

AiMHNEARTACH, a. ( /ro»i aimhneart.) Violent, oppressive; 
more frequently written ainneartach. Comp. and sup. aimh- 
nearlaiche, more or most violent. 

AiMHNEARTAiciiE, com. and sup. of aimhneartach. 

AiMiixEiRT, gf«. sing, of aimhneart. 

AiMiiREADii, aimhreidh, s. (aimh. priv. and reidh.) Disturb- 
ance, disagreement, confusion; also, adjectively, wrong, 
disturbed, disagreeing. Tlia so air aimhreadh, this is 
■arong ; tha thu 'g am chur air aimhreadh, thou art putting 
me wrung; cuireamaid an cainnte air aimhreidh, let tis 
confound their language. — Stew. Gen. ref. Ir. aimhreidh. 

t AiMHREiDHE, s. pi. Defiles, passes, forests, fastnesses. 

t AiMHREis, a. Difficult, arduous. 

AiMiiREiT, reite, s.f. {a\m\t. priv. and xk\tt.) Discord, dis- 
agreement, contention, disturbance. 

AiMiiREiTEACii, fl. {from aimhreite.) Ir. aimhreighteach. 
Quarrelsome, litigious, contentious ; of or belonging to a 
quarrel or disturbance. Com. and sup. aimhreitiche, more 
or most (juarrelsome ; maille ri mnaoi aimhreitich, with a 
quarrelsome woman. — Stew. Pro. 

t AiMiiRiAR, s. m. Mismanagement. 

Ai.MHRiocHD, s. (aimh. priv. ««</ riochd.) 

t AijiiNN, a. {Lat. amsen-us.) 1 leasant, agreeable, smooth. 

AiMisicHTE, a. Bold, daring, resolute; written also aim- 

AiMLisG, s. f Confusion, disorder. Is aimlisg e, it is 
confusion. — Stew. Lev. rcj. 

AiMLisGEACii, o. Confused, causing confusion, of or per- 
taining to confusion. 

.Vi.MRiD, aimrit, a. Barren, unproductive. Macfarlane has 
properly introduced this word as Gaelic into his Vocabulary; 
yet Stewart, the translator of the Bible, says it is Irish. 
See Gen. xi. 31, ref. 

AiMSGiTii, n. Profane, impious, mischievous, impure. 

A I N 

A I N 

AiMSGiTiiEACHD, s.f. Profanity, impiousness, michievous- 
ness, impurity. Le tuairisgeul 's le aimsgitheachd, uitli 
slander and impiiii/i/. — U/il Sung. 

AiMsiciiTE, a. Bold, daring, resolute; written also aimisic/i/c. 

Aiiusin, s. f. (J'rum am.) Arm. and Cum. amser. Ir. 
aimsir. Weather, time, season. Aimsir ghaillionach, 
stormi/ ucathcr ; an aimsir a dh' f halbh, t/ie time that liai 
gone by. — Ull. An tsean aimsir, the olden time. — Stcu\ 
Eec. Aimsir bhriagh, _//«f ucather. — Arm. amser vrao. 
Aimsir a gheamhraidli, the xiintcr season ; aimsir an earraich, 
the spring season ; aimsir an t-samhraidh, the summer season ; 
aimsir an f hogharaidh, the harvest season ; aimsir fogharaidh, 
harvest weather; an aimsir so, thi.i weather. Ann. en 
arazer ze, in this weather., n. {i. e. aimsir-amhuil,) /"'om aimsir. Temporal, 
worldly ; that lasts but a season. Tha na nithe a chithear 
aimsireil, the things which are seen are temporal. — Stew. Cor. 

Aix; an intensitive and privative particle. It is only used 
in composition with another word, as, ain-tighearnas, 

Aix, a. Honourable, praiseworthy, respectful. D' uirghiol 
àin, thì/ respectful speech. — Old Song. 

f AiN, s. /'. Water. Hence amhainn, or, abhainn, a river. 
See Abii. Ain is also thegrw. sing, of + a«, which see. 

AiN-BHEAfii, .«. A drone bee; also much rain. 

+ AiNBiiEACH, n. Manifold. 

AiNBiiEART, bheirt, *.y. (aia, priv. and heart.) A misdeed. 
Jr. id. 

AiNBHEiL, s.y. (ain, intens. and bheul.) Impertinent lan- 

t AiNBiiiDn, s.f. Rainy weather. 

AiN-BHiTH, (ain, i'nteii. anrf bith.) A ferocious animal. 

AiN-CHEARD, cheirde, s. m. A buffoon; also buffoonery, 
low jesting ; an ingenious thief. Jr. id. N. pi. ain- 

AiNCiiKAiiDACii, a. Like a buffoon; of or belonging to 
a buffoon, or to buffoonery. 

AixciiEAKDACiiD, S.J'. (J'roni aincheard.) The behaviour 
of a buffoon ; ingeniousness. 

AiN-ciiEiiiDE, gen. sing, of ainchcard. 

AiNCiiEAiiT, (/. (ain, /in'r. ««(/ ccart.) Unjust, iniquitous. 

Ai.vciiEAiiT, cheirt, *■. m. A prank, or trick; injustice. 
Ir. id. 

AixCHEiST, S.f. {am, intens. and ce'iit.) Danger, jeopardy, 
dilemma; doubt, perplexity ; puzzle, a riddle. 

AisciiEisTEACii. (/. (ainciieist.) Doubtful, puzzling ; of or 
pertaining to doubt or perplexity ; in jeopardy, doubt, or 

AiNCillALL, cheil, s.f. Peevishness; forwardness; testi- 
ness ; madness. 

AiNCiiiALLACii, «. Peevish; forward; testy; mad. 

Ai.vciiiiioNAiLT, s. f. Acuteness, discernment, sagacity. 

AiNGiiaioNNA, a. Acute, sagacious. 

+ Ain DEAR, .v./. A maid fit for marriage. See Ainnir. 

AiNDEAS, a. (ain, priv. and deas.) Awkward, not clever, 
not ready-handed. 

AiVDEiaz, s.f. Affliction, calamity ; awkwardness. 

AiN'DEOiN, s.f. (ain, priv. and deoin, will.) Ir. aindeoin. 
Reluctance, compulsion, force. Co dhiilbh is deoin leat 
Do 's aindeoin, whether it lie thy will or not. — Macint. 
Dh' aindeoin ort, in spite uf thee. 

AiNDEONACii, a. (ain, priv. and dconach.) Reluctant, un- 
willing. Chaidh e dhachaidh gu h-aindeonach, he went 
home unwillingly. Ir. aindconach. 

AiNDEONACir u, S.f (ain, priv. and deonach.) Unwilling- 
ness, reluctance, obstinacy, compulsion. 

+ AixDHiAURiDii, a. Angry. Ir. 

AiN-DiAniiAciiD, s.f. {i. e. ain-diadhurdlieachd".) Ungod- 
liness, profaneness, iniquity, impiety. — Stew. Jer. Ir. ain- 

AiN-DiADiiAiDii, a. (ain, priv. and diadhaidh.) Profane, 
wicked, ungodly, impious, irreligious. Tha 'ni faidh 's an 
sagairt ain-diadhaidh, the prophet and the priest are profane. 
— Stew. Jer. 

AiNDiADiiiiDiiEACHD, S.f (ain,/)m'. an(/diadhuidheachd.) 


AiN-DiLEAS, o. (ain, ^n'r. cnrf dileas.) Faithless. 

AiNDiLSEACUD, S.f. Faithlessness. 

AiNDiTii, s.f. (ain, intens. and dith, want.) E.vtreme poverty. 
Gr. tvosioi. 

AiNDLiGiiE, S.f (ain,/»ri. <?«(/ dlighe.) Injustice, unlaw- 
fulness, usury. Jr. id. 

AiN-DLiGiiEACii, a. {am, priv. o/k/ dligheach.) Unjust, un- 
lawful ; also, substantively, a transgressor. /;-. id. 

AiNPLiGHEACiiD, s. f. Unlawfulncss, the practice of 

AiN-DREANNACii, a. Fretful, peevish. Cum. and sup. ain- 

AiNDREANNACiiD, ò'. /". Fretfulticss, pecvishness. 

AiN'E, 4. /; Delight, joy, pleasure ; music, harmony. Aine 
an lath, bruud dai/- light. 

t AiNE, s.f. Experience; agility, expedition; also a platter. 

AiN'F.AL, eil, s. ?n. {more properly aineol.) A stranger, a 
foreigner, a guest. Cha n' fheoraich an t-aineal co mac 
Morna, the stranger shall not ask who is the son of Morna. 
—Oss. Gaul. 

AiyEAL, a. Strange, foreign ; ignorant. 

AiNEALACii, a. {properly aincolach.) Ignorant; strange, 
foreign, unknown. Com. and sup. ainealaiche, mure or 
most ignorant ; duine ainealach, an ignorant man. 

AiXEAMii, eimh, s. m. {IF. and Corn. anav. //■. aineamh.) 
A fault, blemish, flaw, defect, injury. Da reithe gun 
aineamh, tzco rams xcithout Idemish. — Slew. Krutl. 

AiNEAMiiACii, (/. {from aineamh) Faulty, blemished, 
maimed ; having defects, or an injury ; causing defects or 
blemishes. Cum. and sup. aineamhaiche, viore or must 
faulti/. Jr. aincamhach. 

AiNEAMiiAG, aig, *./; A phnenix. 

AiNE.^.MiiAiG, gen. sing, of aineamhag. 

AiNEAN, .V. ;;/. Liver. Os cionn nan Ainan, above the liver. 
—Stew. Exud. 

AiN'EAs, eis, .V. /H. Joy, passion; cruelty; frenzy; bravery. 
Duthaich gain àineas, a friendly country. — Mac Co. 

AiNEASACii, a. {from aineas.) Furious, passionate, enraged, 
raging, frantic ; cruel; also brave, hardy. Mar stuadhan 
aineasach, like furious billows. — Old rueni. Cump. and sup. 
aineasaiche, mori or must furiuus. 

.\iNEASACii n, .V. /'. Furiousness, passionateness, frenzy, fury. 

t AiNEASiiAiR, a. Rude, uncouth, unpolished. 

A IN EIL, gen. sing, of aineal. 

AiNEiMii, gf/i. sing, of aineamh. 

AiNEis, gen. sing, of aineas. 

AlNEOL, s. and a. A stranger, a foreigner; a guest; also 
strange, foreign. A dol air aineol, wandering abroad. — 
Stew. G. IÌ. See also Ainkal. 

AiNEOLACii, a. (ain. priv. and co]ach.) Ignorant, unintelli- 
gent, rude, unlearned. Aineolach air so, ignorant of this. 

Stexu. 2 I'ct. Com. and sup. aineolaiche, more or most 

ignorant. Ir. id. 

Aineolaiche, com. and sup. of aineolach. More or most 

A I N 

A I N 

AiNEOLAS, s. m. (ain, priv. and eolas.) Ignorance, want of 
knowledge; nescience, illiterateness. Am bliur aineolais, 
fJic time of iimir ignorance. — St(:W. Vet. Ir. aineolas. 

f AiNER, «. Proud; great; cruel. 

AiNFiiEOtL, fheola, s.f. Proud flesh, corrupt flesh. 

AiNFUEoLA, gen. sing, of ainfheoil. 

AiXFiiiAcn, fhèich,s. (ain, pr/;. nnrf fiach.) Debt. Ir. ainbh- 
fhiach and ainfhiach. iV. /)/. ainfhiachan. 

AiXFiiEicn, gen. sing, of ainfhiach. 

AiNFiiios, s. (ain, prii'. and fios.) Ignorance. — Stew. Rum. 
Ir. ainbhfhios. 

AiNFHiosACii, «. Ignorant; illiterate. //■. ainbhfhiosach. 

AiNFinosRACii, n. (ain, priv. and tiosrach.) Ignorant, un- 
intelligent, illiterate. Cum. and mp. ainfhiosraiche, more 
or inost ignorant. 

AiNFiiiASRACiiD, s./. Ignorance; illiterateness. 

AiNGEAL, eil, s. m. An angel ; a messenger; also fire, light, 
sunshine. Gr. ayysAo;. Lat. angelus. Siced. angel. Dan. 
angle. Guth. angelus. Bclg. engelcn. Anglo -Sax. engelas. 
ÌV. angel. It. angelo. Fr. ange, angel. ii\ engyl. Corn. 
engil,_A';t'. Ir. aingeal. 

AiNGEALACii, «. (//'ow aingeal.) Angelic; of or pertaining 
to an angel ; of or pertaining to fire. 

Angealag, eig, s.f. Angelica. Ir. id. 

AiNGEALTA, fl. (from aingidh.) Perverse, wicked, head- 
strong, froward. 

AiNGEALTACiiD, S.f. Perverscuess, wickedness, froward- 
ness. A gabhail tlachd ann aingealtachd, taking pleasure 
in wickedness. — Stew. I'rov. Aingealtachd na chridhe, 
frowardness in Ms heart. — Id. 

AiNGHEAN, s. m. (ain, inlcns. and gcau.) Excessive love; 
excessive greed or avarice. 

AiNGHEANACii, a. {idn, inteiis. and geanach.) Exceedingly 
attached ; excessively gi'eedy or avaricious. 

AiNGiiNioMii, s. m. (ain, intens. and gniomh.) A bad deed, 

AiNGiiNioMiiACH, (7. Facinorous ; wicked. 

AixGiDii, a. Wicked, vicious, bad ; perverse, mischievous ; 
cross, ill-natured. Comp. and sup. aingidh. Ir. aingidhe. 

AiNGiDiiEACiiD, s.f. {from aingidh.) Wickedness, vicious- 
ness; perverseness, iniquity, evil. Aingidheachd a bhaile, 
the ini(/uiti/ of t lie citi/. — Stexv. Gen. Aingidheachd ur 
deanadais, the exit of i/uur doings. — Stew. Jer. Ir. ain- 

AiNGLiDii, (/. (from aingeal.) Angelic. /;•. id. 

AiNiociiD, s.f. (ain, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty; oppression. 
Le h-ain-iochd, with crueltj/.—Slcw. Ezek. Luciid ain 
iochd, oppressors. Ir. ainiocht. 

AiN-iociiDMHuiREACiiD, S.f. (from ainiochdmhor.) Op- 
pressiveness; unfeelingness ; cruelty. 

Ai\-iociiDMiioR, a. (ain, priv. and iochdmhor.) Oppressive, 
unfeeling, cruel. Com. and sup. ain-iochdmhoire. 

AiNiosAL, a. Haughty. Jrm. and Corn, ainisle. 

Ain IS F., s.f. Anise.— 3/afrf. /;■. ;',/. 

t AiNLE, a. Fair, comely, well-featured. 

t AiNLEACiiD, «./. (//■«;« ainle.) Comeliness. 

t AiXLEAG, eig, s.f. A snare ; a sting. 

AiN-LEAG, eig, *■./. A swallow. — Macd. 7r. ainle. 

AiNLEAG-MiiARA, s.f. A black martin. — Macd. 

AiNLEAX, V. a. (ain, intens. and lean.) Pursue, persecute. 
I'ret. a. dh' ainlean, ;;«rij((;(/; fitt. aff. a. ainleanaidh, shall 
w will pursue. 

AiN-LEANMiiuiN, s.f. Persecution. 

AiN-LEAS, s. m. Difference, mischief, theft. Ir. ainleas. 

AiNM, ainnie, *. m. A name ; a substantive noun. C ainm 
th' ort ? idiat is your name ! Ciod is ainm do so, or c' ainm 

th' air so ? xohat is the name of this ? Duine do 'm b' ainm 
Aonghas, a man named Angus. Thug iad Seumas mar ainm 
air (or dha), tlirii named him James. C ainm è ? xchat is his 
name.' what is its name ? Maighistir-c'ainm è ? Mr. — what's 
his name .' 

Pers. nam. Shans. naman. Gr. o»o^a. nomen. 
jSIaeso-Gothic, namo. Sxced. namn. Dan. navn. Anglo- 
Sax, nama, and noma. Germ, name, and naam. Fr. nom. 
It. norae. Box. Lex. enw. Ir. ainim. Ann. hanv. 

AiNMCiiLÀR, chlàir, 4-. Acatalogne; an index. X. jd. 

AiNMEACiiADH,aidh,i.7n. The act or circumstance of naming, 
mentioning, or appointing; a naming, nominating; nomi- 

AiNMEACiiAnii (ag), pr. part, of ainuiich. Naming, appoint- 
ing ; mentioning, nominating. 

AiNMEANACii, aich, s. m. (from ainm.) Nominative ; a nomi- 

AiN-MEASARRACii, Ainmeasarradh, a. Intemperate, immo- 
derate ; vast, huge. 

AiN-MEASARRACHD, S.f. (ain, priv. and measarrachd.) In- 
temperance, immoderateness, vastness. 

AixMEiL, a. (i. e. ainm-amhuil.) Namely; renowned, famed, 
famous. Gu h-ainmeil, especially, fmwusli/. 

AiNMEiLEACiiD, S.f. (from ainmeil.) Nameliness ; renown. 

AiNMiiEAS, s. m. Reward, recompense. 

AiNMiiEiD, i.y. (yicwi ainneamh.) A wonder, a raritv. • 

AiN-MHiANN, .y. (ain, /«^7i«. ««r/ miann.) Lust. See Ana- 
MHiANN. Ir. ainmhiann. 

Ain-mhiannacii, «. See Anamhiannacii. //•. ainmhian- 

AiNMiiiDn, .V. m. (Ir. and Corn, ainmliidh.) Animal, brute, 
beast. N. pi. ainmhidhean, beasts; an ainmhidhean nile, 
all their beasts. — Stexc, Gen. 

AiNJiHiDHEACii, a. Brutal, brutish; of or belonging to a 

AixMiiiDiiEACiiD, i.y. ( /y-owz ainrahidh.) Brutishness. 

AiNMicii, V. a. (from ainm.) Name, appoint, mention, fix 
upon, nominate. Fret. a. dh' ainmich, named ; fit. aft', a. 
ainmichidh, shall or xvill name. Ainmich do thuarasdal, 
appoint your wages. — Stew. Gen. Ainmich co e sud, men- 
tion who yonder man is. — j\Iac Lach. 

AiNMiG, AiNMic, a. Seldom, rare, scarce. Is ainmig thig e, 
he seldom comes; b' ainmig a leithid, his like (ajuat) xias 
rare. — Macint.. B' ainmic bha mo bhuilean fann, seldom, 
were my blows weak. — Fingalian Poem. 

AiNMiGEAD, eid, s. m. (from ainmig.) Rareness, scarceness; 
increase in scarceness. A dol an ainmigead, groxcing 
more and more scarce. 

AiNM-LiTE, s.f. A catalogue ; an index. 

t Ainm, ainne, s. A circle; a ring. Lat. annus, a year. 
Hence also fàinne, a ring. 

t Ainneadii, eidh, s. m. Patience. 

Ainneamh, a. Rare, scarce, curious; curiously formed; 
valuable. Crios ainneamh, a curious girdle.— Stexe. Exod. 

AiNNEART, neirt, s.f. (ain, intens. and neart.) Oppression, 
violence. Ainneart air a choigreach, violence on the stranger. 
— Sfcxc. Jrr. Luchd ainneirt, oppressors."'Ur. aineart. 

AiNNEARTACn, tt. Oppressive, violen^"i;yrannical, over- 
bearing. -' ' 

AiNNEARTACiiD, S.f. The practice of oppression. 

AiNNiCHTE, a. Tamed; made patient. 

AiNNiR, s. f. A marriageable woman; a virgin, a maid, 
a young woman. Ainnir fo bròn, a maiden mourning. — 
Oss. Catliloda. Ainnir a cheud ghraidh, the maid of his 
first love. — Oss. Fins. 

A I R 

A I R 

AiNxis, Ainniseach, a. Poor, destitute, needy, abject. Tha 
mi ainnis lorn, / am poor and naked. — Smith. A slugadh an 
ainnis, suai/oiving vp the needy. — Steu:. Amos. Jr. id. 
AisKis, Ainniseachd, i. /'. Poverty; abjectiiess. 
AixREiTE, s.f. (ain, priv. and reite.) Strife, quarrel, con- 
fusion ; more frequently written aimhreite ; which see. 
AiNRiociiD, s. A miserable plight; a woful condition; a 

frightful bodily appearance. Ir. id. 
AiNSGEUN, Ainsgiàn, s. Fury; fright, terror. Bhaidh an 
t-each air ainsgeun, the horse ran off in a fright. Ir. ains- 
AixsGEUNACii, Ainsgianach, a. Furious, wild; apt to take 

fright ; as a wild horse. Ir. ainsgianach. 
.\ix-sHEiRc, «./. (ain, pn'r. and seirc.) Hatred; excessive 

hatred ; cruelty. 
AiN-siiEiiicEiL, (7. (j. e. ain sheirc amhuil.) Hating; abomi- 
nating ; cruel. 
Ai»j-sRi.\NTA, a. Unbridled, uncurbed; obstinate, untamed; 

debauched. //•. ainshrianta. 
AiN'-sRi.ANT.\cii, aich, i. OT. A libertine ; a debauchee. 
AiN-sRi.^NT.AS, ais, «. ?rt. Libertinism; the condition of being 

untamed, as a horse, 
t AiNTEACii, n. Boastful; vain-glorious. 
-Ain-teas, «. w. (ain, i«;f«s. and teas.) Extreme heat; fer- 
vour ; a violent inflammation. — Steu\ Deut. Also ardour, 
enthusiasm, fervent zeal. /;■. ainteas. 
AiN-TEASACHD, s.y. (/rom aintcas.) Feverishness. 
AiNTEiST, s. m. (ain, priv. and teist.) A false witness. 

A^ pi. ainteistean. 
AiN-TEisTEANEAs, cis, s. m. (ain, priv. and teisteanas.) A 

false testimonial ; a false certificate ; an unjust certificate. 
.\iN-TEisTEAS, eis, i. m. (ain, ;)n;. and teisteas.) False evi- 
dence ; false testimony. 
AiN-TETH, a. (ain, intens. and teth.) Ardent; exceeding 
hot ; vehement ; eager. Ainteth chum air, ardent for 
battle. — Mac Lack. 
AiN-TiGiiEARN, s. vt. (ain, intens. and tighearna.) An op- 
pressor, a tyrant; an overbearing master or ruler. See 
also Antioiiearn. Ir. ainlighearn. 
AiN-TiGiiEARNAS, ais, s. ?n. Oppression; tyranny; domi- 
neering. Ir. id. 
.AiN-ruEUN, a. (ain, intens. and treun.) Very strong. Com. 

and .iup. ain-lreine. 
.AiNTiiEUNAS, ais, *. 711. Great strength. 
AiPOL, s. m. Apollo. 

Air, prep, (governing the dative.) Corn. ar. Ir. air. On, 
upon ; for, about, of, concerning. lomradh air do 
ghliocas, the fame of thy uisdom. — Slew. I A'. Air mo 
shonsa, for nic ; on mi/ account. Air mo .<!honsa dhetli, 
as for me ; for my part of it. — Stew. Gen. Air sometimes 
takes after it a noun in tlio aspirate form, as in the follow 
ing example ; Air bliarraibh nan tonn, on the tops of the 
■Mixes. — O.SS. Air eigin, uith much ado; air Icth, apart, 
aside, bi/ itself. Air choir, so that, in a manner ; nobly, 
properly; as usual. Air lamh, on hand ; bi/ the hand. Air 
mo lamii, OH /(««(/; on my hand. Air h-aon, /i;r uwr. Thuil 
tri Ic Bran air liaon, Bran, for one, hilled three. — Oss. I'ing. 
Air choir eigin, contracted Air choir 'gin, some icay or 
other. Air bliiag, Air so, on this, upon this, then. 
Chaidii am bat air, the bout xccnt aground. Air ais, bach- 
uards ; air aghi^idh, J'oruards ; air adhairt, /ò»a'a'(/.v, on- 
uards ; air seachran, astray ; air iomrol, astrai/ ; air chutli- 
ach, mad; air neo, else, or else, in some districts, air dhco. 
Air main, on, upon, above. Chaidh c air a muin, he had 
carnal conneiioii uith her ; bithidh sin air bhuil, that will 
come til pass. — Stcio. Is. 
.Air, cowp pron. On him or it; upon him or it; in his pos- 
session ; on liim as a duty. Tha 'eudacli air, his clothes 

are on him ; cha d' fhuair mi ni air, / got nothing in her 
possession ; tha e air pàigh, he is bound tn pai/ ; chaidh 
agam air, I got the better of him, or if ; ciod tha cur air, 
lihat ails him ? 
Air, gen, sing, of ar; which see. 

Air, v. Plough, till, cultivate. Lat. aro. I'ret. a. dh' air, 
ploughed; fut. aff. a. airidh, shall or xcill plough, ladsan 
a dh' aireas euceart, they uho ploxv iniquity. — Stew. Job, rcf. 
+ AiRBiiE, *. /". A story; ribs. — //■. 
t Airhheart, bheirt, s. Meaning. 
t Airbheartacii, a. Sagacious. 

Airbiire, Ò./. A multitude; an host; an army; a legion. 

AiRC, airce, i.yi An ark ; a large chest; a granary. 8 tad an 

aire, the ark rested. — Stew. Gen. Ileb. argads. Lat. area. 

Span. area. Arm. arch. Gr. aire. Old Su.r. erk, and eark. 

AiRC, s.f. Trouble, distress, affliction, difficulty, hardship, 

strait. Saoi na aire, a hero in distress. — Oss. Manos. Aran 

na h-airce, the bread of affliction ; tha mi am aire, / am in a 


+ AiRC, airce, s. f A cork tree; a sow; a lizard. Aire 

luachrach, a lizard. 
t AiRCEACii, a. Ingenious; shifty, 
"t AiRCEADii, eidh, s. m. An earnest penny. 
AiRCEANN, a. Certain, positive, /r. uircheann. 
AiRCEANNAS, ais, s. m. Certainty, positiveness. 
AiRCEAS, eis, (from aire.) Sorrow, trouble, distress, 
pain, difficulty, restraint, straitness. Gun airceas mealaidh 
sibh, ye shall enjoy without restraint, or, without trouble. — 
AiRCEASACii, a. Sorrowful; troublous; causing sorrow, or 

AiRCiiiLL, .s.y. A keeping. — Ir. 
AiRCiiis, .$./. A complaint. 
AiRD, gen. sing, of ard ; which see. 

AiRD, airde, s.f. An earth, or point of the compass; a 
quarter, a cardinal point. Thionail an Fhiann as gach 
aird, the Fiiignlians assembled from every quai ter. — Old Poem. 
Arab, ardhi. Pers. ard, earth. Macso-Goth. airtha. Isl. 
jord. Swed. jord. Germ, aerd and erd. Scotch, airt, art, 
AiRD, s.f. Preparation, improvement, order, state ; happi- 
ness. Dheanadh e aird, he would make preparation. — Macint. 
AiRi), airde, [an] or 'a aird, adv. Up, upwards, upward; 
from belciw. Gun eiridh 'n aird a choidh, never more to 
rise. — Sm. Dh eirich e le buaidh an airde, Ac rose up 
with triumph. — /(/. O 'n airde, /'/o/h above ; from on high. 
AiRD-UEAS, gen. airde-deas, s.f. Tlic south; the south 
point. Gaoth na h-airde deas, the south wind; dh' ionn- 
suidh na h-airde deas, to the south. — Stew. Gen. 
AiRD-AN-EAR, gfn. airde-an-ear, i.y. The east point; the 
east. Gaoth na h-airde an ear, the cast winil ; dh' ioim- 
suidh na h-airde an ear, to the ea^t. — Steic. Gen. 
.'\iiiD-AN-iAU, gen. airde an iar, s. f. Aird *n-iak, gen. 
airde 'n iar, s.f. The west point; the west. Dh' ioiiu- 
suidh na h-airde an iar, to the west. — Stew. Gen. 
AiRU-TUATii, gen. airde tuath, s.f. The north point; the 

north. Dh' ionnsuidh na h-airde tuath. — Stiw. Gen. 
Airde, s. f. Height, quality, condition; a rising ground, 
a high place ; altitude, excellency, highness. Bha t-airde 
mar dharraig sa ghleann, thy height was like an oak of the 
valley. — Ull. Bha ghrian na h-airde, the sun was at its 
hiight ; the sun was (on the meridian) at its height. — Oss. 
Duthona. An aiidc mhòir, in high condition. — Stew. Ecc. 
Cied eirich 'airde, though his excellency should mount. — 
Stew. Job. Airde na craoibh, the height of the tree. 
Airde, com. and sup. of ard. Higher, highest. 

A I R 

A I R 

AiRDEACHD, »./. (_froOT airde.) Highness; greatness, qua- 
lity, excellency. 

AiRDEAKNA, s.' pi. {from ard.) Constellations. 

AiRBHE, s.f. A wave ; also a sign. 

AiRDLEAG, eig, *./. A jerk; a sudden pull ; more properly 
ail leas ! which see. 

t AiRDUEACUD, «./. A synod. 

t Aire, s. f'. A judge; a servant; also a name given to 
different orders of Irish nobility. 

Aire, s.f. {Ir. aire.) Notice, regard, attention ; thoughts, 
observation, watching. Thug iad aire dhomh, they gtae me 
attention. Aire leagte air saoghail dhorcha, his thoughts 
fixed on Tcorlds unknown. — Oss. Conn. Fo aire, under oh. 
serration; in custodi/. — Oss. Fing. An ti a bheir an aire, 
he 'alio regards or attends. — Stew. Pro. Gun aire dhomh, 
unknoten to vie ; xiithout mij notice. Thoir an aire , take 
care. Ait aire, an obieriatory ; tigh aire, an obseriaton/ ; 
also a house -where there is a corpse; a house ahere vigi/s 
are held over a corpse; Scotch, latc-uake, Thoir an aire 
dhomh, attend to me. 

AiuEACii, ich, s. m. {from aire.) A grazier; a keeper of 
cuttle; a shepherd; a watchman. A^ p/. airichean. 

AiREACii, a. (from ^àre.) Watchful, attentive, observant; 
sober ; rarehi hostile, violent. Com/;, and sup. airiche, 
/nore or most xcatchful. — Ste-ii\ Tit. 

AiREACHAiL, a. (/. c. aireach-amhuil.) Attentive, watchful, 
observant, circumspect. 

AuiEACiiAs, ais, .$. m. A pastoral life ; tending cattle ; the 
occupation of a shepherd ; watchfulness. 

Alreamu, eimh, 5. m. {If. eiriv.) Number, quantity; 
numbering, numeration. Ganii an aireamh, J'ev; in num- 
ber. — Steic. Gen. 

AiREAMii, r. Number, count, compute. Pre/, a. dh' aireamh, 
counted; fut. off. a. airearahaidh, cuntr. airmhidh, shall or 
xoitl count ; fut. pass, aireamhar, shall be counted. Airmliidh 
tu iad, thou shall number them. — Stexc. Num. 

AiREAMii ACii, aich, s. m. (from aireamh.) An accountant ; 
a numerator. 

AiuEAMiiACiiD, s.f. Numeration, computation, numbering. 

Aireamhar, fut. pass, of aireamh. 

Aiiieamh'ear, ir, Aireamhfhear, fhir, s. in. An ac- 

Aireax, ein, «. m. A goadsman. 

t AiREANSACH, aich, s. m. A beginning. — Shan-. 

t AiREAR, ir, s.m. Food; satisfaction, choice; aharbour,bay. 

t AiREARRA, a. Pleasant, satisfactory. 

AiREASG, eisg, s.f. The apple of the eye; vision, sight. 
Ir. id. 

Air fad, prep. Tliroughout, during. 

Air feadh, prep. Throughout, among, during. 

AiRFiD:EAcn, a. Musical, harmonious, melodious. 

AiRFiDEADH, idli, s. n>. Hamiony, melody, music. 

t AiRG, s. m. A prince. 

AiBGHEAN, ein, i. w. A bridle rein ; a symptom. Airgheanna 
bhais, the symptoms of death. — Old Poem. 

AiRGioD, eid, s. m. {ancicntlv airgent and argant ; hence 
argentum.) Silver, money, riches. Uireadair airgeid, a 
siher uulch ; cha robh mi gun airgiod, / ivas not without 
moneu. — Mucint. Airgiod ullamh, ready cash ; airgiod beò, 
or beò-airgiod, quicksilver ; airgiod cagailte, hearth money ; 
airgiod cinn, poll money ; airgiod reidh, interest of money ; 
airgiod ullamh, ready miiney. 

AiRGioDACii, a. (from airgiod.) Abounding in silver or 
money ; silvery ; of or pertaining to silver ; having silver 
or money ; rich. 

AiuGiOD-UEO, s. ni. Quicksilver, mercury; literally live 
silver; so the French say vif-argcnt fjid argcnt-vif, and 
the Italians argent o vivo. 

AiRGlOD-CAGAlLTE, *. ni. Hearth money. 

AiRGioD-ciNy, i. m. Poll money. 

AiRGioD-REiDH, S.m. Interest of moucy. 

t AiRGNE, or AiRGNEADii, s. ni. A robbcry ; pillage, 

plunder. — Ir. 
AiniD, a. Particular, special. Gu h-airid, especially. 
AiuiDii, s. m. Worth, merit, desert. Is math an airidh, 

it is well or deservedly done ; is ole an airidh e, it is a pity. 
AiRiDH, a. Worthy, excellent, fit, meet, suitable. Is airidh 

thu air peanas, thou art worthy of punishment ; is ro airidh 

thu air moladh, very worthy art thou of praise ; airidh air 

aithreachas, meet for repentance. — Stew. Acts, ref. 
Airidh, s. m. A green grove; a place where osiers grow. 

Thig taibhse gu dian an airidh, ghosts shall issue wildli/ 

from the osier meadow. — Oss. Tcmo. 
Airidh, and Airigh, s. m. {perhaps aire-thigh.) A sheal- 

ing; hill pasture; a mountain booth or hut; a shepherd's 

cottage. Thig do 'ti airidh mo chailinn, come to the shealing, 

my maid. — Old Song. Bothan airidh am braighe Raineach, 

a mountain hut in the braes of Rannoch ; — the name of one 

of the finest Highland melodies ; airidh dhamh, pasture for 

o.ien. — Stew. Is. 
+ AiRiGii, s. m. A ruler, a prince. — //-, 
t AiRiLLEAN, ein, s. m. A party, a faction. 
AiuE-ioxAD, s. m. An observatory, 
t AiRis, .>■. /". A firebrand, charcoal ; also knowledge. (//•. 

airis.) A history. In this last sense airis is now written 

aithris .• which see. 
AiRisEACii, a. See Aithriseacii. 
t AiRisEAX, ein, s. m. An appointment, an order. 
tAiRLE, s.f. An advice. Though this vocable be gone 

into disuse, we have comh-airle, a counsel, advice, 
t AiRLEAC, I'. Borrow; lend. 
AiRLEACACii, «. Ready or willing to lend ; ready to borrow ; 

of or pertaining to a loan, 
t AiRLEACADii, aidh, s. m. A borrowing ; a lending. 
I AiRLEACH, ich, s. m. A skirmish; a rencontre. 
AiRLEAG, eig, s.f. A jerk, a sudden pull; a shove, a toss, 

a fling, jostle. — //■. airleag. 
AiRM, n. pi. of arm. (/;•. airm.) Arms, weapons; annour. 

Gen. pi. arm. Fuaim nan arm, the noise of the arms. — Oss. 

Airm àluinn, beauteous armour. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Na 

h-airm a bhuin e bho aineal, the armour he took from 
foreigners. — Id. Ball airm, a weapon ; airm theine, jire 

arms ; airm thilgidh, tnissile weapons ; airm-mhuir, naval 

arms, a navy. Armoric, arm vor, a navy. 
t AiRM, s. m. A place. — Ir. 
AiRM-ciiRios, s. A shoulder belt. — Ir. id. 
AiRM-CHEARD, cheairde, *. m. An armourer. 
Airm-cheardach, aich, s. m. An armourer's forge, 
t AiRjiEART, eirt, «. ;h. An order; custom. — Ir. 
Airmiieadii, (3 sing, and pi. imper. a. of aireamh.) 
AiRMHEAR, y"«?. ;)««. of aireamh. Shall be counted. See 

Airmhidh, fut. aff'. a. of aireamh. Shall or will count, 
t Airmhidh, s. m. A vow, a promise. — /;■. id. 
t Airmid, s.f. Honour, worship, reverence; a custom; a 

swan. — //•. 
AiRMis, V. Find; find by searching. Fr. a. dh' airrais, 

found; fut. aff. a. airmisidh, shall or x:ill find ; dh' airnnis 

mi air, I found it, or him. 
Airmiseach, and Airmseach, a. Exploratory; good at 

finding or at searching. 
Airmiseaciid, and Airmseaciid, s.f. {from airmis.) Find- 
ing after a search. 
Airm-lann, lainn, s. m. An armoury; a depot; a magazine. 

A I S 

A I S 

Air siriN, comp. prep. On, upon, above; on the back; on 
the top, or summit. Air mhuin, on his back, upon him ; 
air a muin, 0« her; chaidh e air a muin, he had carnal 
connexion uith her. 

AiRM-TJiEiNE, Fire-arms. 

AiRNE, s.f. (Ir. airiie.) A sloe; a wild plumb; a dama- 
scene ; also a kidney, kidneys, reins. Tlia m' airne ga m' 
theagasg, my reins teach me. — Smith. 

+ AiRNEACii, eich, s. in. The seed of shrub trees. 

AiRXEACii, eich, .«. m. The murrain in cattle. 

Aiuneag, eig, s. f. {dim. of airne.) A sloe; a wild plumb. 
N. pi. airneagan ; d. pi. airneagaibh. Preas airneag, a 
sloe hush. 

AiRNEAC.ACir, a. (/J-o/w airneag.) Abounding in sloes ; like 
a sloe ; of, or belonging to, a sloe. Preas airneagach, a hush 
loaded uith sloes ; also a sloe bush. 

Airneagaibh, of airneag. 

AiRNE.\GAN, «./;/. of airneag. Sloes; wild plums. 

+ Airneamh, eirali, s. in. A grinding stone ; a hone. 

Airneax, s. ;;/. Kidneys; reins. (//. arnione.) A chith na 
h-airnean, u'hu sceth the reins. — Stew. Jer. Dat. pi. airnibh. 
Maille ris na h-airnibh, along uith the Itidnei/s. — .Stezo. Lev. 

AiRNEiG, gen. sing, of airneag. Of a sloe. 

AiRNEis, s. Household furniture ; household stuff; cattle, 
stock, chattels, moveables. Am measg an airneis fein, in 
the midst of their oun .stiijf. — Steu-. .fos. Airneis tigiie, 
household J until ure. — Stexv. Gen. .^/7». harnes. English, 

AiRNiBn, dat. pi. of airne, or airnean. See Airne, or 


AiRSAN. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. air; which see. 

AiRSE, s.f. An arch, a vault. Lat. arcus. 

t AiRSGE, s.f. Contemplation, musing. — /;•. 

AiRsiDEACii, o. Unanimous, harmonious; agreeing. Com. 
and sup. airsidiche. 

AiRsinEACiiD, *.y". Unanimity; harmony, agi^cement, con- 

AiusNEAG, eig, s.f. Arsenic. 

AiiisNEAi,, eil, s. ni. (Ir. airsneal.) Sadness, heaviness, 
distress, sorrow, strait, difficulty, weariness, fatigue, trouble. 
Co dh' innseas airsneal na Feinne, uho can tell the sorrows 
of the Fingalians! — Oss. Gaul. Spiorad airsneil, the spirit 
of heaviness. — Steie. O. T. 

AiRSNEM.ACii, a. Sad, sorrowful, weary, troubled; causing 
sadness ; vexing. Tir airsncalach, a ueari/ land. — Stew. Is. 

Am SON, prep. For, on account of; by reason of; instead 
of. Air son an fhuachda, bjj reason of the cold. — Stew. Pro. 
Air a son, for her ; air an son, for them. 

AiRT, gen. sing, of art ; which see. 

AiRTEAGAL, ail, *. w(. An article. — Macd. Ir. id. 

AiRTEAN, ein, s. m. {dim. of art.) A little stone; a pebble; 
a flint stone. N. pi. airteana. Ir. airtin. 

AiRTEiN, (g<». i/n^--. of airtean.) Of a pebble; of a stone. 

AiRTNEUL, neil, »'. m. See Airsneal. 

AiRTNEUi-ACii, a. See Airsnealacii. 

t Ais, i. m. (Ir. ais.) A hill, a strong hold, a covert; shingles 
to cover houses ; dependence; a loan; a curt, or waggon. 

+ Ais, *. VI. Money. Lat. us. 

t Ais, 4. m. Back. This word is seldom or never used but 
in composition with some other word, as the prep, air; and 
then it signifies backwards, or hack : like the Latin re. 

Ais, [air], «(/i . Back; backwards. 'i'Wig air ms, come hack, 
return ; cum air tais, kcrp hack ; cum air t-ais, a ghaoth, 
keep hack, () wind. -Osv. /';//. and Lorm. Bheir mi iad air 
an ais, / will bring Ihcni back. — Stew. Zech. Thig i air a 
h-ais, she will return. 

t Aisc, aisce, s.f. A request, petition; damage; trespass; 

reproach. — //-. 
Ai^nt., comp. pron. (7r. aiste.) Out of her; out of it. Aisde 
thugadh thu, out of her (the earth) wast thou brought. — 
Stew. Gen. Earbaidh e aisde, he will trust in her. — Stew. Pro. 

t Aisde, s.f. A poem ; ingenuity. 

Aisdeacii, ich, s. m. A gay, diverting fellow. 

AisDEACHAN, s. pi. Spoits, diversions, pastimes. 

A1SDRIDI1, s.f. A translation. 

AisEAD, eid, Ò-. f. Delivery, as in childbed. Tha i air a 
h-aisead, she is delivered. — Stew. Gen. 

AisEAD, eid, s.f. A platter; a large plate. Fr. aisiette. 
Arm. aczyed. 

AisEAD, V. Disburden or deliver a woman of a child. 
Pret. a. dh' aisead ; fut. aff. aiseadaidh, 4^«/^ deliver. — 
Stew. 1 K. 

AiSEAG, ig, S.f. (i. e. ais-thig.) Ir. aisioc. A ferry; de- 
liverance; a return; a vomit. Fear aisig, a ferryman; 
fear na h-aisig, tlie fcrri/man ; bat-aisig, a firri/boat. — 
Stew. 2 Sam. N. pi. aiseagan. 

AiSEAL, eil, s. m. Jollity, fun, merriment. Ri h-aiseal, 

AiSEALACn, o. Funny, merry, jolly ; of or pertaining to fim. 

AisEAN, aisne, A./! (Corn, and Arm. asen.) A rib. K. pi. 
aisnean, and aisnichean, ribs. jr. eisen. Corn. azan. An 
aisean a thug e o 'n duine, the rih he took from the man. — 
Stew. Gen. Dat. pi. aisnibh. Aon d' a aisnibh, one of his 
ribs. — Stew. Gen. 

AisEiL, gen. sing, of aiseal. 

Ais-EiRicii, V. Rise again, as in the resurrection. Pret. a. 
dh'ais-eirich, rose again ; fit. iijì'. a. ais-eirichidh, shall 
rise again. 

Ais-EiniGii, «.y. Resurrection; a second rising. Ais-eirigh 
nam marbh, the resurrection of the dead. — Stexc. 1 Cor. 
La na h-ais-eirigh, the dai/ of resurrection. 

t AisGE, and AisGiDii, A.y. A gift; a donation. 

AisiG, s.f. A ferry. See Ai.seag. 

AisiG, V. Restore, deliver, give back; ferry over. Pret. a. 
dh'aisig, /f mV(/ ; fit. aff. a. aisiy;idh, shall or will ferry ; 
aisigidh e, he will ratore. — Stew. Prov. Fut. pass, aisigear, 
shall he ferried. 

Aisigear, /a^. pass, of aisig. 

AisiGiDii, flit. aff. a. of aisig. Shall or will ferry. 

AisiGTE, p. part, of aisig. Restored, delivered ; ferried over. 

AisiL, s.f An axletree. N. pi. aisilean, a.ilctrees. Aisil 
na carbaid, the axletree of the chariot ; aisilean nan roth, 
the axletrees of the wheels. — Slew. 1 K. 

Ais-iNNis, V. Rehearse, narrate; say or tell over again; 
repeat. Pret. a. dh' ais-innis, repeated; fit. aff'. a. ais- 
innsidh, shall or will repeat; fut. pass, ais-innsear, shall 
he repeated. 

Ais-iNNLEACiiD, S.f. A miscliievous contrivance, or inven- 
tion. — Stew. Kec. ref. A', pi. ais-innlcachdan ; dat. pi. ais- 

Ais-iNN'i.EACiiDACii, (7. Plotting, mischievous, crafty, 
scheming. Ann an comhairlibh ais-innleaehdach, ;'/( crafti/ 
counsels. — Stew. G. B. Com. and sup. ais-innleachdaiche, 
inore or most cruj'ti/. 

Ais-ixNSEAU, _/"«^ pass, of ais-innis. Shall or will be re- 

Ais-iNNSiDii, fut. aff. a. of ais-innis. Shall or will rehearse. 

f AisioN, s. VI. A relic ; a diadem. 

t AisiTii, s.f. Strife, disturbance, discord. 

Aisi.EAR, eir, ,v. w. (ais <//«/ lear.) A spring-tide. — //■. 

AisLEiNE, .J.y; A death-shroud. iV. ;;/. aisleintean. 

AiSLEiR, gen. sing, of aislear. 

A I T 

A I T 

AisLiNG, s.f. {Ir. aisling.) A dream, a reverie, a vision. 

Eirich an aisling mo chadail, rise in the dream of mil sleep. — 

Oss. Fin. Lor. Mhosgail e o aisling an laoch, he auoke the 

hero from his dream ; chunnaic e aisling, he saw a vision ; 

aisling chonain, a lasciiious dream. X. pi. aislinge, and 

aislingean. Aislinge faoin, empti/ dreams. — Sten. Zech. 

Dat. pt. aislingibh. 
AisLiNGEACH, a. Dreamy, dreaming, visionary ; of, or re- 
lating to, a dream. 
Aislingean, «. ^/. of aisling; which see. 
AiSLiNGiciiE, .$. m. (from aisling.) A dreamer. Tha an 

t-aislingiche so a teachd, this dreamer is coming. — Stev.\Gen. 

Ir. aislingtheach. 
Aisling CHONAIN, ,j. ?«. A lascivious dream. 
AiSNE, gen. sing, of aisean ; which see. 
AisNEACii, a. Ribbed; having strong ribs, having large 

ribs ; of, or belonging to, a rib. 
AiSNEis, s.f A rehearsing. See Ais-innseadh. 
Ais-iNNSEADii, idh, «. ;«. A telling, a rehearsing, a repeating. 
AisRE, and AisniDii, s. An abode ; a receptacle; a hill; a 

path. Aisridh nam ban, the abode ofuomen ; a seraglio. — 

Fingalian Poem. An ruath aisridh, the red path. — JSIaeint. 
Ais-siTH, s.f {perhaps ais-shith.) Discord, strife, wrangling, 

disturbance. Siol-chuiridh e ais-sith, he uill sow discord. — 

Stew. Prov. ref 
AisTEiDH, s. The hatches of a ship. 

Ait, a. Glad, joyful, cheerful. Ir. ait. Old French, haitè. 
AiT, àite, s. m. (fir. aiJ-ia. aed-es, a house. Ir. ait.) 

A place; part; spot, region. X. /j/. aitean, anrf aiteachan, 

places. C ait, a/(f;-e.' 
AiT-AiRE, s. m. An observatory, 
t AiT-CHEAS, s.f. A warrior's concubine. 
AiT-CHio.MACii,aich, *.?«. Apetitioner. A^.;;/. aitchiomaichean. 
AiT-coMnNuiDii, s. m. A dwelling place; a dwelling, or 

abode. Thog sinn aitcomhnuidh do 'n mhnaoi, tie built a 

d-iVcUing for the dame. — Vll. 
AiTEACii, eich, s. m. {from ait.) Habitation; dwelling. 

Bheil an aiteach fuar ? is their dwelling cold! — Oss. Tern, 

K. pi. aiteacha, and aiteachan, dwellings ; aiteacha comh- 

nuidh, habitation. — Stew. Exod. 
t AiTEACii, a. Anxious ; careful. 
AiTEACii ADii, aidh, s. m. {Ir. aitiughadh.) The circumstance 

of inhabiting; a placing. Luc\\d-Mtea.cha\ò\ì, inhabitants. 
AiTEACiiADii (ag), pr. part, of iiitich. Inhabiting, dwelling. 

Ag àiteachadh an domhain, inhabiting the earth. 
AiTEACiiAS, ais, «. OT. A colony; an inhabiting. 
AiTEAG, eig, s.f. A shy girl; a coquette. X. pi. aiteagan. 
AiTEAGACH, fl. Coquettish ; shy, indifferent, scornful. Ain- 

nir aiteagach, a shy maid. 
AiTEAL, eil, s. m. Juniper. Freumhan an aiteil, juniper 

roots. — Sttw. Job. Fuidh chraoibh aiteil, beneath a juniper 

tree. — Stew. 1 K. 
AiTEAL, eil, s. m. {W. adyl.) A blast, a breeze, a breath 

of wind ; light ; music. Aiteal an earraich, the breeze of 

spring. — Oss. Fing. Gun aiteal bho reul air sail, on the 

deep without starlight. — Oss. (iaul. 
AiTEALACii, a. Abounding in juniper; of or pertaining to 

AiTEALACii, a. Breezy; briicht ; shining, luminous. 
AiTEAM, cim, s. 711. and/! A people, a tribe ; folk, persons. 

Aiteam chathacb, a warlike people. — Old Poem. Is beann- 

aichte an aiteam, blessed are the people. — Smith. 
t .AiTEAMii, eimh, s. m. A convincing proof; an argument, 

AiTEAMii, eimh, «. m. A thaw ; fresh weather. Tha 'n lath 

ris an aiteamh, the dai/ thaws. 

AiTEANN, inn, s. m. {Ir. aiteann.) Juniper; also furze. 

Dearcan 9.itÀDn,juniper berries ; preas aitinn, a juniper bush. 
AiTEANNACii, a. Abounding in junipers, or in furze ; like 

juniper, or furze ; of, or pertaining to, juniper, or to furze. 
AiTEANNACii, aich. s. A place where junipers grow; a 

quantity of juniper bushes. 
AiTEAS, eis, s. m. {Jrom ait.) Old French, haitè, joyous. 

Gladness, joy; laughter, fun. Aiteas an sùil Ghorm- 

aluinn, gladness in the ei/e of Gormallin. — Oss. Oimara. 

Aiteas air na sleibhte uaine, joy on the green mountains. — 

Oss. Duthona. Cuirm chum aiteis, a feast for laughter. — 

Stew. Ecc. 
AiTEiG,*g-frt. sing, of aiteag. 
AiTEiL, gen. sing, of aiteal. 
t AiTH, s. m. A hill ; a skirmish, 
t AiTH, a. Keen ; sharp ; anxious. 
AiTii, an iterative particle ; more commonly written ath. 
AiTn-cHEAS, chise, s.f. A whore, a bawd. 
AiTiicHui.MiR, o. Compendious; brief; abridged, 
t AiTiiE, s.f. Revenge. — Ir. 
t AiTiiE, a. Keen. 

+ AiTiiEAcii, ich, i. ?H. A giant ; a clown ; a sow. //•. id. 
AiTiiEACH, a. Gigantic; clownish; swinish. 
AiTiiEADii, idh, s. m. An elf shot. 
AiTHEAMH, eimh, s. m. A fathom. Fichead aitheamh, 

twenty fathoms. — Stew. Jets. X. pi. aitheamhan ; contr. 

AiTiiEAN, s. pL The liver. — Macd. 
AiTHEAS, eis, s. m. A reproach ; a blemish, 
t AiTiiEASG, eisg, s.f An admonition, advice. 
AiTii-GHEARR, aith-ghearradh, s. m. An abbreviation; a 

contraction ; a short way ; a short time. Gu h-aith-ghearr, 

shortly, soon. 
AiTii-GiiEARR, a. (TF. ehegyr.) Short; quick, brief ; soon, 

instantaneous. Sgaoil sinn cho aithghearr, we dispersed so 

soon. — Roy Stewart. Gu h-aithghear, shortly, quickly, soon. 
AiTii-GHEAUR, r. Cut again; subdivide; shorten, curtail. 

More frequently written ath-ghcarr ; which see. 
AiTiiEiMii, gen. sing, of aitheamh. 
t Ann ID, s. m. A viper; a snake, 
t AiTiiiDEAN, ein, {dim. of aithid), s. m. Any venomous 

reptile ; a little beast. 
AiTinxNE, .s. ?H. (Zr. aithinne.) A firebrand. Mar aithinne 

as an losgadh, like a firebrand from the burning.— Stew. Amos. 
AiTHiR, s.f A serpent. — .SYcu'. G. B. More frequently 

written nathair. 
AiTHiu-LUS, luis, s. m. Ground-ivy. 
t AiTiiis, V. Reproach, rebuke, abuse, affront. Prcf. a. 

dh' aithis, rebuked ; fit. ajf. a. aithisidh, shall rebuke. 
AiTiiis, «. /". A reproach, rebuke, affront, scandal; a check, 

abuse; ease, leisure. Gun tuit e ann an aithis, that he 

may fall into reproach.— Stew. Tim. Bheil thu air d' aithis, 

are you at leisure Ì 
AiTiiisEACii, a. Reproachful, abusive, scandalous; slow; 

leisurely, tardy, dilatory. 
AiTiiisEACii, ich, s. m. {from aithis.) An abusive person; 

a dilatory person. 
AiTiiisEACiiADii, aidh, i. ?H. Defamation; abuse. 
AniiMiiEAL, eil, s. m. Repentance, compunction, fear. 

Lan aithmheil, a man full of compunction. — Old Song. 
t AiTHMiiEAS, s. m. The ebbing of the sea. 
AiTHMEiLEACH, a. Repentant. 
AiTiiN, V. Command, order, bid, direct, enjoin. Pret. u. 

dh' àithn, command ; fut. aff. a. àithnidh, shall or mil com- 
mand; fyt. neg. àithn; as, cha n' àithniad, they shall not or<ler. 

A I T 


AiTHNE, i. f. A command, commandment, order, injunc- 
tion, mandate, direction ; a charge ; rarci\i a store. A', p/. 
àitheantean; dat. pi. ùitheantibh. Lagh'nan àitbeanta, 
the /ua- of the commniidmeuts. — Stcxc. Epk. Thug mi àithne 
dhuit, I ordered Ì/OU. 
AiTiixE, s. f. Knowledge, discernment, acquaintance. 
{Sued, ana, to fonkno-d-.) Cha n eil aithne agaim air, 
/ htne no knoicledge of him; cuir aithne air, get uccjiuii/ilal 
with hivi, make yourself kiwdii to him. 

AiTiiNE-.^N-LÀTiiA,*./. Bfoad day-light ; the height of day. 

AiTHNEACHADii, aidh, s. m. A recognising, knowing, dis- 

AiTiiNEACiiADii, (ag), pr. part, of aithnich. Knowing, re- 

AiTHNEADAiL, a. {from aithne.) Familiar, knowing. 

AiTHNEADAiR, s. til. (from aithne.) A man of general 
knowledge ; a learned man. 

AiTiiNEADii, eidh, .y. m. The act of commanding; a com- 
manding, ordering. 

AiTiiNEADii, (ag), pr. part, of àithn. Commanding, order- 
ing, charging, enjoining. 

AlTHNicii, I. (/ro/rt aithne.) Know, recognise, feel; have 
sexual intercourse. I'rct. a. dh' aithnich, kiiejc ; fit. ajf. a. 
aithnichidh, shall kiiou- ; fit. ncg. and inferrog. aithnich ; 
flit, aithnichear, shall be kiioicn. Cha d' aithnich mi 
orm e, / did not feel it ; cha n' aithnichteadh orra e, it 
'dould not be knoun on them. 

AlTiiNiciiEAN, ein, 4-. m. A stranger, visitor, acquaintance. 
— Stexe. Lev. rcf 

AiTiiNiciiEAU, ful. pass, of aithnich. Shall be known. 

AiTiiNicinDii,/i/^fl//'. o. of aithnich. Shall or will be known. 

AiTiiNiciiTE, p. part, of aithnich. Known, recognised. 
Dean aithnichte, make known. — Stexv. Rom. Arm. anzad, 
hnoun. Swcd. ainsichte, a face. 

AiTHRE, «. c. A bull, a cow, ox. iV. p/. aithrean. 

AiTiiREACn, a. Wonderful, curious, strange, droll ; sorry, 
penitent. Dh' eisd sinn is b' aithreach leinn, xce listened, 
and surprised ue uere. — Ull. Nior aithreach leis, nor does 
he repent. — Sm. Is aithreach leinn do bhuaidh, xce are 
amazed at thy princess. — Fingalian Poem. Is aithreach an 
t-oglach thu, you are a droll Jillow. 

AlTiiuEACiiAiL, a. (aithreach-arahuil.) Penitent, repent- 
ing, repentant. 

AiTHREACiiAis, gen. sing, of aithreachas. 

AlTHREACiiAS, ais, *. m. Repentance, penitence, regret. 
Dean aithreachas, gabh aithreachas, repent ; ni mi aith- 
reachas, or gabhaidh mi aithreachas, / xcill repent ; gun 
aithreachas cha bhi maitlieanas, without repentance there 
shall not be forgiveness. — Stexc. N. 'J'. 

AiTiiREACiiAG, aig, s.f. A female penitent. K. pi. aithrc- 

AiTiiREACiiAN, ain, s. m. A penitent. 

AiTiiREACUD, s.f. {from athair.) Ancestry, ancestors. A 
chaoidh cumaibh an cuimhne ur n-aithreachd, ever keep 
your ancestry in mind. — Old Song. 

AiTiiHKiiE, and AniiiiKirEAN, «.;)/. of athair. Fathers, 
ancestors. See AriiAiu. 

AlTiiRiciiinii, dat. pi. of atiiair. 

t AiTiiRiDiiE, s.f Repentance, sadness, tears, sorrow. 

AiTiiuiDiiEACH, a. (/row aithridhe.) Rei>cntant, sad, sor- 

t An URINE, .V. ?n. A calf. — /;■. 

ArriiRis, s.f (Ir. aithris.) Report, rci)elition, rehearsal, 
recital, narration; imitation; tradition, tale. Aitliris anraidh, 
a tale of distress. — Uss. Cat hula. N. pi. aithriscan. 

Aithris, r. Rehearse, report, narrate, relate, tell, repeat. 
Prel. a. dh' aithris, told; fit. aff'. a. aithrisidh, shall tell. 

Aithrisibh am mcasg an tsluaigh, tell among the people. — 
Smith. Aithrisibhse agus aithrisidh sinne, report you, and 
•we will report. — Stew. G. B. Sgeul ri aithris, a tale to be 
told. — Oss. Lodin. 

AiTiiRisEACii, a. {from aithris.) Tautological, repeating, 

AiTiiRisEAciiD, s. f. {from aithris.) Frequent repetition, 

AiTiiRisEADH, eidh, s. m. The act of repeating; a repetition. 

AiTiittisiciiE, .V. 7». A tautologist ; a tale-bearer; a reciter; 
a narrator ; an imitator. 

Arricii, V. !■/. (/row ait.) Iiiliabit, cultivate, settle; place; 
give place to. Fret. a. dli' àitich, inhabited ; fit. ajj'. u. 
àitichidh, inhabited. 

AiTiciiTE, p. part, of aitich. Inhabited; settled; placed. 
Gu tir àitichte, to an inhabited land. — Stexc. F.xoil. 

AiTinn, a. AVet, damp, moist. Tha t-aodach àitidh, your 
clijfhes are damp. 

AiTiDiiEAciiD, S.f. {from aitidli.) Dampness, wetness, 

AiTREABir, eibh, s. {perhaps aite-threabii.) An abode, dwell- 
ing; a building; a steading. Theid an aitreabh sio.s, <^fir 
building will decai/. — Stew. Ecc. IF. athrev, a house, and 
adrev, home. N. pi. aitreabhan. Written also aitreamh. 

AiTREABHAcn, a. {from aitreabh.) Of, or pertaining to, an 
abode, or building ; domestic. 

AiTREABiiACii, aich, s. m. {from aitreabh.) An inhabitant; 
a lodger; a tenant; a farmer. i\^ ;;/. aitreabhàiche. 

AiTREABiiAN, n. pi. of aitreabh. 

AiTKEACii, eich, s. in. Cuntr. for aitreabhach ; which see. 

AiTREAMii, eimh, An abode; dwelling-house. Written 
also aitreabh ; which see. 

AiTREAMiiACii, eich, s. m. {from aitreamh.) See Arrutt- 


t Ai,, I-. Nurse; praise. ( alo.) Frit. a. dh' àl, 
nursed; fut. off. a. àlaidh, shall nurse. 

Al, ail, s.m. (7;-. àl.) A brood ; litter, offspring ; the young 
of a bird ; a generation. A solar dhearc dha h-;\l beag, 
gathering berries for its calloxo young. — Oss. Caul. Al 
stiallaeh, speckled ojfspring. — Stexc. Gen. Trom le h-al, 
heavy with young. — Id. lad fein 's an cuid ail, themselves 
and their young. — Old Song. An t-àl a tha ri tcachd, the 
generation to come. — Sm. Luf. al-o, to rear. IF. al. 

t Al, ail, s. m. A rock, a stone ; fear ; a horse. For this 
last sense, see All. 

Al, ail, s. m. Nurture; food. — //•. 

t Ala, ai, s. m. A trout ; a wound. — //-. 

Alacii, aich, s. m. {from al.) Brood, the young of a bird, 
a litter ; tribe, crew, generation. Mar iolair Laoir air 
a h-alach, like an eagle of Lora over her young. — Oss. 
Tra thig un sealgair gun fiiios air alach, when the hunter 
conies unexpectcdlii on a bruoil. — Orr. 

Alacii, aich, s. m. The nails in a boat; a new set; activity, 
alacrity; also a request. — l\lacdon. Alach-ramh, a bank 
of oars. — Macfar. 

Alacii, a. Of, or belonging to, a brood; prolific. 

Alacii-ua.mii, raimh, s. m. A bank of oars. 

Alacii Ai;, aig, Ò. m. A hook, a crook ; a peg, a pin. N. pi. 

Alacii AGACii, a. Full of hooks, or crooks; full of pegs; 
like a crook, peg, or pin. 

t Aladii, aidh, s. m. Wisdom, skill ; also malice, a lie. 

Aladh, aidh, .v. m. {from al.) A nursing. 

Alain, «. White; bright, clear. /;•. alain. 

Alaineaciid, s.f. (_/)o/H alain.) Beauty; whitei'.ess; bright- 
ness, clearness. 



A LATiiAiR, adv. Present, at hand; in existence, in life. 
Sec also Lathaiu. 

t Alb, a. {Lat. alh-us.) White. Greek, according to Hey- 
schius, a>.(po<i. Chald. alban, to be u/iitc. Sj/r. alben, to 
li/iitcii. Tent, alp, II s-iian. 

t Alii, ailb, s. m. An eminence; a height. 

Alp.a, Albainn, and Albuinn, s. f. {Corn. Alban.) Scotland. 
Eididh na h-Alba, the costume nf Scotland ; tha mi dol dh' 
Albuinn, / am goins: to Scotland ; Albainn bheadrach, be- 
io'ced Scotland ; a chlann Alba nam buadh, i/c sons ofxicto- 
rioiis Albion. — Fingalkin Poem. 

The oldest name of Britain is allowed to have been Albitm. 
Tills is the name given to Scotland by the Scotch Celts: and 
tliey do not know it by any other appellation. " Sed hoc nomen," 
says Buchanan, " magis e libris eruitur, quani in cominnni sernione 
u^urpatur, nisi prjcscrtini apud Scotos, qui se Albmieh, regiontm 
suani, Albin adliuc vocant." 

ALnANNACii, a. Scotch, Scottish ; of or belonging to Scot- 
land. Eorp ag amharc Ghaidheal Albannach, Europe 
heholding the Scotch Gael. — Old Sung. 

Albanxacii, aich, s. m. A Scot, a Scotsman. Is Albannach 
an duine so, this man is a Scot ; is fior Albannach e, he is 
a true Scotchman. N. pi. Albannaich, Scotchmen. 

ALr.ANXAiCH, ^fn. sing, and n. pi. of Albannach. 

Ai.D, iiild, s. m. A rivulet; a mountain stream. Ag aomadh 
thar an uikl, bending oxer the stream. N. jil. uild. Old 
British, aled, ajlowing stream. 

Aldan, ain, s. m. {dim. of aid.) A rivulet; a streamlet. — 
0.y.s. Tern. 

Ald.vnacii, a. Abounding in rivulets ; of or belonging to 
a rivulet. 

t Alfad, aid, s. m. Cause, reason. 

t Alga, a. Noble, great. — Ir. 

t Algaciid, s.f. Nobleness, greatness, nobility. 

t All, aill, s. m. A horse. 

This is an ancient Celtic vocalile, long gone into disuse among 
the Gael ; but we have it in composition with cab, or cap : as 
cahnlt, or c'lpiill, a liorse or mare ; literally a tamed horse, or a 
horse accustomed to the bridle; from cab, mouth, and all, horse. 

t -Yll, Aill, s.m. {Corn. als. ' Ir. all.) A rock, a cliff; 
a great ball ; a generation; race. 

Arab, hhal, high. Chald. hhali, high. Sp: hholi, height. 
Chald., /night. Heb. hal, aborc. Teut. hel, high. 
Per.s. and .Irab. al, high. In some parts of Africa, alle, 
high. Ethiop. alal, to elevate. Turk, al and ali, high. 
Maiitchcou Tartars, al-in, a hill. Alin, a mountain, in 
Mogul. Malacca, ala, surpass. Dan. boll, a hill. Sax. hull. 
En<;lish, hill. Etrurian, alse. Ft. alzare, to elevate. Turk. 
allah, God, or the High Being. Jap. ala, God. airmen, ael, 
God. Pun. ille. Sin: elolia, God. 

t All, a. {Ir. all. Gr. aWi-o;, other. Arm. all. Arab, hhal, 
high. Chald. hhali.) Foreign ; great, prodigious. Seldom 
used but in composition with some other word, as all- 

t All, a. White. 

This word lias long been obsolete; but we see it in the name 
of a stream that runs into the Tweed, namely, Allan ; i. e. Ali-un, 
or AU-amhulnv, the white or foaming stream. Anciently Alwen. 

t Alla, s. m. The Most High. 

Allaban', ain, s. m. Wandering, deviation, aberration. 

t Allabiiair, .$. m. (All, cliff, and labhair.) An echo. — //-. 

Alladh, aidh, *■. m. Fame, report, greatness. Alladh 
Dh,\;bhiilh, the fame of David. — Steu-. 1 Chron. ref. Deagh 
alladh, a good report ; drocli alladh, a bad report. 

.Allaidii, a. (from all.) Corn. alta. Wild, ferocious, 
savage, terrible; boisterous; also beauteous. See All- 
uiDii. Beathaiche allaidh, wild beasts. Corn, beathuige 

Alla I L, a, {from alladh.) Noble, illustrious, excellent, 

glorious. Daoine allail, illustrious men. — Stew. 1 Chron. 

Written also alloil ; which see. 
Alla-miiadadh, aidh, s. m. A wolf. Chual an t-alla- 

mhadadh an fhuaim, the wolf heard the sound. — Oss. Conn. 
t Allbiiuadii.\cii, aich, s. m. A prince's hall. 
Allbhuadhach, a. (from tall, great, and buadhach.) 

Triumphant, victorious, conquering, 
t Allchur, s. m. Transposition. 

ALLGnLoir,, s. f. Gibberish, jargon, vainglory, gasconading. 
All-ghlòracii, «. Inclined to utter jargon ; vainglorious, 

Allgiiort, glioirt, s. m. An orchard. Contracted for 

abhall ghort ; which see. 
Allmhadadii, aidh, s. m. A wolf. Written also alia- 

Allmhaidh, a. Fierce, terrible, wild, boisterous. Armailt 

allmhaidh, a terrible army. — Old Poem. Written oftener, 

allaidh and allaidh. 
Allmhara, Allmharach, a. Foreign, strange, transmarine, 

exotic ; wild, ferocious, untameable. ÌF. allmyr, a place 

beyond the sea. 
Allmharach, aich, .5. m. A stranger, a foreigner, an alien, 

a barbarian ; one from beyond the seas ; a foreign foe ; 

■a transmarine foe. larmad nan allmharach, the remnant of 

the strangers. — Sm. Luingeas nan allmharach, the ship 

of the sea-borne foe. — Old Poem. Ir. id. 
ALLMHARAcnn, j.y. Barbarity, cruelty ; the state of being 

t Allod, adv. Formerly, of old. — Ir. 
Alloil, a. Noble, excellent, illustrious, glorious, renowned. 

Daoine alloil, we/j of renown. — Stew. Num. ref. Is alloil 

thusa, thou art glorious. — Stew. G. B. Written also allail. 
Alloileachd, s. f. Nobleness, excellentness, illustrious- 

ness, gloriousness, renown. 
Allonta, (7. Brave, noble ; excellent, of good reputation. 
Alloxtachd, j'. /'. Bravery; good fame, 
t Alleaox, raoin, s. m. A foreign expedition; a journey 

to a foreign land. 
Allsachail, a. Prone to respite ; worthy of respite. 
Allsachd, *.y. Respite; reprieve; suspension. 
Allsaicii, r. f/. Respite; reprieve; suspend. Pre;, a. dh' 

allsaich, respited ; fut. aff. a. allsaichidh, shall respite ; fut. 

pass, allsaichear, shall be respited. 
Allsmuainn, s. f. A great buoy; a float. 
Allt, uillt, s. m. A mountain stream ; a rill, a brook. 

N. pi. alltan and uillt. Bruach an uillt, the bank of the 

brook ; threig torman nan allt, the murmur of the brooks has 

subsided. — Uss. Diarm. Lat. alt-us, deep. Old British, 

aled, a running stream. Written also alld. 
Allta, and Alltadh, «. (7;-. allta.) Fierce, wild, foreign ; 

strange. Beathaich allta na machrach, the wild beasts of 

the field. — .Sm. IMar leomhann allta, like amerce lion. — Id. 

jr. allda, a stranger. 
Alltax, n. pi. of allt; which see. 
Alltan, ain, s. ni. {dim. of allt.) A brook; a little mountain 

stream ; a streamlet. Drochait air gach alltan, a bridge 

over everj/ streamlet. — Macint. 
Alluidh, a. {Ir. alluigh.) Wild, ferocious, fierce, savage, 

boisterous, terrible ; also beauteous. Stoirra alluidh, ter- 
rible storms. — Oss. Truth. B' alluidh do shuil, fierce was 

thine eye. — Oss. Tcmu. Dh' aoni e air a sgeith umha 

alluidh, he bowed over his beauteous shield of brass. — Oss. 

Alluigh, a. See Alluidh. 
t ALLtJiN, a. Fair, handsome. Now written àluinn. 


A M A 

t Almachadii, a. Charitable, 
t Alp, ailp, s. in. A mountain. 

Alt, uilt, v. m. (7r. alt.) A joint; a joining; a condition, 

state, order, method. X. pi. altan ; daf. pi. altaibh ; as 

an alt, out of Join/. — Stew. Gen. Eadar altaibh na luirich, 

littiitin the Joints of the /lanieii. — Stew. 1 K. 

t Alt, uilt, *. 7n. {Ir. alt.) A nursing, rearing, feeding. 

Lat. alt-um, to nourisL 
t Alt, s. 711. A section of a book ; time, 
t Alt, 4. m. A high place, a hill, eminence; exaltation; 
a leap ; a valley. Lat. a.\t-us, /lig/i. /F. aiht. Corn, ais, 
a hill, or a cliff. 
Altacii, aich, .v. m. A grace at meat. N. pi. altaichean; 

(/. pi. altaichibii. 
.'Vltaciiadii, aidh, .«. m. The act of saluting, or of thanking; 
a saluting ; a salute ; a bracing, as of the joints ; moving, 
Altaciiadh, (ag), pr. part, of altaich. Saluting, thanking; 

bracing, as of the joints ; moving, budging. 
Altaciiadh-be.vtiia, .s. m. A salutation; a greeting; a 

Altaich, -.. n. Salute; thank; inquire after one's welfare; 
relax the joints ; also brace, move, budge. Prct. a. dh' 
altaich, saluted ; fut. aff. a. altaichidh, shall salute; fut. 
pass, altaichear, shall be saluted. Dh' altaich iad beath a 
cheile, they asked for each other's uelfare. — Ste-u:. Exod. 
Alt.\icii, gen. sing, of altach. 
Altaichean, n. pi. of altach. 
Altaichear, /u^ ;;«*«. of altaich; which see. 
Altaichidh, /h^ aff. a. of altaich. Shall or will brace. 
Altail, a. (alt amhuil.) Arthritic. 

Altaiii, gen. altair, and altarach, .v./. (7r. altoir.) An altar. 
Adhairccan na h-altair, the horns of the altar. — S?n. Fa 
chomhair na h-altarach, apposite to the altar. ^Stcw. Zcch. 
N. pi. altraichean, or altraiche. 
Altan, ain, s. »/. Dim. of alt; which see. 
Altan, «. pi. of alt; which see. 
Alt-cheangal, ail, s. m. Articulation, or the juncture of 

Altracii, aich, .v. m. One who fosters ; a nurse. Lat. altrix. 

N. pi. altraichean. 
Altiiadh, aidh, s. in. A man who fosters. Ban-altradh, 

a nurse. 
Altraiche, s. m. One who fosters. N. pi. altraichean, 

one uho prospers, 
Altuam, r. a. SeeALTRUiM. 

Altranas, s. in. A fostering; a nursing. Ir. altrannas. 
Altiiuim, v. a. Nurse, nourish, maintain, educate, foster, 
cherish, i'ret. a. dli' altruim, nursed ; fut. off. a. altru- 
maidh, shall nurse; altrumaidh mise, / will ?iouriih. — 
Steu: Gen. 
Altku.mach, a. Fostering, rearing, educating. 
Altrumachadii, aidh, s.m. The act of fostering; a nursing, 

rearing, educating. 
Altrumachadii, (ag), ;)/•. part, of altruimich. 
Althumadh, aidh, s. «i. A fostering, nursing, rearing, 

Altuumaich, r. Foster, rear, nourish, educate. Fret. a. 
dh' altrumaich, fostered; fut. aff. a. altrumaichidh, shall 
Altri'maidii, /«/. aff. a. of altruim. 

Altuuman, ain, .V. OT. A chief. Seachd altrumain aig loch 
Lain, seven ehiefs at the lake of iMnno. — l'ingalian Poem. 
N. pi. altrumain. 
Altiumain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of altruman. 
Altuciiadii, aidh, i. »1. See Altaciiadii. /r. altughadh. 

Altuich, v. a. Written also altaich; which see. 
t Alugiiain, s. f. Potter's clay. 

AluinN, a. Beautiful, fair, handsome, elegant, goodly. 
Meas chraobh aluinn, the fruit of goodly trees. — Stew. Lev. 
Ir. aluin. 
Am, def art. before words beginning with b, f m, or p, when 
not aspirated ; as am bade, the town ; am fear, the man ; 
am mor'ear, the grandee ; am pàisd, the child. 
Am, interrog. particle ; used before verbs beginning witli b, f 
m, or ;). Am buail thu ? will you strike ! Am fag thu mi 
am aonar? wilt thou leave me alone! — Ois. Fing. Am 
maith thu dha? wilt thou forgive him! Am pàigh thu mi? 
wilt thou pay me ! 
'Am, a colloquial abbreviation of agam ; used in the following 
phrases : Cha n-'eil f hios 'am, / do not know (nan est nutitia 
niihi) ; cha-n'eil fhios 'am fhein, / do nut know ; cha n-'eil 
f hios am fhein gu dearbh, / do not know, I am sure ; I really 
do not knoiv. 

Am, [for mo], poss. pron. My. Ann am lagh, in my law. — 

Slew. Exod. Corn, am, my. 
Am, [conlr. for ann mo.] In my. Ghlac mi am shuain mo 
shleagh, / grasped in my dream 7ny spear. — Oss. Dargo. 

Am, [for anns am.] Lagain am bi na neòinein, dells where 
daisies grow. — Macint. 

Am, [for ann am.] In the. Tha anam am mòrchuis, his 
soul is in (actuated by) pride. — Oss. Tern. Am bùthaibli, 
in tents. — Stew. Gen. Am faoghaid fàsaich, in the forest 
chase. — Oss. Comala. 

A'm, s. m. (//■. am.) Time, season, convenience. X^. pi. 
àmanna, times ; dat. pi. àmannaibh, to times ; na h-àmanna 
so, these times ; am o aois, olden times. — Oss. Lodin. Ann 
am na h-oidhche, in the night time. — Oss. Fing. San am, 
at the time, in the time, in the meantime. — Oss. Temo. Sna 
h-àmannaibh chaidh seachad, in times past. — Slew. Eph. 
Ann an am is ann an an-am, in season and out of season. — 
Stexc. 2 Tim. Am a gheamhraidh, the winter season ; am 
an carraich, the spring time ; am an t-samhraidh, summer 
time ; am an f hogharaidh, harvest time. 

t A.M, a. Soft, moist, damp. Siamese, am, water. Canadian, 
am, water. Bisc. ama, .v<«. 

t Ama, ai, s. 7n. A horse's collar. 

A MACH, adv. Out; without; out of. Tha e a mach, he 
is without ; thig a mach, co;hc o«f. Ir. id. 

Amach, aich, s. 7n. A vulture ; any ravenous bird. N. pi. 

Amad, aid, *. w. A fool. — Ir. 

Amadain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of amadan. 

Amadan, ain, s. 7n. (dim. of amad.) 7;-. amadan. A fool. 
Bithidh e na amadan, he will be a fool. — Stew. Jer. Ni e 
amadain, he will make /hols. — Stew. Job. iV. pi. amadain. 
Amadan-mòintich, a dotterel. — Ir. id. 

Amadanach, a. Foolish; like a fool. 

Amadanachd, s. f. Foolishness; the conduct of a fool. 

AMArAN-MÒiNTii'H, s. OT. A dotterel. A', pi. amadain- 
mòintich, dotterels. 

Amadanta, ei. (from amadan.) Foolish. //■. id. 

Amaid, a. Foolish, silly; also (substantively) folly, silli- 
ness ; a foolish woman. 

A.MAiDEACii, a. Foolish. Nithc amaideach, yòo/(V» things. — 
Stew. Pro. Gu h-amaideach, foolishly. 

A'MAiDEACHD, s. f Foolishuess ; folly; silliness. Ann am 
faidhean amaideachd, foolishness in prophets. — Stew. Jer. 

Amail, a. (am-amhuil), y)-yH( t\m. Seasonable, timely; in 
time ; temporal. 

Amail, r. Hinder, prevent, stop, interrupt, debar, impede. 
J'ret. a. dh' amail, hindered ; fut. off. a. amailidh, shall or 
will hinder. 

A M H 

A M H 

+ Amail, ad". Now ■written amhuil ; which see. 

AMAILIDH,/i/^ of. a. of amail. Shall or will hinder. 

Amaill, s. f. Hinderance, impediment, interruption. A 
cur amaill orm, hindering me. 

Amaill, gen. sing, of am all. 

Amair, gen. si»g. of amar; which see. 

Amais, r. Hit, mark, aim ; find. Pret. a. dh' zmzh, found ; 
fut. aff. a. amaisidh, skail or nilljind; fut. pass, amaisear, 
shall be found. 

Amaisceach, a. Wanton, lewd, lustful. Gu h-amaisceach, 

Am A I sc E ACn D, s.f. Wantonness, lewdness. — Steit:. Mark, ref. 

Amaisidh, fut. qf. a. Shall or will find. 

AwALADH, aidh, .«. m. The act or circumstance of hinder- 
ing ; stoppage, impediment, interruption. 

Amaladh, (ag), pr. part. Hindering, impeding, stopping. 
Tha thu 'g am amaladh, i/ou are hindering me. 

Amall, aill, «. m. A swingle-tree. 

f Aman, ain, s.f. Now written amhainn ; which see. 

Amar, air, s. m. (Gr. ajAa^a., a drain.) A trough; a narrow 
rocky channel. Dh' fhalmhuich i a soitheach san amar, 
she emptied her ressel into the trough. — Stexc. 0. T. Amar 
brulhaidh, a icine-prcss, a press vat. — Stew. Hag. Amar 
mùin, a vessel for holding urine, a water-pot, or chamber- 
pot ; amar fuail, a zvater put, a lessel for holding urine ; amar 
fuinidh, a baking trough ; amar baistidh, a font. 

\ Amah, air, s. m. A chain ; a cable. Gr. aiJifux. Hence 
also the French sea-term amarer, to bind or fasten. 

Amaraich, s.f. Scurvy-grass. — Macd. 

Amar-baistidh, s. in. A baptismal font. 

Amar-bruthaidii, s. m. A wine-press; a pressing vat. — 
Steiv. Hag. 

Amarcach, a. Fond of. — //-. id. 

Amar-fuail, «. w(. A vessel for holding urine; a urinal ; 
a chamber-pot. 

Amar-fi'Ixidii, s. m. A baking trough. — Stew. Exod. 

A.VAS, ais, s. m. A hitting, aiming, marking; finding; a 
finding after a search. 

Amas, (ag), pr. part, of amais. Hitting, marking, aimino-; 
finding; finding after a search. Is tearc iadsan tha ao- 
amas oirre, few there be that find if. — Stew. X. T. 

Amasadii, aidh, .s. m. A hitting, marking, aiming; finding; 
a finding after a search. 

Amasadii, (ag), pr. part. a. of amais. Hitting, marking, 

t Amasgaidii, 0. Profane; belter skelter. 

Amasgaidiieaciid, s.f. Profaneness. 

A MEASG, prep. Among, amongst. 

Amh, s. m. A fool, a simpleton ; a dwarf. 

Amu, a. (Ir. amh.) Raw, crude; unsodden, unboiled, 
unroasted ; naughty. Feoil amh, raw Jlesh. — Stew. Sam. 
Na ithibh dheth amh, eat not of it (unroasted) raw. — Stew. 

t Amh, s. m. Water; ocean. 

Gr. JEol. a^-à, water. Lut. a-qua. Shans. ab and aw. 
Pers. awe. Aa, a river in Courland. Dan. aae. I'r. eau. 
Goth. a. /4/. aa. Low Germ. aa. Swed. a, a river ; and 
perhaps Gr. ati!, a blast. Chin, ho, river. Tart, ou, water. 
See also Abii. 

t Amu, adv. Even, so, as, like. Hence amhuil. 

t Amh, s. a denial. 

Amhach, a. Like a dwarf; like a fool. 

Amhacii, aich, s. m. {Gr. avxn.) Neck. Brisidh tu' amhach, 
thuu shalt break its neck. — -Slew. Exod. G' ar n-amhach, 
up to our necks. — Macint. N. pi. amhaichean. 

Amhaciid, s.f. {from amh.) Conduct of a fool, or simpleton. 

Amiiaciid, J./! Rawness, crudeness. 

AMHAiL,ar/r.(y}om tamh.) Like to, such as, as. See Amhuil. 

A MHÀIN, adv. Only, alone. //■. id. 

Amhainm, .?.y. A river. {Comp. of amh and TÌm.) See also 

IV. afon and avon. English, f afene. Swed. aen, or an. 
Arm. afon. Corn. auan. Manx. aon. Germ. am. Lnt. 
t amanis, contr. amnis ; and in the old dialect of the Scotu- 
Briguntcs, anion and. aman. Ir. amhan. Moorish, anian, 
water. Copt, pi-aimen, a lake. Brazilian, amen, rain. 
Men, or min, « river in China. In Huron, aouen is water : 
Chinese, yven, source of a river. In Frauche Comte, an 
osier is called aivan, as it grows beside waters. Mar- 
an-on, the American name for the river Amazon, seems to 
be Mor-an, a great flowing stream, with on, an Indian 

Amhairc, t. Look, see, behold, observe, regard. Pret. a. 
dh' amhairc, looked; fut.qf. a. amhaircidb, shall or will 
look; amhairc thairis, overlook, take no notice of — Stew. 
Pro. Amhaircidh mi oirbh, I will regard i/ou, or have 
respect unto you. 

t Amiiaxt.vs, ais, s. m. Royal privilege ; good luck. 

t Amiiaox, i. Twins; plurality. 

t Amiiar, air, s. m. A vessel for holding malt; music. 

Amharag, s.f. Mustard; also sweet marjoram. 
amar-us, bitter ; and amaracus, sweet marjoram. 

t A.MiiARC, aire, s. m. A fault. 

Amharc, aire, s. m. A look ; a looking, viewing, observing, 
inspecting; a look, a view ; sight, observation, beholding, 

Amharc, (ag), pr. part, of amhairc. Looking, viewing, 
observing, inspecting, beholding. 

Amharcholl, s. Apthongs. — Shaw. 

Amiiartak, ain, «. m. Fortune, luck, prosperity; also a 
lucky person. 

Amhartaxach, a. Fortunate, lucky, prosperous. Cotn. 
and sup. amhartanaiche, more or most fortunate. — Stew. 

Amhartanachd, s.f (from amhartan.) Good fortune; 
a course of good fortune, prosperity. 

Amhauus, uis, s. m. (Ir. amharus.) Doubt, suspicion, 
distrust. Fuidh amharus, in doubt, .suspected ; fuidh amh- 
arus umaibh, in doubt about yuu. — Stew. Gal. Gun amh- 
arus, without doubt, indeed : am bi thusa gun amharus a' d' 
righ ? wilt thou be indeed a king .' — Stew. Gen. 

Amh.vrusach, a. Distrustful, suspicious, doubtful; am- 
biguous. Deisboireachd amharusach, doubtful disputation. 
— Stew. Rom. Coin, and sup. amharusaiche, 7nore or vio^t 
suspicious. Ir. id. 

Amiiarusachadh, aidh, s. m, A mistrusting, a doubting. 

Amiiarusacud, s.f. (from amharus.) Distrustfulness, sus- 
piciousness, doubtfulness. 

Amiiarusaich, I. Mistrust, suspect, doubt. Pret. a. àW 
amharusaich ; fut. ajf. a. amharusaichidh. 

Amhas, ais, s. m. (Ir. amhas, wild.) A madman ; a wild un- 
governable man ; also a dull, stupid person. JV. pi. àmhasan. 

Amhasach, a. (from amhas.) Wild, ungovernable; like a 
madman ; also dull, stupid. Com. and sup. amhasaiche, 
more or most wild. 

Amhasag, aig, s. m. A foolish female. 'R. pi. amhasagan. 
Ir. amhasag. 

t A.MHASAN, ain, s. m. A sentry. 

Amhasan, n. pi. of amhas. 

Amiighair, gen. sing, of amhghar ; which see. 

Amhgiiar, air, s.m. (Lk/. angor. fr. avar. /;•. amhgar.) 
A.ffliction, anguish, trouble, sorrow, distress, adversity, 

A M U 


calamity. Dh' amhairc e air m' amhghar, he looked on mi/ 
affik-tion. — Stac. Gen. Am tharruingeas av n-amhghar gu 
ccann, a time -j:ìneìi nhiill 'Iraxi: our troubles to a close. — 
Mac Lacfi. 

Amiiciiauach, a. (from amhghar.) Distressed, distressful, 
troublous ; calamitous. Coin, and sup. amhgharaiche, mure 
or must fUstrcxxJ'ul. 

AMiioHAiiAiciir, x. m. A distressed person; one who has 
long been in distress. 

Amhgharaiche, a. ; earn, and sup. of anihgharacli. 

t AjiHLABiiAiR, «. Mute, dumb, spe'echless. Co(«. anlavar. 

Amhladh, aidh, s. ?;/. A duplicate; a copy ; a transcript. 

Amhlair, s. m. A fool, an idiot; a brutish man ; a boor. 
Sparradh tu ceill san amhlair, thou uouldst drive uisdom 
into a fool.— R. N. pi. amhlairean. 

Amhi.aireach,«. Foolish; brutal; like an idiot ; boorish. 
Com. and sup. amhlairiche. 

Amhlaireachi), s.f. (^from amhlair.) Foolishness; bruta- 
lity ; boorishness. 

Amhlaisg, s. /'. Bad beer; taplash. 

Ajihlaisgeach, ich, .?. ?». A brewer of bad beer; also, 
adjectively, insipid or weak as bad beer. 

A.MiiLUADH, aidh, .5. 7n. Confusion; trouble; astonishment. 
Amhluadh air na sagairtibh, astonishment on the /iriests. — 
Stew. 0. T. Is amhluadh e, it is confusion. — Utexc. Lex. 
Air an amhluadh cheudna, in like manner. — Utew. Is. 

Amhluaidh, gen. sing, of amhluadh. 

A.MHLriDn, and Amiili'i', adv. As, like as, in like manner, 
resembling, so. Amhlui' mar shruth a ruitheas bras, like 
as a streuin that runs amain. — Sin. Ni h-amhluidh sin 
a bhios na daoine poacach, not so shallbe the nicked men. — Id. 

Amhnarach, a. Shameless, impudent. 

f Amhnas, ais, s. m. Impudence, shamelessness. 

t Amhra, ai, «. »». A dream ; a poem ; a sword-hilt. — Ir. 

t Amhra, a. Great, noble, good ; dark. 

t Amhradii, aidh, s. m. Mourning, wailing, lamentation. 

t Amhran, ain, s. n. A song. 

Amhuan', .?. ;)/. Eyelids. /F. ararant. Written also «i//)v//;, 
and fabhrun. 

Amhiil, rtf/i. (/('. evel. Corn. avel. y/;v«. hanvel, evcl, <»!(/ 
eval.) Like, resembling, as. in like manner, so, such as. 
Amhuil ceòl tannais ag eiridh air cuilc na Lèig mall, like 
the strain of a ghost rising amid the reeds of slumbering 
Lego. — Ull. Amhuil sin, so, in like manner. — Stew. Rom. 
Amhuil tonn air tràigh, like a wave on the shore. — Ull. 
Amhuil mar so, even as this, just like this. Armoric, evcl 
ma so. Amhuil mar an duine so, just like this man. 
Armoric, cvel ma zeo den. 

t Amhuil, v. Spoil, plunder. 

Amhl'inx, .s.y. An oven ; a furnace. Amhuinn dhcataich, 
a furnace of smoke. — Stew. 0. T. Germ, ofi'cn. Goth. auhn. 

Amlacii, a. Curled; having ringlets; flowing as hair; 
tressy. Fait anilach or-bhuidh, curled yellow lucks. — 
ringatian I'ocni. Cum. and sup. amlaiche. 

Amladh, aidh, s. m. A stop, hindcrance, impediment, in- 

Amlag, aig, «./. A curl, a ringlet. iV. /;/. amlagan. 

Ami.acach, a. Curled ; tressy; full of ringlets. Amiagach, 
clcachdach, curled and tressy. — Macint. 

A.MRAiDH, s.f. A cupboard. Ir. amri. Fr. armoirie. 

Ijil. armarium. 
AyiViou, adv. Out, without. An taobh amuigh, the outside. 
+ Amus, uis, An ambush, surprise; sudden onset; 

also leisure. — //■. 
Amusach, aich,«. m. One who is punctual to an appoint- 
ment. aniusaicli. 

t Amusach, a. {from àmus.) Of or pertaining to an ambush. 
i\y,' (Cor/;, an. Jr. an.) The. An oidhche dhubhradh, 
the gloomy night. — Oss. Cum. An steud each san t-sliabh, 
the wnrhor.':e in the hill.- — Id. An is also written 'n, as, 
'n t-àl a tha ri teaclid, the generation to come ; an t-eun, 
the bird ; the other df. art. is am, which is used before 
words beginning with b, p,f, m, not aspirated; in other 
instances an is used. 

An, prep, fur ann. In. Mar dharraig an glcann, like an oak 
in a vallei/. — Oss. Fing. 

A^s, priv. particle. Not; equivalent to the English wff. As, 

anaoibhinn, joyless. In the Coptic tongue, an means jwt. 

Ann. an, a priv. particle. Gr. av, and anv, without. 

Old Fr. ana, without. Old Sax. and Old Germ, an, a priv. 

particle. Eng. un, a priv. particle. 

Ax, an infensative particle, as, aritighearnas, tyranny. 

Ax, interrog. particle. An d' thig iad ? will thei/ cume? An 
d' f liuair thu i, mar eal' air chuantai? J'ound you her like 
a swan on the deep.' — Oss. Conn. An is often written '«, 
as, 'n d' thig thu ? wilt thuu come .' 

t An, .?. m. {IF. and Ir. an. Old Swedish, ana, water.) Au 
element ; a principle ; water. 

From An are derived the names of a great variety of rivers 
tliroughdut Europe; as, Anio, in Italy; Ancmo, near Ravenna; 
Anupus, in i'irily, in Illyria, and inChiioiiia; AnuuTusm Tliessaly; 
and many otiiers. 

A great antiquary observes, that there is a striking resemblance 
between many words in the Celtic and Darien h»ni;iiaj4cs which 
might give rise to very nsef'ul disquisition. Antilles, is a general 
name lor those islands which lie beyond Bermudas, towards the 
guljjh of Mexico, including the Lucayan, Bahama, and Caribhecs ; 
" and it sÌL'nifics," says he, " water lands, from fan, water, and 
tealla, land." There is certainly much acutcness, and seemingly 
much truth, in this observation ; for il; will be tbund that, in many 
lanf!uages, the word which signifies island, means also mater land : 
what is insula, lor example, hut 7iitdu-sulum > undergoing, in tl)o 
course of time, the following changes : — undusol, unasol, by trau:- 
position, unsoitt, and lastly insula, an island. 

An, prii. and infens. particle. 

t An, «, Still; pleasant; pure; noble; true; swift. Ir. 

f An, ain, s. m. A falsehood ; also a planet. Hence comes 
liian, [which, by metathesis, is tho Latin luna] moon; being 
compounded of lualii, snift, and an, planet. 

Aii, puss. prun. Their. Na dichuiinhnich an mv,furget net 
their dust. — Oss. Temo. 

t Ana, «. Riches; fair weather; a silver cup. 

Ana, priv. and intens. particle; sometimes used for an, 
as, ananicasarach, immoderate. 

Anabaich, a. See Anabuicii. 

Anadaistrach, ich, s. ?n. {from i\n, inlens. and hMstcach.) 
An anabaptist. N. pt. anabaisliclic. 

.Vnaisan, *. Excess, superlluity, too much, redundance; 
rioting ; written also anabhar ; which see. 

Anaiiahuaoi, n. Excessive, superfluous, exceeding; shock- 
ing, terrible. Mendaichidh mi thu ga h-atiabarrach, I will 
increase yun exceedingly. — Slew. Gen. Cum. and sup. aua- 
barraiche, more or must excessive ; ni 's ro anabarraiuhe, 
much more e.rceeding. 

-Vnabas, ais, s. m. llcfuso, dregs, ofTscouring. 

Anabasach, a. Full of ilregs; muddy. Com. and sup. 

Anaba.sachi), s.f. The state of being full of dregs; 

Anabeachu, s. f. (ana, iutcns. and beaclid.) A strange 
fancy; a wild idea ; ainhiliuM. 

Anabeaciidaii,, «. Fanciful; wild; chimerical; haughty; 

ANABEACHDALAcnn, 4'.y. Fiincifuhicss ; wildness; hauj^hti- 
ness ; ambitiousness. 



Anaeiiarr, i. Excess, superfluity, too much, redundance; 
riotins- Ri h-anabharr, going to eicess. 

Ana-ciiiorach, aich, s. ?». (/"ro/» ana, iii/cns. a/it/ bioracb, 
sfiarp.) A small venomous insect. 

Ana-bhiorach, a. {from ana, i/ilais. and bioracli, sharji.) 
Very sharp, %'ery pointed. 

AxABLAS, ais, s.m. {ann, priv. and bias.) Tastelessiiess, insi- 
pidity. Anablas t-uirighioll, the iniijndifi/ oftiiy eloquence. 
—Old Song. 

AxABLASDA, c. lusipid, tasteless. Deoch anabldsta, an 
itiiipid drink. 

A.vA-BLASDACHD, s.f. Insipidncss, tastelessness. 

AxABRAis, *./. Lust. — Macd. 

AsABUicii, a. (an, /jjii. anrf abiiich.) Unripe, raw ; prema- 
ture ; abortive. Fion-dhearcan anabuich, unripe grapes. 
— Stem. Job. Torrachas anabuich, n J'alus, an uiu'inicli/ 
birth, an embryo. — Stea. Job. and Eccles. 

AxAiiuiDii. See Axabiicu. 

Anabuidheaciid, s.f. (an, prir. and abuidheachd.) Un- 
ripeness, crudity, immaturity, abortiveness. 

t Anac, aic, s. m. A wound. 

Anacail, s.f. Quietness, tranquillity, repose,; preserva- 
tion, safety. Ir. 

AxACAiL, v. Preserve, deliver, save, protect, secure. Fret, 
a. dh' anacail, delaered ; fut. aff. a. anacailidh. 

Anacaixnt, s. f. (ana, intens. and cainnt.) Abusive lan- 
guage ; ribaldry ; blasphemy. — Stexc. Eph. ref. 

AsACAiXKTEACH, o. Abusive in speech; prone to ribaldry; 
blasphemous. Gu h-anacainnteach, ahusixebi. 

Anacair, s.f; more properly unshoe air ; which see. 

AxACAiTHTEACir, fl. Extravagant, wasteful, prodigal. 
Com. and sup. anacaitlitiche. 

AxACAiTHTicnE, *. m. A spendthrift, a prodigal. 

Anacaitheadii, eidh, Axacaitiieamii, oimh, s. vi. and /". 
Extravagrance, prodigality, profusion, waste; riot. Fear na 
h-anacaitheadh, the naster. — Stew. Pro. Thaobh ana- 
caitheimh, on aeeount of not. — Ste-u:. Tit. 

t Anacal, ail, s. m. A quiet person. — Sha:i-. 

An'acaladii, Anacladii, aidh, s. m. A prcscr\ing; a 
delivering ; preservation ; deliverance. 

Asacaladh, Akacladii, (ag), pr.pait. of anacail. Pre- 
serving, saving, securing, protecting. 

Anaceart, a. (ana, priv. and ceart.) Unjust, impartial, 
iniquitous, unfair. Gniomh anaceart, an unjust deed. 

.\naceartas, ais, s.m. (ana, /jWi . onr/ ceartas. Injustice, 
iniquity, oppression, unfairness, partiality. 

Axaceist, «.y. A puzzle, a riddle ; a difficulty, dilemma. 

t AxACH, aich, s. in. A path; also a washing, a cleansing. 

t Anaciiain, s.f Danger, peril, hazard, misfortune, crisis. 

+ Anachax, ain, s. tii. One who keeps in the way ; an in- 

t Anachracii, a. Full of pity, compassionate. 

+ Anaciiuadii, aidh, .5. m. A wretch, an object of pity. 

t Anachras, ais, s. m. Pity, compassion. 

Anachaoix, r. Lament, deplore to excess. Fret. a. dh' 

Axaciiaoixeadh, idh, s.f. Excessive weeping, wailing. 

AxACHixxTEACn, a. Uncertain, unsure. 

Axacuuuas, ais, *. in. Avarice, extreme avarice. 

AsACHURAM, aim, s. m. Care, anxiety. 

Anaciiùramach, a. (ana, intens. and curamach.) Anxious, 
solicitous, overanxious. Gu h-anachuramach, oicr- 

AxA-cixxTE. i.y. (and, priv. and cin ate.) Uncertainty. 

AsACLEACiiD, s. m. Inexperience. Is mor d' anachleachd, 

great is thy inexperience. 
Axacxeasda, Axacxeasta, a. (ana, prìi. and cneasta.) 

Inhuman, cruel, unjust, perverse. Le beul anacneasta, 

■with a perverse mouth. — Stew. Pro. 
Axacneasdachd, Anacxeastaciid, s. f. Inhumanity, 

cruelty, perverseness. — Sten'. Pro. ref 
AxACoTHROiM, oim, S.f Injustice, violence, oppression, 

unfairness, disadvantage. Luchd-anacollirom, oppresinrs. 

—Stew. Cor. ref. 
AxACOTiiROMACii, a. (ana, priv. and cothromach.) Unjust, 

violent, oppressive, unfair. Gu h-anacotluomach, uppres- 

AxAcuF.iDEACii, icli, •«. w/. (for anacreidimheach.) A sceptic, 

infidel, unbeliever. An latliair nan anacreideach, bej'ore the 

unbeiuxers. — Stev:. 1 Cor. 
AxACREiDEACH, a. (an, p/iV. ««./ creidimheach.) Sceptical, 

unbelieving. Bean anacreideach, an vnbelitving uife. — 

Sfcii: 1 Cor. 
AxACUP.iDiMii, S.f (ana, prit. and creidimh.) Infidelity, 

unbelief, scepticism. Jr. aincreideamh. 
AxACRiosD, s. Antichrist. 'I'hig an t-anncriosd, Antiehritt 

shall coine.—Steu: 1 John. 
AxACRiosDACiiD, s. f (contr. fir anacriosduigheachd.) 

Paganism, heathenism, infidelity, irreligion. 
AxACUiosDuiDH, .!. m. A heathen, pagan, infidel. 
Anacriosduigheachd, s.f.,prii. ont/ criosduidhcachd. 


Axacuimse, s.f. (ana, priv. a?td cuimse.) Vastness, im- 
mensity; immoderateness, intemperateness. Fear na h- 
ana-cuimse, an inteniperatc man. 

AxACi'iMSEAcri, a. (ana, /;m'. anf/ cuimseach.) A'ast, im- 
mense; immoderate, intemperate. Gu h-anacuimseach, 

AxACUiMSE.\CHD, s. f. (ana, ;)//i-. and cuimseachd.) Im- 
menscness ; immoderateness, intemperateness. 

AxA-cuL, s. f. (ana, priv. and cul.) A lean condition of 
body. Is baileach a chaith gu h-anacul, /uw verp lean vou 
have bcco7ne ! 

AxACULACH, a. Lean, thin, slender. Conip. and sup. ana- 
culaiche, more or juost lean. 

AxAGiiLAis, s.f. Hog-wash. — Sha'j:. 

AxAGiixÀTii, s. m. (ana, priv. and ghnàth.) Bad custom ; 
irregular habit; innovation. A'. /)/. anaghiiathana. 

AxAGXATiiACii, a. (ana, /))ir. and gnàthach.) Unusual, not 
customary, irregular. Com. and sup. anagnathaiche, more 
or most unusual. 

AxAGxÀTiiAXA, «. ;j/. of anagnàth. Bad customs. D. pi. 

Ax"AGOiREAS, eis, s. m. (ana, priv. and goireas.) Excess, 
want of moderation ; inconvenience. Chaidh e gu h- 
anagoireas, he went to excess. 

AxAGOiREASACii, 0. Excessive, immoderate ; inconvenient. 
Com. and sup. anagoireasaiche, more or most excessive. 

Ax.i^GOiREASACHD, S.f. Excesslvcness, immoderateness. 

Ax'AiL, gen. anaile and analach, s.f (Ir. anal.) Breath, 
breeze, air. A caoidh air anail na gaòithe, her moan on the 
breath of the winds. — Oss. Derm. Anail nan speur, ihc 
breath of the skies, i.e. uind. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Anail a 
shròin, the breath of his nostrils. — Stev:. Job. Bias a 
h-analach, the smell of iter breath; leig t-anai!, f/razr j/cii//- 
breath, take rest ; leigibh ur n-anail, rest yourselves. — .SVe;. . 
Gen. Gabh t-anail, take rest. Corn, anal and anadl. 
IF. anadyl, breath of life. Szced. andhal, a breathing hale. 

.\XAIM, gen. and roc sing, of anam. Anaim chrin air d" ais, 
back, t/iou little soul,— Oss. Fin. and Lor. 



Ax-AiMsin, s. f. (an, prh. and ainisir.) Unfavourable 

weather; tempest; improper time. /r. anamser. 
An A I MSI u F.I I., a. (an. /)Wv. and aimsircil. Unseasonable, 

ill-limed. IV. anamserawl. 
+ Anaithxe, i. m. {an,prh\ and aithne.) A private man, 

an obscure man. 
t Anaitiiniciite, a. Unknown, obscure, unnoticed. 
A NALL, adv. Hither, to this side; over, from the other 

side. //•. an' all. 
A\-AM, s. in. (an. ])riv. and am.) Unseasonable time, un- 

A NAM, aim, s.m. (Gr. avtfi-o?. Lat. animus. Fr. fimc. 
/r. anam.) The soul ; life; spirit; love. Is aoibhinn d' 
anam a'd tìCÒW. joyous is t/n/ soul in thy clouds. — Oss. Truth. 
Teich airson t-anam, escape for thy life. — Stew. Gen. 
Anam fàis, a regctativc sou/ ; anam fàsmhor, a vegetative 
soul. — Blocd. Anam reusonta, a reasonable soul ; anam 
mothachail, a sensitive soul. Air m' anam, on my soul. 
An-amacii, «. Late; unseasonable. Com. and sup. ana- 

inaiche. Gu h-anamach, unseasonabii/. 
Anamadach, a. {from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having 

soul, life, or animal spirits. 
Anamadail, a. (from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having 

soul, or life, or spirits. — Maeint. 
Anamain, gen. and voe. sing, of anaman. 
Anaman, ain, s. m. {dim. o/'anam.) A little soul. Anamain 
chrlne nan gniomh neoghlic, thou little soul of deeds 
unwise. — Mac Lach. An t-anaman truagh, the poor soul; 
anaman de, a butterfly. 
AxAMAN-DK, s. m. A buttcrfly. Na h-anamain dc, the 

Anamanta, a. {from anaman.) Full of soul, of life, or 

animal spirits. 
AxAM-ciiARA, s. ill. A bosom friend. 
An'am-ciiahaid, s. VI. A bosom friend. N. jd. anani- 

+ Anamciiaidii, a. Brave. 

An A.MEASARRA, A.vameasakacii, o. Litcmperatc, immo- 
derate, vast, licentious. Caitheamh anameasarach, im- 
moderate expense or extravagance. 
AxAMEASAURAtiiD, s. f Intemperatcncss, immodcrate- 

ness, vastness, licentiousness, e.xcess. 
An AMèiNEACii, a. Perverse, stubborn, malicious. Com. 

and sup. anameiniche. 
Ax AMEiNEACiiD, s. f. Pcrvcrseness, stubbornness, ma- 
liciousness. — Stew. Rom. ref. 
i Anam II AC II, «. Lively, sprightly. 
-\ An a Mil AIN, s. m. A panegyrist. 

Anamiimils, uis, .5. m. Extreme distrust or suspicion. 
Buailteach dh' anamharus, liable to extreme distrust. — 
An AMMAiiusACii, n. (an, intcns. and araharusach.) Sus- 
picious, jealous, f xtrcinely suspicious, extremely jealous. 
Com. and suji. anamharusaiche, more or most Jealous. 
An AMU I ANN, s, (ana, intens. ami miann.) anamhi- 
annan ; anamliiannaibh. Sensuality, lust. Fear 
anamhiann, a sensualist; luchd anamhiann, sensualists ; 
auamhiann na feòla, /he lusts of the flesh. — Stew. iV. T. 
An \miiiannacii, a. (ana, intens. and nliaunach.) Ir. anbhi- 
anacli. Sensual, lustful, carnal. Fonii anamhiannacli, 
iensual desire, lust of concupiscence. — .Stew. 1 Tliess. Cum. 
and sup. anamhiannaiche, more or most sensual. 
Ana.miiuus, uis, v. m. See Anamharus. 
ANAMHiifSACii, a. See Anamiiarusacii. 
Anamocii, fl. Late, unseasonable ; also the evening. Tha 
e anamoch, it if late, he is late; Ì3 binn guth Laoire 

san anamoch, sweet at evening is the voice of Lora. — Oss. 
Ana.mianx, s. m. (an, intens. and miann.) Sensuality, lust ; 

written also anamhiann. 
Anamianxacii, a. (an, intens. and miannach.) Sensual, 

lustful, carnal ; written also anamhiannach. 
Anaopiiacii, a. {?i.n, priv. and aobhach.) Cheerless, joyless, 
gloomy. Anaobhach gun solus do chiùilsa,Joiy/fii, without 
the light of thy song. — Oss. Taura. Cum. and sup. anao- 
bhaiche, more or most Joyless. 
Anaoibiiinn, .s. (an, y»/i'. flnrf aoibhinn.) Woe, grief. Is 
anaoibhinn dhasan, woe unto him. — Stew. Jer. Is anaoi- 
bhinn duit, woe unto thee. — Stew. Matt. Ir. id. 
Anaoibhinn, Anaoibiineacii, a. Joyless, mournful, un- 
happy. Anaoibhinn airson mhic Dhuibhne, mournj'ul Jor 
the sun ofDuno. — Oss. Derm. 
Anaois, s.f (an, priv. and aois.) Non-age, minority. 
An ART, airt, s. m. Linen. Anart gmn,fne linen; anart 
hinrd, table linen ; anart gealaichte, bleached linen; anart 
glas, dowlass ; anart canaich,yH4<ian. 
t Anasda, a. Stormy. — Shaw. 
f Anasgar, fl. Restless ; irksome, 
t Anasgarachd, s.f. Restlessness; irksomeness. 
A NASGUIDII, a. Gratis; for nothing; as a present; more 

frequently 'nasguidh ; which see. 
Anàtiiacii, a. Fierce; fearless. Gu h-aigeantach an- 

athach, in a joyous and fearless manner. — Old Song. 
Anbarracii, a. Exceeding, excessive, overmuch; awful, 
terrible. Le ball-chrith anbiirraich, with exceeding [ilismay^ 
trembling. — Stew. Gen. Written also anbharrach. 
t Anbiiail, a. Shameless, haughty, 
t Anbhal, a. Prodigious. — Shaw. 
Anbiiann, a. ; more properly anfhann ; which see. 
Anbharrach, a. (an, intens. o/k/ barrach, tupped.) Exceed- 
ing, excessive, overmuch; awful, terrible. Anbharrach 
fireanta, overmuch righteous. — Stew. Ecc. Com. and sup. 
anbharraiche, more or must excessive ; ni 's ro anbharraiche, 
much inure excessive. 
Anbharraiche, a.; com. and sup. of aubharrach. 
AnbiiAs, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and bhàs.) A sudden death ; 

a shocking death ; a catastrophe. 
Anbiiàth Ai)ii, aidh, s. m. A deluge, inundation; a melan- 
choly drowning. 
Anbhlas, ais, s. m. (an, priv. and bias.) A bad taste, an 

insipid taste. W. anmlas. 
Anbhochd, a. (an, intens. and bochd, y;oo;-.) Extremely poor. 
ANBirociiDi INN, i. m. (an, intens. a«(/ bochduinn.) Extreme 

poverty ; extreme misfortune, 
t Anbhroi), old, s. m. A tyrant, 
i- Andacii, aich, i. »1. Wrath, anger; evil. 
AndAn, a. (an, intens. and dan.) Impudent ; presumptuous. 

Com. and sup. àudainc. 
Andànadas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and dànadas.) Impudence, 

t Andauh, a. Just. 
An I)E, adv. Yesterday. Air bliò 'n de, the day before 

yesterday ; an diugh sau de, tu-ilay, and yesterday. 
Ax DEinii, a(/r. In love; fond; desirous. Tha e 'n deidli 
oirre, he is fund nf her ; an dcidh air an cX, fund of drink- 
ing ; written 'n dcidh. when a vowel precedes. 
An i)i.iiiii,rt(/r. After ; behind. Andeigh an duine sin, ie^/«(/ 
that man ; 'mo dlieigli, behind me ; 'na dlicigh, behind him : 
na deigli, behind her; nan deigii, behind them; written 
'ndeig/i, when a vowel precedes. 
An i>EiGii-t,AiMH,n. Afterwards ; after-hand ; behind-hand. 
Written '« deigh laimh, when a vowel precedes. 

A N F 

A N I 

An-deurach, o. Mournful; tearful; weeping excessively ; 
causing excessive grief 

Andeistinn, s.y. Squeamishness; loathsomeness. 

An-deistinneach, o. Squeamish; loathsome. 

Andiadh'acud, s.f.; contr.for andiadhaidheachd. 

Axdiadhaidh, ANDiADHUiGH,a. {2si,priv. oHf/diadhaidh.) 
Ungodly, impious, profane. 

Andiadhaidheachd, Andiadhuidheachd, s.f. Un- 
godhness, impiousness, profanity, irreligion. 

An diugh, adv. Today. Written also 'n diiigh, when pre- 
ceded by a vowel, as, thig e 'n diugh, he iiill come to-dai/. 

Akdociias, ais, *. in. (an, intens. and dòchas.) Presumption ; 
sanguine expectation. Ir. andothchas. 

Andochasach, a. (an, intens. and dochasach.) Presump- 
tuous ; sanguine. — Macd. Ir. andothchasach. 

Andlighe, s. Illegality; injustice. Fear andlighe, «« i/»- 
Just man. 

Andligheach, o. Illegal, unjust ; also a transgressor. 

Andoigh,.s.?«. (an,/)r/i;.anrfdoigh.) Bad condition; bad state. 

Andolas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and dolas.) Sadness ; priva- 
tion of comfort. 

Andolasacii, a. (an, intens. and dolasach.) Sad ; comfort- 
less ; sorrowful ; irksome. Com. and sup. andolasaiche, 
more or most sad. 

+ Andkas, ais, s. III. A fury; an infernal divinity. 

An DRÀSD, adi. Now, at present. An dràsd *s a ris, noxD 
and then ; more properly an troths. 

Andr.\sdaich, adv. provincial. Now, at present. 

+ .\ndrobhlasach, aich, .«. m. A spendthrift. 

t Androbhlasaciid, s.f. Extravagantness, prodigality- 

t Andual.vrasc, s. m. {Jr. id.) The figure in rhetoric 
called catachresis. — Shaw. 

Anduine, s. m. (an, priv. and duine.) A wicked man. — /;-. 

t Andul, uil, s. m. Avidity. 

Aneadargnaidh, i. in. A stranger. 

Aneagal, ail, s. m. (an, intens. and eagal.) Astonishment, 
extreme terror. 

Aneagalacii, a. Timid; also formidable, or causing terror. 

Anearb, v. (an, pn'r. and earb.) Distrust; suspect. Pref. a. 
dh' anearb, distrusted. 

Anearbsa, Anearbsadh, aidh, v. in. Distrust, suspicion, 
jealousy; non-reliance. 

Anearbsach, a. (an, priv. and earbsach.) Distrustful, 
suspicious, jealous ; also causing suspicion or distrust. 

Anearbsaciid, s.f. (an, priv. and earbsachd.) Distrustful- 
ness, suspiciousness. 

Anfadii, aidh, s. m. A storm, a tempest. Anfadli cuain, 
a storyn at sea ; written also anfadh. — // . id. 

Anfadhacii, a. Stormy, tempestuous. Cnan aufadliach, 
a stormy sea. 

t Anfas, ais, s. m. Fear, terror. 

Anfhainne, com. and sup. of anfhann.) More or most 
weak. ladsan a b' anfhainne, those -ucho xcere ueaker. — 
''itew. Gen. 

Anfhainneaciid, s.f. (an, intens. a;i(/ fann.) Weakness, 
debility, infirmity. 

Anfhann, a. {an, intens. and fann.) Corn, anvan. 11'. anfan. 
Weak, feeble, infirm ; tender. Suilean anfhann, tender 
eyes. — Stew. Gen. Com. and sup. anfhainne. 

Anfhannachadh, aidh, s. m. The circumstance of en- 
feebling, or making less strong; a weakening, a de- 

Anihannachadh (ag), pr. part, of anfhannaich. Weaken 
ing, enfeebling, debilitating. 

Anfhannachd, (an, intens. and fannachd.) Weakness, 
infirmity, debility. 

Anfhannaich, v. a. (an, intens. and fannaich.) Weaken, 

debilitate, make infirm. Pret. a. dh' anfhannaich, weakened ; 

fat. aff. a. anf hannaichidh, shall weaken ; fut. pass, anf lian 

naichear, shall be weakened. 
Anfhannaichidh, y«^ aff. a. of anfhannaich. Shall or 

will weaken. 
An-fharsuing, a. (an, priv. and farsuing.) Narrow, strait, 

An-fharsuikgeaciid, s.f. (an, priv. and farsuingeachd.) 

Narrowness, straitness, tightness. 
Anfiieillidii, a. (an, priv. and feillidh.) Loud, boisterous, 

rough, unhospitable, wild. Le toirm anfhèillidh, with a 

boisterous noise. — Oss. Conn. 
Anfhios, s. m. {an, priv. and fios.) Ignorance. Luchd anfhios, 

ignorant people. 
Anfhiosach, a. (an, priv. and fios.) Ignorant, untaugiit, 

unlearned, illiterate. Com. and sup. anfhiosaiche. 
Anfiiiosrach, a. (an, priv. a«rf fiosrach.) Ignorant; un- 

apprized, not aware. — 6Vf;r. Lev. 
Anfhiosr.-ichd, s. f. Ignorance; the slate of not being 

aware or apprized. 
Anfiiocail, gen. sing, of anfhocal. 
t Anfhocain, «. /. Danger, hazard. 
Anfhocal, ail, s. m. (an, intens. and focal.) A bad word ; 

an improper expression ; a taunt; a reproach. 
Anfuoighideann, inn, s. in. (an, priv. and foighideanu.) 

Impatience, restlessness. 
Anfhoighidinneach, a. (an, priv. and foighidinneach.) 

Impatient, restless. 
t -Anfhoralamu, aimh, s. m. Constraint; danger. 
+ Anfhorlan, ain, 6. ;«. Power; plundering; oppression. 

Anfhuras, a. (an, priv. and furas.) Not easy, difficult. 
t Ang, aing, s. m. Renown ; rank ; a string ; a twist, 
t Angach, a. Full of nails. 
Angadii, aidh, s. in. The gusset of a shirt. 
Ang.anach, aich, s. in. A snare. 
Angar, air, s. m. A stall for cattle; anger. 
Angathlann Acii, a. Glittering, bright, burnished. 
An-giilaodh, s. m. (an, intens. and glaodh.) A loud shout ; 

a piercing cry. — Ir. id. 
Anghlaodhaich, i. A loud shouting, a continued loud 

Anglonn, a. Very powerful ; very strong ; brave. 
Anglonn, oinn, «. m. Adversity; danger; strength. — //■. 
Anglonnacii, a. Very powerful; very strong; brave; also 

adverse ; dangerous. 
Angnatii, *. m. See Anaghnath. 
Angnathach, a. See Anagiinathach. 
Angiiradh, aidh, s. m. (an, intens. and gradh.) Great 

attachment, ardent love, doting fondness. 
Anghradiiach, a. Very fond, dotingly fond, ardently 

fond ; ardently loved. 
Anghradhaiche, s. m. A dotard; one who loves to 

Angracii, a. Angry, provincial. 
t Angraidh, s. m. {from ang.) A man of rank ; a ruler ; 

+ Angrais, .f. /n. An engine; a machine. 
Aniartas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and iartas.) An unreason- 
able demand ; a mandate. 
An-iochd, s. f. (an, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty; want of 

feeling ; rigour ; oppression. Le h-an-iochd, with rigour. 

— Stew. Lev. 
Aniochdar, a.; more properly aniochdmhor. 


A N R 

Aniochdmiioire, com. and sup. of aiiiochdmhor. More or 

most cruel. 
Aniochumhor, a. (an, priv. and iochdmhor.) Cruel, un- 
feeling;, merciless, uncompassionate, imperious. Bha i an 
iochdmhor, it av/* cniei. — Stext: Geii. Creachadairean 
aniochdmhor, merciless plunderers. — Macfar. 
Amos, or, 'nios, adv. Up, from below; from the east. 

Thig 'nios an so, come vp here. 
A Nis, or, 'xis, adv. Now ; at this time. Dean a nis e, do 

it at this time ; a nis mata, hku then. 
+ Amudadh, a. Depraved. — Shaw. 
tAMuiD, s./'. Error; depravity. 

AjJLAOcii, aoich, .?. m. (an, intens. and laoch.) A bloody 
warrior. Fo chasaibh nan anlaoch, tinder the feet of the 
b/oodi/ -ii-arriors. — Oss. Truth. 
Anl.voicii, gen. and voc. sing, and n. pi. of anlaoch. 
Anli'Ciid, s. m. A grievous weight; an oppressive burden ; 

overweight. Fo anluchd, oppressed. 
ANLUCiiUAini, r. Overload; surcharge. P;t^ w. dh' an- 

luchdaicli, overloaded. 
Anwiiaoin, .«. Strife; great riches. 
Anmiiiann, s. See Anamhiann. 
Anmhiannach, a. See An amhiann ach. 
Anmiiodii, .y. 7H. (an, priv. and modh.) Disrespect; bad 

breeding ; a bad habit. 
Anmhodhail, a. (an, priv. and modhail.) Disrespectful; 

ill bred. 
Anmhor, a. (an, intens. and mòr.) Exceeding, excessive, 
very great, exorbitant. Sonas anmhor, e.ieceding Joy. — 
Smith. It. id. Com. and sup. anmhoire. 
Anmhuinne, coot. and. vk/j. of anmhunn. More or most weak. 
Anmiiuinneaciid, s.(from anmhunn.) Weakness, debility, 
infirmity, decrepitude, unhealthiness. Anmhuinneachd na 
feòla, the weakness of the Jlesh. — Stne. Gal. 
Anmhunn, a. Weak, feeble; slender; decrepit; sickly; 
pliant ; not stiff. Chum nan ceud thoiseach anmhunn, to 
the weak elements. — Stew. Gal. 
.Anmiunnaciiadii, aidh, s. m. (anmhunn.) A weakening, 

ANMiiUNNACiin, «./. (/row/ anmhunn.) Weakness, feeble- 
ness, decrepitude, unhealthiness. 
Anmhl'nnaicii, v. Weaken, enfeeble, enervate, make 
faint. I'ret. a. dh' anmhunnaich; fit. off. a. anmhun- 
naichidh, shall weaken ; anmhunnaichidh e neart nan 
treuna, he will weaken the strength of the strong. — 
Stew. Job. 

The last six worJs are spelt accordint; to Dr. Stewart's ur- 
thograpliy. See liis Translation of the Scriptures, Hint. xxvi. 4 1 ; 
Job, xii. 21 ; 1 Cor. i. 2J, &r. &c. Macfarlanc's spellinf; is pie- 
ferahle ; as, nii/V/u/iH, &c. ; the words being considered, as they 
clearly are, compounds of fun n. 
Anmocii, n. i&n, prir. and moch, earli/.) Late. Bithidh tu 

anmoch, you will be late. Com. and sup. anmoiche. 
Ammocii, oich, s. 7n. Evening; night. Madadh alluidh an 

anmoich, the evening wolves. — Stew. Zeph. 
+ Ann, .s. w. A circle ; a revolution. //«/. ann-us, « rcio/u- 
tion of the earth, or i/rar ; hence also, reann (/. f. re and 
ann) a star, and its diminutive reannag. 
Ann, prep. {Ir. aniij In, therein; in existence, alive. 
Ann fcin, in himself, with himself. — Stew. Jon. An linn 
a bha ann o sliean, the race that existed of old. — Oss. I'ing. 
Clia 'n anil, not, no, it is not ; bhcil thu aim? art thou 
there! an d' thu th' ann Y is it you! is it i/ou that are ! are 
you there! is it you I see ! Is mise th' ami. A chrochair 
tha thu ann, you rascal, that t/ou are ! 

Gr It. in. Arm. on. Goth, and, and ana. /;■. ann. 
Teut. an. liisc. an. Span. en. 

Ann, comp. pron. In him, in it. Cha 'neil ann ach an 

crochair, he is but a rascal. 
t Annach, a. Clean. 

Annad, (/or ann tu.) In thee. Jr. ionnad. 
+ Annadii, aidh, s. m. Delay. 
Annag, aig, s. m. Evil, anger, displeasure. 
.'Vnxaibii, comp. pron. ( /"or ann sibh.) In you, within you. 

Cha 'n eil ciall annaibh, you have no judgment. 
.\.N'NAiBiiSE, emphatic form of «n/iuii/( ; which see. 
Annainn, comp. pron. (/"or ann sin.) In us, within us ; in 

our power. Annainn fein, in ourselves. 
Annam, comp. pron. {for ann mi.) In me, within me ; in my 

power. Ir. ionnam. 
Annamii, a. Few, rare, scarce, seldom; curious. See 


Annas, ais, s. m. Rarity; change for the better; perhaps 
annos, from an, priv. and nos, custom. 

Annasach, a. {from annas.) Rare, unusual, strange; 
dainty ; desirable. Nithe anasach, dainties, rarities. — 
Stew. Pro. ref. Com. and sup. annasaiche, more or most 

Annlan, ain, s. m. What the Lowland Scots call kitchen; 
that is, whatever food, as, butchers' meat, butter, cheese, 
eggs, &c. is taken at dinner, after broth, which forms the 
first course of à Scotch dinner. It expresses all the more 
substantial eatables, ab ovo usque ad mala. 

An xocud, or, 'nochd, adv. To-night, this night. An nochd 
is an reidhir, this night and the last. 

A Nois, or, Nois, adv. Now, at present, at this time. In 
the southern districts of the Highlands they say a nis, and 

Annrach, aich, s. m. A stranger. See Anracii. 

Annraciid, s.f. The highest degree in poetry next the 

fAxRADii, r. Grieve; afflict; harass. 

Annradii, aidh, s. in. A storm, a storm at sea; also a 
poet next in degree to an ollamh ; a boon. See Anradii. 

Annsa, «nd Ansadii, «. (/r. annsa. Swell, aunse, to respect.) 
Dear ; desirable, wished for ; attached ; beloved ; accept- 
able ; glad ; also a love; a person beloved. Ged nach b' 
annsa dhi an t-òg, though the i/oiith was not dear to her ; 
b' annsa thu na dearrsa grein, more acceptable wert thou 
than a sun-beam. — Oss. Derm. Fo bhròn mu m' annsa, 
mourning for my beloved. — Id. An càladh aigh annsadh, 
the joyous wished for harbour. — Old Song. B' annsa Ico 
sgur, they were glad to desist. — Old Poem. 

An N SAC II D, s. f. {from annsa.) A person beloved. Tha 
m' aniisachd mar-bhogha san speur, my beloved is like a 
cloud in the skies. — Oss. Cathliino. Annsachd Dhe, the 
beloved one oj' God. — Sm. Jr. annsacht. 

Aniia, ai, «. TO. A storm, a tempest; misfortune, trouble, 
disaster, calamity. Anra cuain, a storm at sea. — Oss. Guut. 
T-anra san speur, thy trouble in the sky. — Oss. Truth. 
Written also anradh. 

Annsadh, a. See Annsa. 

Anns, prep. In, within ; used before the definite article. 
Anns an t-saoghal, in the world. 

Annsan, comp. pron. {Jor ann esan.) In him. 

Anracii, aich, v. w. {from anradh.) A stranger; a dis- 
tressed person. Tha dorus Fhinn do 'n anrach Hal, Fingal's 
door is open to the stranger. — Oss. Is i do ghnùis do 'n 
anrach a ghrian, thi/ countenance is to the forlorn a sun. — 
Old Poem. 

Anracii, a. (/or anradhach.) Stormy ; distressed ; floating; 
streaming, as hair in the wind. Air a chuan anrach, on the 
stornii/ sea. — Oss. Gaul. D' flialt anrach, Ihi/ streuiiiini^ 
hair.— U II. 

A N S 


Anradh, aidh, s. vt. (perhaps an-thrath.) A storm, tempest; 
distress, misfortune, trouble, disaster. Mac Morna 's e 'm 
meadhon anraidh, the sun ofMorni in the midnt of a tempest. 

Oss. Gaul. Theirgreadii mo dheòir nan teirgeadii gach 

anradh, jni/ fears nould cease if every trouble Mere to vanish. 
— Id. N. pi. anradhan ; written also anrath. 
Ankadhach, a. (/ror/i anradh.) Stormy; distressed; also 
floating, streaming, as ringlets in the wind. Com. and 
sup. aiiradhaiche. 
AxRAiDH, gen. sing, of anradh. 

Anraidh, a. Distressful, sorrowful, sad. Aithris anraidh 

mo chreach, the sad tale af my bereaxtmcnt. — Oss. Cuthula. 

Anrath, aith, s.m. (perhaps an-thrath, /'/-ow; an, priv. and 

tràth, season.) A storm, a tempest ; misfortune, calamity. 

Ankathach, a. (/iom anrath.) Stormy; distressed; also, 

substantively, a distressed person. 
An REiDHiR, or, 'nreidhir, flf/r. Yesternight, last night, 

last evening. 
Anri.vdh, reidh, s. m. (an, intens. and riadh.) Usury, ex- 
tortion, exorbitant interest. 
Anriaghailt, i. f (an, prix. and riaghailt.) Disorder, 

confusion, tumult, uproar, riot ; misrule, mismanagement. 
Anriaghailteach, a. (an, ;);;;. a//f/ riaghailteach.) Con- 
fusing, disordering, disordered, riotous. Com. and sup. 
+ Anrodhach, a. See Anradhach. 
t Anrodhaidh, s.m. {Ir. id.) Affliction, trouble; more 

properly anradh ; which see 
An roir, 'nroir, adv. Last night, last evening. 
An-sgaineadh, eidh, «. w. A violent bursting ; a chasm. 
An-sgaixteach, a. Apt to burst; apt to open into chasms; 

causing chasms. Talamh an-sgainteach, chasing ground. 
t Ansgairt, v. Shriek aloud, cry. — Ir. id. 
Ansgairt, s. f. (an, intens. and sgairt.) A loud shout ; a 
piercing shriek or cry. Phill sibh le 'r n-ansgairt, you 
returned uith your piercing shrieks. — Oss. Gaul. Also a 
thicket of brambles. 
Ansgairteach, a. (an, ?«?<■«*.««(/ sgairteach.) Uttering a 

loud shriek ; shouting, shrieking ; loud, piercing. 
Ansiiamhlachd, s.f. (an, ;)nf. «/(rf samhlachd.) Incom- 

An-shamhluichte, /((/;•<. Incomparable; unmatched. 
Ansiiannt, s. m. (an, intens. and sannt.) Greed, covetous- 

ness ; extreme avarice. 
Anshanntach, a. (an, priv. and sanntach.) Greedv; co- 
vetous, immoderately greedy. Com. and sup. anshann- 
taiche, greedier, greediest. 
Anshanntach, aich, s. m. {from anshannt.) A greedy 

person ; a greedy gut. 
.\nshaoghalta, a. (an, intens. uni/ saoghalta.) Worldly, 

immoderately fond of the world, worldly-minded. 
Anshaoghaltachd, s. f. (an, intens. and saoghaltachd.) 

Worldliness, immoderate regard for the world. 
Anshoc AIR, y.y. (an, /»•«■. and soca.\r.) Ir. anacar. Distress; 
disease; bodily or mental trouble; restlessness; disquiet. 
Droch anshocair, an evil spirit ; a had disease. — Stei^. Ecc. 
Anshocrach, a. {a.n, priv. and socrach.) Troubled in mind 
or body, distressed, afflicted, restless. Sluagh anshocrach, 
an afHicted people. — Stexv. Zcph. Com. and sup. anshoc- 
raiche, wore or most afflicted. 
Anshocraiche, com. and sup. of anshocrach ; which see. 
Anshogh, s. m. (an, priv. and sogh.) Misery, adversity, 

mischance. — Ir. id. 
Anshoghail, a. Miserable, adverse, unfortunate. 
Anstrògh, trogha, s.f. (an, intens. and strogh ) Prodigality, 
waste, extravagance ; written also anstrmdhe. 

Anstroghail, «. Prodigal, wasteful, extravagant. Duine 
anstroghail, a prodigal. 

Anstruidhe, Anstruighe, s.f. Prodigality, wastefulness, 
extravagance. Luchd anstruidhe, prodigal people. 

Anstruidheachd, s. f Prodigality, wastefulness, ex- 

Anstruidheachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of wasting or 
spending extravagantly. 

Anstruidheasach, Axstruigheasach, a. (an, intens. and 
struidheasach.) Profuse, prodigal, wasteful, extravagant. 
Com. and sup. anstruidheasaiche, more or most profuse. 

Anstruidheasachd, s.f. Profuseness, prodigality, waste- 
fulness, extravagantness. 

An-tighearna, s. m. (an, intens. and tighearna,) A tyrant, 
a despot. A brosnuchadh nan an-tighearnan, stirring up the 
tyrants. — Macfar. 

Antighearnach, a. Oppressive in governing, tyrannical, 

Antighearnas, ais, «. m. (an, intens. and tighearnas.) 
Despotism, oppression, tyranny. Am fuath th' againn air 
antighearnas, the hatred ue have of despotism. — Macfar. 

Antogar, air, s. m. (an, intens. and togar.) An inordinate 
wish ; ambition ; an unreasonable desire. 

Antogaracm, Antograch, a. (an, intens. and togarach.) 
Lustful; covetous; immoderately desirous. 

Antogradh, aidh, s. m. Lust; concupiscence; covetous- 
ness; immoderate desire. — Steic. N. T. 

Antlachd, *. (an, /)(/r. and tlachd.) Dislike, displeasure, 
disgust, dissatisfaction, discontent. Saor o bhraid 's o 
antlachd, free from theft and discontent. — Macdon. 

Antlachdmhoire, com. and sb;). of antlachdmhor. 

Antlachdmhoireachd, s.f. (an, priv. and tlachdmhoir- 
eachd.) Disgustfulness ; unpleasantness. 

Antlachdmhor, a. Disgustful; unpleasant; causing dis- 
content. Com. and sup. antlachdmhoire. 

Axtlas, ais, s. m. .k ludicrous trick, a frolic: also a cattle 

Antlasach, a. {from antlas.) Frolicsome ; also a frolicsome 

Antoile, s. f. (an, intens. and toile.) Lust, inordinate 
desire ; ambition. Fear na h-antoile, the ambitious man ; 
ioma gne do antoilibh, mami sorts of lusts. — Stem. Tit. 
Ir. id. 

AxToiLEACii, a. (an, intens. and toileach.) Lustful; am- 
bitious; inordinately desirous. Com. and sh;;. antoiliche. 

Antoileil, i. e. antoil-amhuil, a. (an, intens. and toileil.) 
Wilful, obstinate, perverse. Gu h-antoileil, pervcnely. 

t Axtomhail, s.f. Gluttony. — Shav:. 

t Antomhailtear, ir, s. m. A glutton. jV. ;;/. antomh- 

AxTRÀTH, s. (an, priv. and trath.) Unfavourable weather ; 
stormy weather ; a storm. This perhaps is the proper 
orthography, and not anfadh, onfad/i, and anradh. 
Antratiiach, a. (from antrath.) Unseasonable, untimely, 

Antrocair, s. f. (an, priv. and trocair.) Mercilessness, 
cruelty, want of compassion. Fear antrocair, a merciless 
Antrocaireach, a. (an, priv. (/niTtrocaireach.) Merciless, 

■ cruel. Com. and sup. antrocairiche. 

i Antro.m, f/. (an, intens. and trom.) Grievous to be borne, 
intolerable ; oppressive ; atrocious. Com. and sup. an- 

I truime. 
Antromachadh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of 

aggrieving, aggravating, making heavy or burdensome. 
Antromachadh (ag), /)r. part, of antroraaich ; which see. 

A B 

A O G 

AjCTROMAicii, r. Oppress; aggrieve, aggravate ; overload ; 
make insufferably heavy. P/ef. a. dh' antroraaich, op- 
pressed ; fiit. ajF. a. aiitromaichidh, shall make heaiy ; dh' 
antromaich e ar cuinge, lie made uuryoke /leaii/. — Steu\ 1 A'. 

AsTROMAiniEAR, /u^. /JAM. of antromaich. Sliall be made 

AsTROMAiciiinn,/«<. «//". a. of antromaich ; which see. 

Antruacaxta, a. (an, priv. and truacanta.) Pitiless, mer- 

AxTRUACAXTA, (7. (an, iiifeiìò-. and truacanta.) Compas- 
sionate, merciful. 

Antruas, ais, s. m. (an, priv. and truas.) Want of pity, or 
of mercy. 

Antruas, ais, s. ni. (an, in/ens. and truas.) Great pity, 

Axtkuime, com. and sup. of antrom., i.y". (an, j'n^fn.y. o«(/ truinie.) Oppression; bur- 
deiisomeness. Luchd na h-antruime, oppressors. 

Anuaibhir, s./. Excessive pride. Luchd na h-anuaibhir, 
the cicessiicly proud. 

Anuaibiireacii, a. (an, priv. and uaibhreach.) Not proud, 
humble, lowly. Com. and sujj. anuaibhriche. 

Anuaibhreach, a. (an, intens. and uaibhreach.) Proud, 
haughty; proud to excess. Com. and sup. an-uaibhriche. 

AxuAiLLE, s.f. (an, /);ri. on(/ uaille.) Want of pride, hu- 
mility, affability. 

Anuaille, s.f. Can, intens. and uaille.) Extreme pride. 
Air mhor anuaille "s air bhcag ceil!, proud and sil/i/. — Old 

Anuair, s.f. (an, intens. and uair.) A storm; unfavourable 
weather ; mischief. 

A.v uair, adv. When; often written and almost always 
pronounced 'nuair, and nur. — Ir. id. 

t Anuais, a. Fierce, barbarous. — Shaw. 

Anuallacii, a. (an, priv. and uallach.) Not haughty; 

Anuallacii, a. (an, intens. a«f/ uallach.) Haughty, proud; 
airy, supercilious. 

Anuallacii, aich, s. f. (an, intens. and uallach, burden.) 
An oppressive burden ; oppression ; hardship. 

A NUAs, adv. Down, from above, from the west. Thig a 
nuas an so, come down here. — Ir. id, 

Ani'asal, a. (an, priv. and uasal.) Mean, ignoble; not 
proud. Ir. anuasal. 

Anuinn,«. The eaves of a house. 

An uiniDii, adv. An uair a ruith, /asf year. Written also 
'nuiridh. See Uiridii. 

Anur, s. m. (an, priv. and ur.) ìl'. anwr. A mean, sorry 
person ; a wretch, miscreant. 

t AoBn, aoibh, s. m. Similitude. 

AoniiACii, a. Joyous, glad, cheerful ; also beautiful. Ccud 
ogan aobiiacli, « hundred joyous youths. — Orr. B' aobliacii 
mise, glad was I. — Macint. Coin, and sup. aobhaiche, more 
or most joyous. 

AoBiiACUD, .v./. Joyfulness; also beauty. 

AoniiAiciiE, com. and sup. of aobiiach. More or most glad. 

AonnAlR, gf7i. sing, of aobhar. 

AoBiiAR, air, s. m. (Corn, ara.) Cause, subject, reason, 
matter. C ait am bhtii aobhar uaill ? where is there cause 
for pride f — Orr. Thuit iad an dcap;h aoljhar, they fell in 
a good cause. — Old I'oem. An t-aobliar mu 'n d' thainig 
ginn, the reason why we came. — Old I'oem. Air an aobhar 
sin, therefore, for that reason ; aobhar ghàir, laughing- 
ttock ; aobhar bhroin, cause Jor sorrow; aobliar ghuil, 
cause for weeping ; bheir mise aolihar giniil dhnit, I will 
give you reason to en/; aobliar eagail, a cause oj terror ; 
aobhar giiearaiii, a cause of complaint. 

AoBRAiNN, gen. sing, of aobrann. 

AoBRAiNNEAN, fi. pi. of aobrann. 

AoBRANN, ainn, Aobrunn, uinn, .«. m. Tlie ancle, the 
ancle-bone, the ancle-joint. Gu ruig na h-aobranna, to the 
ancles ; as, an aobrann, out of the ancle-joint. — Stew. Ezek. 
N. pi. aobrainnean, aobranna, and aobrunnan, ancles. — 
Stew. Acts. 

Aobranna, Aoerunnan, n. pi. of aobrann, and aobrunn. 

Ao-coLTACii, a. (ao, priv. and coltach.) Unlike, dissimilar; 
improbable, unlikely. See Eu-coltacii. Cum. and sup. 

Ao-coltaciid, 5. /". Unlikeness, dissimilarity ; unlikeliness, 
improbability. See Eucoltachd. 

Aodacii, aich, s. m. Cloth, clothes, dress. Aodach leapach, 
bed clothes ; aodach canaich, cotton cloth, calico ; aodach 
olladh, woollen cloth ; aodach sassunnach, English cloth : 
aodach Hn, linen cloth ; written also eudach. 

Aodachadh, aidh, s. m. A clothing, a dressing, a covering. 

AoDAicn,gf«. sing, of aodach. 

AoDAicn, V. Clothe, dress, cover. I'ret. a. dh' aodaich, 
clothed ; Jut. ajf. a. aodaichidh, shall ur will clothe. 

AoDAiciiE.xu, fut. pass, of aodaich. Shall or will be clothed. 

AoDAicniDii,/tt?. off', a. of aodaich. Shall or will clothe. 

AoDAiCHTE, p. part, of aodaich. Clothed, clad, covered, 

AoDAiNN,^fn. sing, of aodann. 

AoDANW, ainn, s. f. [Arm. adyn.) Face, forehead, front, 
visage ; surface. Re aodann sleibhe a leumnaich, bound- 
ing on the face of the hill. — Oss. Truth. As an aodann, to 
the face ; clàr an aodainn, the brow. N. pi. aodainnean, 
faces. Written also cudan ; which see. 

AoDANNACii SRÈINE, s. m. The front-stall of a bridle. 

AoDARMAN, ain, «. w. A bladder ; properly ei/^;-oCTa«. 

t AoDii, s. w. A sheep. 

TIioukIi this word be seldom used separately, it is seen in 
composition, as in the following vocable. 

AoDiiAiR, s.m. (aodli-fhear.) 7r. aodhaire. A shepherd ; 
a pastor; a protector. i\\ ;^/. aodhairean. Tri aodhairean, 
three shepherds. — Stew. Zeeh. Bheir mi dhuibh aodhairean, 
/ will give you pastors. — Stew. O. B. Contracted aoir ; 
which see. 

t AoDiiAiR, s. m. A conflagration; a fiery desolation. 

AoDiiAiucAciiD, S.J'. The occupation of a shepherd; 

Aodhairean, n. pi. of aodhair. Herds; shepherds; pro- 
tectors ; pastors. 

AoDiiAii, air, s. m. (Laf. ador-o.) Worship, religious re- 
verence. Bheir sinn aodhar dlia, we will worship him. 

AoDiiKAiu, 5. w. Anowner; an author. A''.;)/, aodhnairean, 

Aodiinaireachu, «./. Ownership; authorship. 

Ao-DioNACii, a. (ao, pWr. rtn(/ dionach.) Leaky; not water- 
proof; not air-proof; not affording shelter. 

Ao-DioN ACiiD, s. f. Leakiness ; the state of being not 
water- proof ; the state of being not air-proof. 

Ao-DociiAS, ais, s. in. (ao, priv. and dochas.) Despair, 

Ao-noc'iiASACii, a. (ao, priv. and dochasach.) Hopeless, 
despairing, despondent; causing despair. Com. and sup. 
aodochasaiche, inore or most desperate. 

Ao-DOCiiASACiin, s.f. Despondency, melancholy, tendency 
to melancholy. 

AoDRAMAiN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of aodraman. 

AoDRAMAN, ain, s. m. A bladder; better aotroman, or 

Aoo , aoig, s.m. Death; a ghost, spectre, skeleton. Dol 
aog, di/ing ; neul an aoig, the colour ol' death ; written also 
eug : which see. 

A I 

A O I 

AoGAiDii, a. ( from aog.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, death- 
AoGAiL, a. (i. c. aog-amhuil.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, 

AoGAiLEACHD, .?./". (i.e. aog amhuileachd.) Ghastliness, 

."VoGAS, ais, s. m. (Or. sixtif.) Likeness, resemblance; ap- 
pearance; image, form, countenance. Aogas do bharca, 
the /i/icncss of thy bark. — Oss. Gaul. Is cosmhuil aogas ri 
Dearmad, hi'i form is like to Dermed. — Oss. Derm. D' aogas 
maiscach, thi/ luveli/ countenance. — Steu. Sung. Sol. Writ- 
ten also aogasg. 

AoGASACH, a. (from aogas.) Seemly, decent, becoming; 
pretty, comely ; of a good appeaiance. Co?n. and sup. ao- 
gasaiche, mure or most seemhi. 

AoGASACiiD, s. f. {from aogas.) Seemliness, comeliness, 

AoGASAiciiE, a.; com. and sup. of aogasach. Seemlier, 

AoGASAiL, a. (i. e. aogas-amlmil.) Seemly, comely, be 
coming ; of an imposing exterior. 

Aogasg, aisg, 4. /n. Appearance; resemblance. See Aog.\s. 

t Aogh, s. m. The name Hugh. 

Aogxaich, r. (from aog.) Make pale or ghastly, grow 
pale or ghastly ; disfigure. Pret.a. dh'aognaich, ^/fUTJa/c ; 
fu/. lift', a. aognaichidh, sJiall grow pale ; aognaichidh aogas 
nan aonach, the face of the hills shall grou- pale. — Macfur. 

t Aoi, s. {Ir. aoi.) A swan; a compact; a guest or stranger; 
knowledge ; honour ; an island ; a trade ; a hill ; a pos- 

Aoir.ii, s. m. A civil look ; a patrimony. 

Aoi nil, a. Pleasant, comely, joyous, courteous, cheerful. 

Aoimir.AL, eil, s. f A fire; merriment, rejoicing. — Ir. 
Written more frequently eibhle. 

AoiBHix.v, a. Joyful, glad, cheerful, pleasant. Is aoibhinn 
d' anam a' d neoil, jouous is thy soul in thi/ clouds. — Oss. 
Trath. Oigr h aoibhinn, i/e cheerful youth. — Oss. Fin. 
and Lor. 

t AoiBHLE, s. f. A sign, mark, omen, token. 

t AoiBiiLicH, r. Explain an omen. 

AoiBiixE xcii, ff. (!. e. aoibhinneach.) Joyful, glad, agreeable, 
pleasant. Com. and sup. aoibhueiche, more or most joi/ful ; 
a toirt sgeil aoibhneich, giving glad tidings. — Stew. Rum. 

AoiBiixF.As. eis. s. m. Joy, gladness, pleasure. Aoibhneas 
a shii'ihe, the Joy of his way. — Stetc. Job. Dean aoibhneas, 
he glad ; ni t-athair aoibhneas, thi/ father will be glad. — 
Ste7v. Pro. 

.\oiBHNEASACH, fl. (from aoibhncas.) Joyful, glad, causing 
joy. Com. and sup. aoibhneasaiche, 7nore or most joiful. 

Aoibhneich, gen. sing, of aoibhneach ; which see. 

•VoiBHNEiCHE, Com. and sup. of aoibhneach. More or 
most glad. 

t .\oiDE, s. f. A web; also a youth. — /;■. 

Aoideach, a. Youthful. Com. and sup. aoidiche. 

Aoideag, eig, s.f. A hair lace; fillet. — Ir. id. 

t AoiDEAN, ein, s. m. A leak. 

t AoiDEAXACH, a. Leaky ; also youthful. 

Aoi DUE, s. m. A guest, a stranger, a traveller; a skilful 
person. N. pi. aoidhean, guests. — /;-. iil. 

AoiDiiEACii. a. ( /'/o/H aoidhe.) Hospitable; also a guest, 
a stranger ; a hospitable person. 

AoiDiiEACiiD, s.f. (from aoidh.) Hospitality, bounty; 
lodging; entertainment. Air aoidheachd, enjoying hospi- 
tality. — Stew. 1 K. Thug iad aoidheachd dhuinn, they 
lodged us, the;/ tntertained lis. 

AoiniiEALACHD, .$./". Hospitablencss, bountifulness. Bu 
mhòr d' aoidhealachd, great was thy hospitaliti/. — Old Song. 

Aoidhean, AoiniiEANNA, n. pi. of aoidhe. Guests. Na 
h-aoidhean, the guests. — Stew. K. 

AoiDHEiL, c. (aoidh-amhuil.) Kind, hospitable. An gasan 
aoidheil, the hospitable stripling. — Old Song. 

AoiG, gen. sing, of aog; which see. 

t AoiGH, s. ?n. A hero. -X. pi. aoighean. 

AoiL, gen. sing, of aoi ; which see. 

t AoiL, s. f. The mouth.— /r. id. Bisc. ahol. 

t AoiLBHiNx, s.f. A small flock. 

t AoiLBHREO, s. m. Lime kiln. — //•. 

t AoiLEACH, eich, s. m. A gazing-.stock ; dung: for this 
latter sense, see Aolach. 

AoiLEANN, a. Fine, excellent, charming. 

AoiLEANN, inn, .!. m. A sea maw, a gull. N. pi. aoilinnean. 
Corp is gile thu na aoilinnean, a fairer body thou art than 
the sea maw. — Old Poem. 

AoiLEANN.ACHD, S.f (from aoileann.) Beauty, beautifulness. 

AoiLEANTA, a. Beautiful, charming. Oigh aoibhinn aoile- 
anta, a cheerful beauteous maid. — Old Poem. Ir. aoileanda. 

Aoi LINN, gen. sing. 

AoiLiNNEACH, a. (from aoileann.) Abounding in sea maws; 
like a sea maw ; of, or belonging to, a sea maw. 

AoiLSEAG, eig, s. f. A caterpillar. A^ pi. aoilseagau, 

AoiLSEAGACH, a. Abounding in Caterpillars ; like a cater- 

t AoiN, s. m. A rush; honour; a fast. — Ir. 

AoiN, gen. sing, of aon. Larah gach aoin, the hand of tier i/ 
one. — Stew. E.rod. 

t AoiNE, s.f. Skill. 

fAoiNE, i. Friday. Di h-aoine, friWuy. 

AoiNEAGAN, ain, s. m. Wallowing;; weltering; rolling on 
the ground. 'G a aoineagan fein, wallowing himself. — 
Stew. Maih, ref. Written also aoirneagan ; which see. 

AoiR, s. Satire, lampoon, ribaldry ; railleiy; a curse. 

AoiR, X. Satirize, lampoon. Pret. a. dh' aoir, satirized ; 
fut. aft', a. aoiridh, shall or will satirize. 

AoiR, s. m. a contraction of aodhair. A keeper of cattle. 

Aoi REACH D, .?. f. (from aoir.) The vice of lampooning; 
the habit of satirizing. 

AoiREADH, eidh, s. m. A satirizing; a lampooning. 

AoiRE,\NNAN, n. pi. of aoir. Herds, or keepers of cattle. 
The aoireannan of the IJebrides, siccordJiig to Pennant, are 
farm-serv.Tnts who have the cliarge of cultivating a certain portion 
of land, and of overseein;; the cattle it supports. Thi-se ha\e grass 
for two milch cows and six sheep, and also the tenth sheaf of the 
produce of the said ground, and as many potatoes as they choose 
to plant. 


Aoirneagan, ain, s. m. A wallowing, a weltering, a rolling 
on the ground. Chum a h-aoirneagan san làthaich, to her 
wallowing in the inire. — .Stew. 2 Pet. 

Aois, aoise, s. f. (Gr. "Eto;. I,af. aetas. Corn, huis, and oys. 
//■. aes, and aos.) Age, old age, antiquity. Bloidh sareith 
air a caithe' le h aois, the half of a shield worn with age. — 
Oss. Gaul, larguinn na haoise, the troubles of age. — Oss. 
Conn. Tha m' aois fo dhoruinn, wj/ old age is sorrowful. — 
Oss. Fing. Ann an Ian aois, in full age. — Stew. .fob. 
Thainig e gu h aois, he has come to age. 

Aois-dana, s. pi. (aois, age, and dan, song.) Bards, poets ; 

rehearsers of ancient poetry; a genealogist; soothsayers. 

The aoisdana were in liigli esteem throughout the Highlanih. 

So late as the end of the seventeenth century they sat in the 

sreaih, or circle, among the nobles and the chiefs of families. 



They took precedence of the otlam/i, ov tlic doctor in medicine. 
After the extinction of the Druids, ihey were brought in to pre- 
serve the gcnealojiy of faniilits, and to rtpeat genealogical tradi- 
tions at the succession of every chieftain, 'liny had great inlluence 
over all the powerful men of their time. Their pensons, their 
houses, their villages, were sacred. W hatever they asked was 
given them ; not always, however, out of respect, hut from fear of 
their satire, which frequently followed a denial of their requests. 
They lost hy degrees, through their own insolence and importu- 
nacy, all the respect which their order had so long enjoyed, and 
consequently all their wonted profits and privileges. Martin thus 
describes their mbde of studying and com ting tlic muse. " They 
shut their doors and windows for a day's time, and lay on then- 
backs in darkness with a stone upon their belly, and plaids about 
their heads and eyes, and thus they pumped their brains for 
rhetorical encomiums." 
AoiSD.tNACiiD, S.J'. The employment of rehearsing ancient 

poetry ; bardism ; genealogical tradition. 
AoL, r. a. Lime; plaster with lime ; manure land with lime. 

Pret. a. dh' aol, limed; fut. off. a. aolaidh. 
AÒL, aòil, v. m. Lime. Athaòil, a lime-kiln. Ir. id. 
AoLACii, aich, s. m. Manure, dung, mire; dross, rubbish. 

Bithidh iad nan aolach, they shall be as dung. — Stew. Jer. 
AoLACHADii, aidh, .V. m. The process of manuring with lime. 
AoLACiiADii, (ag), jir. part, of aolaich. Manuring with lime ; 

AoLADAiu, «. m. (aol. and fear.) One who works araonp,- 

lime ; a plasterer. N. pi. aoladairean. 
AoLAUAiiir.AiHD, .v. /'. The occupation of a plasterer; 

plastering; working among lime. 
AoLADii, aidh, *. m. A liming, a plastering. 
AoLAicir, V. a. {from aol.) Liine ; cover with lime; manure 
with lime. Pret. a. dh' aolaich, timed ; fut. (iff. n. aolaicbi Jh, 
shall or will lime. 
AoLAlSDEACii, a. Slothful, indolent, sluggisli. 
.•\oLAR, [/. c. aolmhor.] Abounding in lime ; limy. Talamli 

aolar, limi/ ground. 
AoL-uisGE, s. m. Lime water. 

AoM, V. a. and n. Bow, bend, droop, incline; yield ; lean ; 
persuade; dispose; fall; belly, bulge ; descend, pass by ; 
decay. Pret. a. dh' aom, leaned ; fut. nff. a. aomaidh, shall 
lean. Dh' aom e air sgiath Threinmhòir, he leaned on the 
shield of Trenmur. — O.v.v. Fing. Com 'nach d' aom thu gu 
m' aisling? why didst thou not descend to my dream .'— Oss. 
Guul. Aoraaibh in cluas, incline i/our ear. — Stexe. O. 1Ì. 
Dh' aom e a thriall, he bent his •aui/. Oss. J'ing. An t-am 
a dh' aom, the time that has passed by, literally gone down, 
according to the poetical fancy of lime flowing in a stream. 
— Oss. Fing. Na lài a dh' aom a shean, the days that haxe 
long gone by. — Oss. Fing. Aomaidh an aitreabh, their build- 
ing shall decai/. — Stew. Fee. 
Ao.MAUii, 3 sing, and pi. in/per. of aom. .\oniadh c, le/ him 

lean ; aomadh iad, lei them lean. 
AoMADii, aidh, v. m. A bending, a leaning; drooping, 
yielding, inclining; inclination; a persuading, a disposing, 
ii descending, a |)assing by: also a descent, a slope; a 
fall, a downfal; a bellying out from a line ; the surface of 
the sea. .A clieaiui air aomadh, his head drooping. — I'll. 
Dtibhach air aoinadh chreag, sorrowful on the mountain 
side, on the slopt of the rock. — Oss. Gaul. Air a ghliin ag 
aomadh, bending on his knee. — Ore. An taomadh, the 
ilownfal. — Stew. Is. 
AoMADii, (a',;\ pr. part, of aom. liowing, Ixnding, drooping, 

yielding, leaning, persuading, disposing; falling. 
Ad.mai dii, gen. of aomadh. 

Aomaidh, fut. /iff. a. of aom. Shall or will hati. Sec Aom. 
Aom A 11, fut. pass, of aon\ ; which see. 
t Aon, aoin, v. m. A country. 

t Aon, «. Excellent; noble; illustrious, /j/vc. on. //■. aon. 

AoN, /jf«. aoin, a. (Ir. aon.) One; alone. Thoir dhoinh 
h-aon, give me one; aon air bith, any one; aon eilc, one 
other, another ; aon làtha, one dai/, soine day or other. 
Bithidh sibhse mar niise aon latha, you shall be like me 
(one day) sotne day or other. — Oss. Fin. and Ltir. Aon 
seach aon, one from another. — Sm. Latha 'gin, la h-eigin, 
one day, some day. Ann an aon luing ri allmharaich, in the 
same ship with a transmarine foe. — Old Poim. Lamh gach 
aòin,'</)f hand of exery one. — Stew. .ludg. Is tu fein an t-aoii 
duine, you are the only man, you are a proper fellow. Aon 
eile, one another. Arm. un eil. Tri laitlie bha e na aon, 
three days he was alone. — Oss. Carricth. 

Or. It. Lat. un-us. Dan. een. .'^wed. en. Fr. un and 
une. .Sax. an. Scotch, ane. Germ, ain and ein. Span, and 
It. un-o. Corn, uynyn. Arm. yuuaii and un. Teul. een and 
eyn. i)w. een w/irf eene. C/(«W. hena. .1/i7/(//(i;;-, onnou,oH[. 
AoNACH, aich, s. m. A hill, height, heath, desert place; 
rarely a fir. Ceum do theachd air an aonachd, thi/ 
coming on the heath : literally the step of thine approach.— 
Oss. I'rathal. A siubhal nan aonach ciar, travelling the 
dusky deserts. — Oss. Comala. A direadh nan aonach ard, 
climbing the heights sublime. — Oss. 
AoNACiiADH, aidh, s. m. A uniting, reconciling; a recon- 
ciliation ; an assenting ; an assent. 
AoNACllADii, aidh, *. w. Galloping; a hand gallop; swift 

AoNACHADii, (ag), pr. part, of aonaich. 
Aonachd, s. f. {Ir. eaondachd.) Sameness; unanimity, 
harmony; unity, agreement, one mind. In the sense of 
unanimity, perhaps aonachd is but a contraction of aon- 
hheiichd, one mind or opinion. Aonachd an Spioraid, lite 
uitily of the Spirit. — Stew. Fph. 
AoN-ADiiARCACii, a. Unicomcd, having but one horn 
Aon ADiiAHCACii, aich, s. m. A unicorn. Neart an aon- 

adhurcaich, the strength of the unicorn. — Slew. 0. 7'. 
AoNAtiRAicti, r. Wallow, welter. Vret. dh' aonagraich ; 

fut. aff. aonagraichidh. 
AoNAicii, V. a. Unite, reconcile, join into one; assent; side 
with. Pret. a. dh' aonaich, united ; fut. aff. a. aonaichidh, 
shall unite ; fut. pass, aonaichear, shall be united. 
Aon Aicm.AR, yi/^. /)«.v,s-. of aonaich. Shall be united. 
Aonaichidh, fit. off. a. of aonaich. Shall unite. 
AoNAiCHTr, p. part, of aonaich. United, reconciled. 
Gaidheal aonaichte cruadhaichtc, united, hardy Highland- 
men. — Old Song. 
Aon AIR r, s.f Wallowing, weltering, a rolling on the grouii'l. 
AoNAiRT, V. Wallow, welter, roll on the ground. 'G a 

aonairt fcin, wallowing on the ground. — Stew. Mark, ref. 
AoNAii, o. {from aon.) .'Vlone, solitary, singular. Tha mise 
ri faireadh am aonar, I am watching alone.— Oss. Caul. 
Rinn e so na aonar, he did this alone. 
AoNAiiACHD, s.f. Solitariness, singularity. 
AoNARAN, ain, s. m. {from aonar.) A recluse, a hermit, a 
solitary person. Aonaran liath nan creag, the grey-headed 
hi emit of the rock. — Oss. Conn. 
.\<)N All AN ACH, a. {from aonar.) Solitary; desolate; for- 
saken. Aitean aonaranach, desolate places. — Stew. .Job. 
Clann na mna aonaranaiche, the children of the desolate 
women. — Stew. Gal. 
AoNAiiANACHD, S.f Solitariucss, desolatencss ; the state 

of being forsaken, deserted, or forlorn, 
t AoNARDiiA, a. See Aonar. 

AoN-nHi:ACHi), v. /'. Unanimity. Often written, in a con- 
tracted form, aonachd. 
AoN-iiHKANNACH, ff. Unicorncd, havitig but one horn. 
AoN-BiiEANNACH, aich, v. m. A uiiicom. 
AoN-BHiTH, s. m. Co-essentiality; co-substantiality. 


A O T 

Aox-ciiATHAiREACH, a. Of, Or frotT), the same city; having 
one city. 

AoN-CHRiDHE, s. Unanimity. 

Aoy-CHRiDHEACH, o. Unanimous ; having one heart. Gu 
h-aonghuthach, aonchridheach, wit/i one toicc and one luarl. 
— OldStm^. 

AoxDA, a. Singular, particular. 

AoNDA, Aondadh, s. m. A lease, a license, consent. Written 
also aonlii. 

AoN'DACHD, s.f. Acquiescence; the state of being parti- 
cular or singular. 

AoNDATiiACii, a. (aon, one, and dath, colour.) Of the same 

Aox-DEALUHACn, a. (aon, and dealbb.) Uniform; similar. 

Aox-DEUG, a. (Gr. itSixa..) Eleven. Bha aon deug aun, 
there were eleven ; aon f hear deug, eleien men ; aon chlach 
dheug, eleven stones. 

Aox'tACHD, AoKFiiEACHD, or/r. Together, at once. Per- 
haps aon-hAeachd. 

Aox-FiiiLi.TE, «. (aon, and filleadh.) Single ; simple, foolish, 
sincere, innocent. A deanamh an duine aon-fhillte glic, 
makincr the simple (foolish) man wise. — Stew. Ps. Na 
daoine aon-fhillte, the simple, i. e. the innocent. — Id. 

Aox-FiiiLi.TEACHD, s. f. {Dan. eenfoldighed.) .Singleness 
of mind ; simplicity, sincerity, foolishness. Le aon fhill- 
teachd, xiith sunplicit)/. — Stew. Rom. ref. 

AoNFHLAiTH, gen. sing, of aonfhlath. 

AoxFHLAiTHEACH, fl. Monarchic ; of, or pertaining to, a 

AoxEiiLAiTiiEACiiD, s. m. {from aonfhlath.) Monarchy. 

AosFHLAiTiiEACHDAiL, «. Monarchical. 

AoN-FHLATH, aith, s. m. A monarch. N. pi. aon-fhlaithean. 

Aox-FiiuiRM, .?. Uniformity. 

AoN-GHix, s. m. {Ir. ein-ghin.) An only-begotten. Mar 
aoD-ghin mic, like an only-begotten son. — Stew. Pro. M' 
aon-ghin cloinne, ;»// only child. 

Aox-GiiXETiiEACH, a. (aon, owrf gnèth.) Homogeneous; of 
one kind. 

Aox-Giixr.TiiEACiiD, s.f. (aoH, (/«(/ gneth.) Homogeneous- 

Aox-GiiuTiiAcn, a. Having one voice, or vote; consonous. 
Gu h-aon-ghuthach aon chridheach, with one voice and 
heart. — Old Song. 

Aox-ixxTiN"x, s.f. One mind, one accord, unanimity. Le 
h-aon inntinn, with one accord. 

Aox-ixNTixxEACii,rt. (aon intinn.) One-minded, unanimous, 
consentient. Gu h-aon-inntinneach, unanimously. 

Aox-iNXTixxEACHD, S.f Unanimousness. 

Aox-MHAC, mhic, s. m. An only son. Thuit e air aodainn 
aon-mhic, he fell on the face of his only son. — Oss. Cath. 

AoxRACAiN, gen. sing, and n. pi. of aonracan. 

AoxRACAX, ain, s. m. {from aonar.) A solitary person ; a 
recluse ; a widower, a widow, an orphan ; a deserted per- 
son. i\'. ///. aonracain. 
AoxRACAX Acii, a. {from aonracan.) Solitary, like a recluse; 

of, or belonging to, a recluse. 
AoxRACAXACiiD, S.f. Solitarincss ; the condition of a re- 
cluse, or of a deserted person, 
t AoNsuiRT, s.f Wallowing, weltering. 
AoxTA, Aontadh, aidh, v. w. A lease, license, consent; 

a bachelor. 
AoxTACii, a. Accessory, acceding to, conniving at; ready 

to yield, ready to assent. 
AoNTACHADH, aidh, s. m. A consenting, a yielding, ac- 
ceding, abetting, abetment. 

AoxTACHADii, (ag), pr. fart, of aontaich. Consenting, ac- 
ceding, abetting. Ag aontachadh leis an lagh, consenting 

to the law. — Stew. Rom. 
AoNTACiiD, s.f. Consent, unanimity, agreement, connivance. 
AoxTADii, aidh, .V. w. A lease, license, consent. 
AoxTAiCH, ;■. Consent, agree, accede, yield to importunity, 

abet, take part, or side with. Aontaich leis, take his part ; 

aontaicheamaid leo, let us consent to them. — Stew. Gen. 

Thug i air aontachadh, she made him yield. — Stew. Pro. 

Pret. a. dh' aontaich, consented; fit. aff. a. aontaichidh, 

sliall consent. 
AoxTAiCHE, s. m. An abettor; a conniver. A'. ;;/. aon- 

AoxTiGHEACHD, .s. /". Cohabitation; a living under one roof. 
Aox-TLACiiD, 4. 7H. Sole source of joy ; only beloved. M' 

aon-tlachd 's mo sholus thu, thou art my light and my only 

source of joy. — Old Song. 
AoR, r. (by met. Lat. ora, entreat.) Worship, adore ; also 

join, adhere. Pret. a. dh' aor; fut. aff. a. aoraidh. Aor- 

aibhse gu ceart, worship in sincerity. — -Sm. Aoram dhuit, 

/ will worship thee. — Id. 
AoRADii, aidh, s. m. Worship, adoration; also joining, 

adhering. A deanamh aoraidh, worshipping. — Stew. N. T. 

Aoradh fein-thoileil, will worship. — Stew. Col. 
AoRADii, (ag), pr. part, of aor. Worshipping, adoring; 

also joining, adhering. 
AouAiDii, gen. sing, of aoradh. 
Aoram, {contr. for aoraidh mi.) I will worship. Aoram 

dhuit, I will worship thee. — Sm. 
AoRXAGAix, V. a. Wallow. Aornagain thu fein, wallow 

thyself. — Stew. G. B. Aornagainibh sibh fein, wallow your- 
selves. — Stew. Jer. Pret. a. dh' aornagain, wallowed; fit. 

aff. a. aornagainidh, shall or will wallow. 
AoRXAGAN, ain, .«. w. A wallowing, a weltering. Aornagan 

muic, the wallowing of a sow. 
t Acs, .«. A community, a set of people. — Ir. 
AosAR, n. (^/or aosmhor.) Aged; old, antiquated. 
Aos-ciiiADii, a. Aged locks, hoary hair. Com' am bheil 

d' aos-chiabh snitheach ? why are thine aged locks moist ? — 

Ull. j\r aos-chiabh air sgei' na gaoithe, my aged hair on the 

wings of the wind. — Oss. Conn. N. pi. aos-chiabhan. 
Aos-CHRAXN, chrainn, *. An aged tree, a trunk. Aos- 

chrann briste, an aged broken trunk. — Oss. Trathal. 
AdsciiuiTH, s. The tremor of age. Aos-chrith air mo 

cheann, the tremor of age on my head. — Old Poem. 
Aos-ciiuiTHEACH, o. Trembling with age. — Orr. 
AosDA, «. (/'rom aois.) Old, aged, ancient. A bhaird aosda 

nan linn a threig, ye ancient bards of bygone ages. — Oss. 

Fin. and Lor. Anns na h-aosda tha gliocas, in the aged is 

wisdom. — Stew. Job. 
AosDACiiD, s.f. {from aois.) Agedness, antiquity. 
AosDAXA, s. m. A poet, soothsayer, genealogist; a rehearser 

of ancient poetry. —Oss. Cathula, and Macfar. See Aois- 


AosLARACit, aich, s. An aged site; an aged ruin. 'N e 

'n torr so d' aos làrach ? is this hillock thine aged seat ! — - 

Oss. Gaul. 
Aos-LiA, Aos-liath, a. Grey-haired; old. Aos-lia, lag, on^erf 

and weak. — Oss. Trathal. 
AosMHOiRE, com. and sup. of aosmhor. 
AosMoiREACHD, S.f. Great age, antiquity, agedness. 
AosMiioR, a. Aged, old, ancient. Tuigse nan aosmhor, 

the understanding of the aged. — Stew. Job. Com. and sup. 

t AoTH, *. m. A bell, a crown. Ir. id. 
t AoTHACHD, s.f {from aoth.) A ringing of bells, a chime 

of bells. //-. id. 

A R A 


AoTBOM, a. (ao, priv. and trora.) Light; not heavy; giddy. 

Written also cutrnm ; whicli see. Com. and sup. aotruime, 

lighter, lightest. 
AoTROMAicn, ;■. fl. (aotrom.) Ease, lighten, alleviate ; make 

less heavy. Pret. a. dh' aotramaich, tightened ; fut. off. a. 

aotroniaichidh, nhalt ur uill lighten ; fut. pass, aotromaichear, 

sha/l lie lightened. 
AoTnoM.viciiiDii, fut. off. a. of aotromaich. 
AoTROM.viN, n. pi. of aotroman. Bladders. 
.\oTROMAX, ain, .V. m. (aotrom.) A bladder. N. pi. aotrom- 

ain, bladders. 
Aotruime, com. and sup. of aotrom. Lighter, lightest. 
AoTRUiMiD, s. Lightness; also adjcctiieli/, lighter. Is 

aolruimid thu e, thou art the lighter for if. 
t Ap. Fit, proper, ripe. Lat. ap-tus. 
t Ap, gen. apa, s. m. Any little creature. Hence the Welch 

ap, signifying a son, and perhaps n-ep-0.5, a grandson. 
Ap, apa, v. in. An ape, a mimic. A giùlan apa, carrying 

apes.—Shii. 1 A'. 

Dan. ulje. Du. aap. IF. epa. Swed. apa. Germ. afFe. 

Ir. apa. Finland, apini. Sclaronie, affinia. 
Apach, a. Like an ape ; abounding in apes. 
ApARAX, Apran, ain, *. ?h. An apron. X. pi. aparain. 

Corn, appran. Ir. aprun. 
Ar, pass. pron. Our. {Bisc. ure. Ir. ar.) Ar comhstri ri 

daimh, our battle with strangers. — Usi. Comala. 
t Ar, s. m. A bond, a tie ; a guiding, conducting, 
t Ar. Slow. Hence Jrar, a river in Provence, meaning 

a slow flowing river. Ciaudianus says, " Lentus Arar, 

Rhodanusque celer," the tardi/ Arar and the rapid Rhone. 

" Arar dubitans ijuo suos cursus agat," the Arar doubting 

which xcay lojtuu'. — .Seneca, in Apoth. The Arar is now 

called Soane, which is sogh-an, the placid water. 
Ar, s. m. (Jr. ar.) Ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Arm. 

and IF. ar, plough-land. Tha e ris ar, he is ploughing. 
.\r, r. a. Plough, till, cultivate. Pret. a. dh' ar, ploughed ; 
fut. aff. a. araidh, shall ur will plough. 

Gr. a^-ou, to till, and u^ov^cc, (a Gael would say ar-uire), 

arable ground. Lat. arc. Teut. aeren, to till. Arm. arar, 

a plough. Etrurian, arfer, and ar, ploughing. Disc, ara, 

plough. Isl. aria. Hid. Chald. and Ethiop. haras, to plough. 

Syr. and .trab. haralli, ploughman. 
.Vr, air, s. m. Battle, slaughter ; field of battle. Dan an 

air, the song of battle ; an heroic poem. — Oss. Cathula. 

Tuath chum air, u battle-axe. — Oss. Miinos. Ditliis nan 

codal san ar so, two asleep in this field of buttle. — Oss. Gaul. 
Gr. a^v)!, Mars. Cantabrian, hara. Dan. ar, a wound. 

If. aer. Corn. ar. 
t Ar, .y. Land, earth. An ancient Celtic word. 

Bisc. ar, land. Etrurian, ar and arv, a field. Lat. arvujii, 

afield. C7(«W. area n;u/ areka, //(/(/. ./;■«//. ardlii. Dh. acrt. 

Old French, artos, a countri/. 
t AuA, ai, *. m. A conference ; a bier. — Jr. 
-Ara, s. a kidney. N. pi. airnean. An da ara, the two 

Lidncys.—Sltw. Etod. Jr. id. 
|- Aracii, aich, s. in. A tie, a bond, or collar on a beast ; 

also restraint ; authority; strength; fishing ware. — Ir. 
t Aracii, aich, s. w/. {from ar.) A ploughshare. — //•. 
Arachair, s. m. An insurer. 

.-\raciias, ais, .V. m. Insurance. I'ear arachais, an in- 
surer; buth arachais, «« insurance offtce ; tigh fo' arachas, 

a house insured. 
Akaciid, «. m. A dwarf. See Akiiaciid. 
Araciiuacii, ». Dwarfish; also manly, powerful. Written 

also urrochdach. 
t AiiAD, a. Strong, brave. — Ir. 

t Arad, aid, s. m. A ladder. — Ir. See Auadii. 

t Aradain, s. m. A desk, a pulpit. 

Aradair, .5. m. (ar, plough, anil fear, man.) .\n agriculturist; 
a ploughman ; a tiller. 

Lat. aratr-um, a plough. Corn, ardar. Arm. arar. Span. 
har. Bisc. uoro. Corn, araderur. 

Aradii, aidh, i. TO. (/;•. arad.) The reins, loins; alsoaladder. 
In this last sense aradh is written also f'àradh ; which see. 

ARAOARAnii, aidh, s. ni. Abandonment; prescience, secret 

Araich, v. Rear, bring up, educate. Pret. a. dh' araich, 
reared ; fut. aff. a. araichidh, shall or will rear. Ged araich 
iad an clann, though they bring up their children. — Slew. Hos. 

Araich, s. f {perhaps àr-fhaiche.) A field of battle; a 
plain ; a plain field ; a meadow. Do mhac a teicheadli 
o'n arach, thi/ son flying from the battle field. — Oss. Mar 
dhoinionn a dortadh do 'n araich, lihe a flood pouring to the 
plain. — Oss. Dargo. 

AiiAiD, (7. Particular, certain, special, peculiar. Duine araiJ, 
a certain man ; gu h-àraid, especially. Written also araidh. 

Araideacii, a. Joyous, glad, elated, elevated. Com. and 
*((/). araidiche, more or most Joyous. 

Araidh, a. (Gr. ipaio';, scarce.) Particular, peculiar, special, 
certain. Duine araidh, a certain mun ; gu h-ùraidh, in par- 
ticular, especially. 

t Araigh, s. pi. The reins of a bridle. 

AuAiN, gen. sing, of aran ; which see. 

Auainn, s. a kidney. N. pi. arainnean, contracted airnean; 
which see. 

AuAiR, s. in. (ar and fear.) /('. aerwr. A slaughterer; a 

Ar-amach, *. ni. A rebellion, insurrection, mutiny, trtason. 
Rinn iad ar-amach, they have rebelled. — Stew. Gen. ref. 

A'kan, «. /)/. of ara. Kidneys ; also ladders. 

Aran, ain, s. m. (Ir. aran.) Bread, a loaf; livelihood, suste- 
nance. Aran coircc, oat bread; arau eorna, barley bread : 
aran cruineachd, wheat bread ; aran seogail, rye bread ; 
aran donn, brown bread; aran mills, ginger bread, sweet 
bread. Grcnw ara.\n, a inorsel of bread. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. 
arain, loaxes ; cuig arain,,/ùe loaies.—Stew. Mat. 

t Aran, ain, s. tn. A conversation, or discourse; dialogue. 

Aranach, aich, .v. m. (from aran, bread.) A paniry. 
Ir. arancha. 

Aranailt, s.f. A bread-basket, a pannier. 

AuANNACH-sRÌiNE, s. m. A bridle rein. — il/oc^/. 

t Aroid, s.f. .A cover, a table cloth. 

Araon, eonj. {Ir. araon.) Together; both; as one. 
A Chonail 's a Charruil araon ! Conal and Carruil, both 
of you ! 

Ak'ak, contr. for arbhar ; which see. 

Ar'arach, a. contr. for arbharach. Abounding in crops; 
of, or belonging to, a crop; fertile. Gu h-ar'arach pòrach, 
full of crops and grain. — Old Song. 

AuAS, ais, «. w. A house, abode, dwelling; lodging; apart- 
ment; settlement. /;•. id. 

ARASACii,a. Having many houses, having many a])artnients. 

Arbhach, a. Destructive, slaughtering. — Ir. 

Ariuiadii, aidh, v. m. Destruction, slaughtering. 

Ariuiau, air, .v. m. (i. e. ar-bhàr, the ploughing crop.) Corn, 
corn cro|), standing corn ; r«;(7v a host, an army. Deas- 
aichidh lu arbhar, thou wilt prepare cum. — Stew. O. T. 
Pailteas arbhair, plenty of corn. — Stcxo. Gen. Na hadagan 
is an t-arbhar, the shocks and the standing corn. — Stew. O. T. 
Ir. arbhar. 

Ariiharach, a. Abounding in corn crops; fertile; of, or 
belonging to, corn crops. 

Arbharachd, s. f. Embattling as an arm^y ; forming into 

A R D 

A R D 

Arbhraigneach, ich, s. m, A snare. 

+ Arc, aire, .?. m. {ÌV. ar^. S-wed. ark. Lat. arc a.) An ark. 

Nosv written aire ; which see. 
t Arc, aire, .«. »i. A sucking pig; a bee ; a wasp, lizard; 

a dwarf; a body ; impost, tax. 
Arc A IN, gen. v/h"-. and n. pi. of arcan. 

Arcan, ain, ,s. >ii. A cork, a stopple. Arcan buideil, a bnttle 
cork, or stopple ; arcan bairill, a bung ; crann-arcain, a cork 
tree. N. pi. arcain, corks. 
Arcan-luaciiracii, aicli, s. m. A lizard; an adder. 

N. pi. areaiii-luachrach. 
t Arciiu, gen. archoin, s. m. A chained dog, a mastiff, 
a fierce dog. — /;•. 

t Arciiuisg, s. f. An experiment. 

Arc-luachracii, aich, .5. m. A lizard; an adder. — Ir. id. 

t Ard, aird, s. in. God, or the High Being. Written also 
Art ; hence sag-art, a priest. • 

Ard, a. {Lat. ard-uus. /;■. and Corn. ard. Old Fersic, ard 
and art, /lig/i, and arta, a hero. Armen. ardyan, a summit. 
Hence too the name Arthur. In Calmuc Tartan/ and 
Mogul, artaga, T jiuf /lio/ur ; Gaelic, ard-thog, raise aloft.) 
High, lofty, exalted, loud; noble, eminent, excellent; 
proud ; also an eminent person, a chief. B'ard air carraig 
a suread, loud on a rock was her scream. — Oss. Trathal. 
Fuil ard nan saoi, the noble blood of heroes. — Oss. Fing. 
Sealladh ard, a proud look. — Sreu-. Pro. Fear a b' airde 
gutli, a man of the loudest voice. — Oss. Comala. Uaigh an 
aird , the grave of the chief. — Oss. Temo. Cum. and sup. 
airde ; n. pi. arda. Ard is derived from the Celtic primi- 
tive ar, signifying a rock, a mountain ; also high : hence 
many words in other tongues signifying elevation ; as, 
Bisc. arre, a rock ; Malai/. arang ; Arab, and Ethiop. Iihar, 
hill; Armen. ar, elevated; Malabar, aria, mountain, and 
are, elephant ; Heb. ar, a rock, or mountain. 

Ard, aird, s. in. {Ir. ard.) A height, an eminence, a hill, 
a high land, an upland ; heaven. O 'n ard, from the 
height. — Oss. Temo. N. pi. arda, or ardan ; dat. pi. ardaibh. 
A ruith an aon sUigan o ardaibh, rushing in one channel 
from the heights. — Oss. Na h-arda ciar, the dusky emi- 
nences. — Oss. Temo. Anns na h-ardaibh, in heaven, on 
high. — Steu\ Pro. Ard a chuain, the high seas. 

Arda, n. pi. of ard, adj. and sub. Cho' fhreagair na creagan 
arda, the lofty rocks re-echoed. — Fingulian Poem. 

Ardaciiadii, aidh, s. m. (/;■. id.) The act of raising, exalting, 
or heiglcteniui;'; advancement, promotion, exaltation, honour, 
preferment. Ardachadh nan amadan, the promotion of fools. 
— Stew. Pro. Written also arduchadh. 

Ardaciiadh, (ag), pr. ;)o;Y. of ardaich. Raising, exalting, 
extolling, elevating. 'G a ardachadh fein, exulting himself. 
— Stew. Thess. 

Ardaoiiaidh, gen. sing, of ardachadh. 

Ardaicm, r. a. {from ard.) Exalt, extol, elevate, raise 
aloft, heighten. Pret. a. dh' ardaich, exalted; fit. ajf. a. 
ardaicliidh, shall or will exalt ; fit. pass, ardaichear, shall 
be exalted. Ardaich i, exalt her. — Stew. Pro. Written 
also arduich. 

Ardaiciieau, fut. pass, of ardaich. Shall be elevated. 

Ardaiciiidh, fut. aff. a. of ardaich. Shall or will elevate. 

Ardain, gen. sing, of ardan. 

Ard-aingeal, eil, .5. m. An archangel. Le guth 'n ard 
aingeil, with the voice of the archangel. — Stew. Thess. 

Ard-aitiikiciiean, n. /)/. of ard-athair. Patriarchs. 

Ardax", h. pi. of ard. 

Audan, ain, x. ui. {from ard.) Pride; proud wrath; childish 
haughtiness; spurting, arrogancy ; also a little eminence ; 
a knoll, a hillock. An droch dhuine na ardan borb, the 

wicked man in his fierce pride.— Sm. Ardan gruaidh, pride 

of face.— Id. Tha m' ardan na'd ehliù, mj/ pride is in thi/ 
fame. — Oss. Fing. Dh' at ardan na chridhe, proud wrath 

swelled in his heart. — Id. Uabhar is ardan, pride and 

arrogancp.—Stew. Pro. Gach aon ardan, every one knoll ; 

each knoll. — Old Song. 
Ardanacii, a. {from ardan.) Proud, haughty; prone to 

take offence ; arrogant ; elate. Spiorad ardanach, a haughty 

spirit. — Stixv. Pro. Com. and sup. ardanaiche, more or iiiost 

haughti/. Ir. ardanach. 
Ardanachd, i.y. ( /row ardan.) Haughtiness, proudness; 

arrogancy. Uaille is ardanachd, pride and haughtiness. — 

t Ardarc, aire, s. 7«. A blazon; armorial bearings. 
Ard-athair, *. m. A patriarch. — Stew. Heb. ref N. pi. 

ard-aithrichean, patriarchs. 
Ard-biiaile, s. m. A city, metropolis; a great city. Esan 

a ghabhas ard-bhaile, he who takes a city. — Stew. Pro. 

X. pi. ard-bliailtean, cities ; dat. pi. ard-bhailtibh. 
Ard-iuiailtean, n. pi. of ard-bhaile, cities; dat. pi. ard- 
Ard-biiandiùchd, s.f. An archduchess. 
.4rd-biieann, bheinn, f. /! A pinnacle ; a mountain. Ait 

mar iolair nan ard-bheann, joyou* as the movntain eagle. — 

Oss. N. pi. ard-bheanntan ; dat. pi. ard-bheanntaibh. 
Ard-biieisx, s.f The name of a hill in the Highlands. 

Also gen. slug, of ard-bheann. 
AuD-BiiLATn, s. Height of flourish, full flower; flower; 

prime. Tha i 'n ard-bhlàth a h-aimsir, she is in the Jio-wer 

of her life. 
Ard-biireitiieamii, einih, s. m. A chief justice. Ard- 

bhreitheamh cùirt na Righ-Bheinc, chief justice of the 

King's Bench. 
Ard-biireitiieimii, gen. sing, of ard-bhreitheamh. 
Ard-chantair, 4. 7«. Anarch-chanter. JS^ /)/. ardchant- 

Ard-ciiath, s. in. A general engagement, a pitched battle ; 

the thick of battle. Gaoir an ardchath, the din of the 

pitched battle. — Old Poem. 
Ard-ciiatiiair, chathracli, s.f A chief city, a metropolis. 

N. pi. ard-chathraichean ; dat. pi. ard chathraichibh. 
Ard-cheann, chinn, s. m. (ard and ceann.) A superior, 

ruler, lord; head. Ard-cheann na h-eaglais, the head oj' 

the church. 
Ardciieannas, ais, s. m. Superiority, dominion, command, 

pre-eminence. Ard-cheannas anns gach uile, pre-eminence 

in alt things. — Stew. Col. Ir. id. 
Ard-ciieum, cheim, s. in. A strut; a bound; lofty gait; 

a prancing. 
Ard-cheumnachadii, aidh, s. m. A strutting, a bounding, 

a walking proudly, a prancing. 
Ard-ciieumnaich, v. Strut; bound; walk proudly; prance. 
Ard-ciilaciiair, s. m. An architect; a master mason. 

X. pi. ard-chlachairean. 
ARn-ciii.ACiiAiREACiiD, S.f The business of an architect, 

or of a master mason ; architecture. 
ARD-CHNOC-rAiRE, 4. »(. A great beacon ; a sconce. 
Ard-cho.mas, ais, s. m. Discretionary po^ver; despotic 

power. Tluig e ardchonias dhomh, he gave me a dis- 
cretionary power. 
Ard-chomasach, ff. Having discretionary power; despotic. 
Ard-ciiojiiiairle, s.f Parliament; supreme council; a 

synod. Ball na hardchomhairle, a Titember of parliament ; 

ard-chomhairle Blireatuinn, the British parliament. 
Ard-cihtan, chuain, s. m. The high sea. Na h-ard- 

chuantan, the high seas. 

A R D 

A R F 

ARD-riicJiiiACiiD, s.f. Supreme power, cliicf power, higli 
power; state office; authority. jV. /)/. ard-chumhachdan ; 
dat. pi. ard-chuinhachdaibh, to the high pv-ù:trs. — Slcu: Rum. 
Au-DHAMii, dliaimh, s. m. A plough-ox. — Ir. 
Ann-DiiRi'iDii, .V. ni. An arch-druid. 

He was chosen by a (jluiality of voices from the wortliicst and 

most learned of the order. He was deemed infallible. He was 

referred to in all cases of controversy, and from his judgment 

there was no appeal. He was president of tlie general assemblies 

of the Druids, and had the castiiis vole. He was likewise named 

Coibhi-Druidh. His aid and friendship were much valued and 

confided in, as may tie learned from the very ancient sayin;; — 

Ged is fa^us cliich do 'n làr, is faigse na niii cobhuir Clioihhi; 

Thoujili a ttone be near to ihc ground, nearer still is Coibhi's aid. 

Ard-douus, uis, s. m. A lintel. N. pi. ard-dorsan, lintels. 

Ard-e.vspi'IDiie.vciid, s.f. An archbishoprick. 

Ard-eastuig, s.y^ An archbishop. A'". ;;/. ard-easpuigcaii 

Ard-i.aspuuìeach, a. Archiepiscopal; of, or pertaining to, 

an archbishop ; like an archbishop. 
Ard-easpuigeachd, s.f. An archbishoprick. 
Ard-fiieamanacii, aich, .?. m. A high steward. 
Ardfheill, *. f. A great solemnity; a great festival. — 

Steu\ Ezek. Ardfheill na h-Eadailt, the carnival. 
Ard-fiu'aim, «.y. Bombilation ; a loud noise, a murmur. 
AuD-Fiii".\iMM'.ACli, f/. Sounding, murmuring ; making a 

loud noise. 
Ard-ihuaimxicii, s.f. Any loud noise ; a contiiuicd loud 

Ard-giiairm, ghairme, s.f. Aloud shout; high calling. 
Duais na h-ard-chairm, the rexcard uf the high calling. — 
Stew. Phil. 
t AuD-GiiAOis, S.f A liberal art. 
t Aru-giiaoisear, ir, s. in. A master of arts. 
Ard-ghaotii, ghaoithe, s.f. A high wind. 
ARD-GiiAOTiiACir, a. Windy, storniv, blowing loudly. A 
bhuiig sheididh, ard-gluiothach, his loudly bh:iin'' liclluxis. 
— Old Song. 
Ard-giii.eadiìraicii, s.f Bombilation; any loud noise, 

a rattling noise. 
.Ard-giilòr, glòir, s. m. Bombast, loud speaking; altilo- 

quencc ; a boasting ; vainglory. 
Ardgiiloracii, a. Bombast; inclined to speak loud; boast- 
ing; vainglorious. 
Ard-giinmo.mii, .v. 7h. a feat, exploit; an achievement. 
Ard ghniomh an righ, the exploit of the king. — Oss. Fing. 
K. pi. ard-ghuionihara, or -an. 
AuD-GiiNioMiiAiiAN, n. pi. of ardghniomh. Feats, exploits. 
Ard-giiul, glinil, 4-. m. Loud weeping, howling. — Utew. Mic. 

Tha e ri ard-ghul, he is weeping aloud. 
Ard-ghutii, s. m. A loud voice, a loud cry, a shout. 
Ard-giiutiiacii, a. Clamorous; loud, shouting loudly. — 

Sleu'. 1 Chrun. 
ARD-i.MiriE,.v./'. High rank, dignity, eminence. Oirdhcirceas 

ard-inblic, excellence of di^niti/. — Steiu. Gen. 
Ard-in nil EACH, a. Eminent, of high rank, high in office. 
AuD-iNBilEACiiD,*./. Eminence, high rank, dignity, station. 
Akd-inntinn, «./. Haughtiness, high-mindedness; a high 

Ard-ikntixneacii, a. High-minded, haughty, conceited, 
vain. high-minded. — Stew. Rum. 
ARD-iN-NTiNNr,A( iiD, *. /. High-mindeducss, pride, con- 
oeitedness, vanity, haughtiness. Ard-inntinncachd 'nar 
measg, pride amongst yuii. — Stew. 2 Cor. rcf 
Ard-k)lach, aicli, v. ;». A loud shout. Le h-ard-iolaich, 
iclth loud shout. — Stew. Thcss. 

Ard-los(, ADii, aidh, s. m. Extreme burning, extreme heat, 

or intlaniraation. Le h-ard-losgadh, with extreme burning. — 

Stew. Deiit. 
Ard-mii ARAK'iir., s.m. An admiral. Priomli ard-mharaiche, 

lord high admiral. 
Ardolladii, aidh, *. m. A chief professor; primarius pro» 

fessor; a principal of an university; an historiographer royal. 
Ardorus, uis, v. m. A lintel of a door. N. pi. ardorsan. 
Ard-reaciidas, ais, s. ni. A general assembly; a con- 
Ard-rigii, s. m. A monarch, emperor. N. /</. ard-righrean. 
Ard-sgeimiilf.iu, s, m. A curious person. N. pi. ard- 

Ard-sgoil, s.f. (Ir. id.) An academy, college, high school. 

Ard-sgoil Dluinèidinu, the high schuul (f Edinburgh. 
Ard-sgoilear, ir, .v. m. A student at an university; a 

student at an academy ; a high school boy. X. pi. ard- 

Ard-sgoil-mii AiGiiisTiR, s. m. A master at an academy; 

a professor ; a high school master. K. pi. ard-sgod- 

Ard-shagart, airt, s. m. An high priest. K. pi. ard- 

shagairtean, high priests. 
Ardsiiagartaciid, s.f. An high priesthood. 
Ard-siieaxadii, aidh, *■. m. A general assembly, supreme 

council, jiarliament. Ard-sheanadh na h Alba, the general 

asscmbb/ of the kirk. 
Ard-sueanair, s. m. A member of a general assembly; 

a member of a senate; a member of any supreme council. 

N. pi. ard-slieanairean. 
AnD-snoNA,«.(ardun(/ sona.) Supremely blessed; supremely 

Ard-siionas, ais, s. m. .Supreme bliss; perfect happiness. 

Ard-shonas mo chridhe, the supreme bliss uf my soul. — Old 

Audsiiuidiik \R, ir, .?.»;. A president. N. pi. arJ-shuidhearan. 
Ard-thigheakna, s. ni. A supremo lord. .Y. pi. ard- 

AuDTiiiGiiEAUN AS, ais, s. »H. .Supreme rule, supreme power. 
Ard-threitii, gen. sing, and n. pi. of ard-lliriatli. 
Ard-tiikiatii, threith, .v. m. Supremo chief, supreme ruler. 

Ard-tliriath a chruinne-clie, supicmc ruler of the uniicrsc. — 

Smith. N. pi. ard-threitli., ain, s. m. (ard and uachdar.) A cliicf 

ruler, a sovereign. N. pi. ard-uachdarain. 
Ard-uaillsean, Ard-uaislean, .v. pi. Nobles ; princes; 

nobility. D. jl. ard-uaillsibh and ard-uaislibli, fo princes. 

Tiur air ard uaislibh, contempt on princes. — Stew. Job. 
Arduciiauii, aidh, s. tn. A raising, exalting, extolling, 

exaltation, preferment. Written also ardachadh ; which see. 
.'ViiDUcirADii, (ag). pr. part, of arduicli. 
Ard-lgiidarkas, ais, s. in. Sujirenie, or sovereign autho- 
rity; full authority. Fhuair mi ard-nghdarras, 1 got full 

Ardi'uii, ;■. Heighten," raise aloft, exalt, prefer, promote, 

elevate, dignify, extol. Prrt. a. dli' arduich, exalted ; 

fut. aff. n. ardnichidh, shall elexale ; fit. pass, arduichear, 

shall be eleiuled. Arduichear iad, they siiall lie exalted. — 

Stew. Job. Written also ardaieh. 
Arduichear, /)(/. /wsi. of arduich. Shall be raised. 
Arduicuidii, _/(/<. aj)'. a. of arduich. Shall or will raise. 
Aruuichte,^. part, of arduich. liaised, elevated. 
Ar-ear, ir, s. m. (ar, ploughing, and fear.) A ploughman, 

a tiller, a peasant. Arm. arer. 
Ar-ear, ir, s. m. (ar, slaughter, and fear.) A hero. W. arwr. 
Arfuntachadh, aidh, j. m. A disinheriting; a forfeiting. 


A R R 

Arfuntaich, I'. Disinherit; forfeit. Pret. a. dh' arfuntaich, 

Jiainherited ; fut. off. a. arfuntaicliiiili, shall fnrfeit . 
AnruN'TAicnTE, p. part, of arfuntaich. Disinherited, for- 
feited. Na h-oighreachdan arfuntaichte, the forfeited estates. 
t Arc, a. White. Gr. apyoj. Ir. arg. 
t Aug , airg, i. m. A champion. Dan. arg, (ingrj/. /r. arg. 
t Argx.ich, aich, s. in. A robber, a plunderer. 
AuGN ADH, aidh, 4. m. A robbsrv, pillage, plunder. — Ir. 
Argair, i. 7«. A plunderer; a de.^troyer. 
AuGuiNN, 11. {Lat. axguo.) Argue, dispute, contest, wrangle. 

Pret. a. dh' arguinn, argued ; fut. off. a. arguinnidh, shall 

or icill argue. 
Arguinn, «.y. An argument. Loif. arguens. /c. arguin. 
Argumaid, .5. /; An argument. A^. 7)/. argumaidean ; dut. 

pi. argumaidibh. Le h-argumaidibh, uith arguments. — 

Stexv. Job. 
Argumaideacii, a. Argumentative; fond of argument; 

of, or pertaining to, argument, 
t Arigh, s. pi. Chiefs, 
t Arinn, Ò-. /'. Friendship. 

A Ris, ucfr. Again; a second time ; another time. 
A RiTiiisT, adv. Again; a second time. In some districts 

of the Southern Highlands they say a rilJiistich. 
Arlas, ais, s. m. Earnest money ; a pledge. Written also 

+ Arleag, eig, «.y. A high flight; a project; a fancy, a 

whim. — Ir. airleog. 
Auleagach, o. Flighty; fanciful; whimsical, /r. airleo- 

Arlogh, oigh, s. m. Carting corn. Feisd an arloigh, the 

harvest feast, the harvest home. Jr. arloigh. 
Ar5I, I'. Arm; provide with arms; put oa arms. Pret. a. 

dh' arm, armed ; fut. aff. a. armaidh, shall arm. 
Arm, gen. sing. airm. (Arm. and /;•. arm. Laf. and Span. 

arma); n. pi. airm. Arms, weapon, armour; also an army. 

Tha e san arm, he is in the armi/ ; sgian, arm bu nihiann 

leis, (I knife, a ueapon he xvas fond of. — Old Poem. Dot. pi. 

armaibh, fuidh armaibh, armed, under aims. — Stew. Pro. 
Armagh, a. (from arm.) Armed; warlike; covered with 

armour, mailed ; also an armed person, a warrior. Mar 

ghaisgeach armach, like an armed hero. — .Sm. Labhair an 

dubh armach, the dark uarrior spoke. — Old Poem. 
Armachd, .?. f. (from arm.) Armour; arms; feats of arms 

Nigli iad armachd, theii Hashed his armour. — Stexc. 1 K. 

Armachd an t-soluis, the armour of light. — Slew. Rom. 
Armaicii, t. a. Arm, gird on arms, clothe with armour. 

Pret. a. dh' arraaich, armed ; fut. ajf. a. armaichidh, shall 

or will arm. Armaichibh sibh fein, arm i/oursclves. — Stew. 

Armaichidh, fut. aff. a. of armaich. Shall or will arm. 
Armaiciite, p. part, of armaich. Armed, clothed in armour. 
Armailt, ailte, s. m. An army. Ann an armailt, in an 

army. — Stew. Job. An toiseach na h-armailte, in the front 

of the ariiiii ; armailt nam Breacan, the Highland armtf. — 

Roil Stewart. 
Armailteacii, a. Of, or belonging to, an army; having 

great armies, 
t Armaire, s.f A cupboard; a bread closet. Fr. armoire. 
Armaradh, aidh, s. m. A reproof, a scold, a check. 
Armei>-eacii, «. (àr, slaughter, and miannach.) Warlike, 

sanguinary, bloody, 
t Armiiaigh, *. m. A buzzard. 

t Au-mhiann Acn, a. Bloody, sanguinary, warlike, bloody- 
t Armiiikd, a. Respect, reverence. 

Arm-lann, lainn, s. m. An armoury, a magazine, a military 

depot. N. pi. airm-lainn, magazines. 
Arm-oilean, ein, s. m. Military discipline, drilling. 
Arm-t»aisg, .s. ?n. A military magazine ; an armoury. 
Armuinn, gen. sing, of armunn ; which see. 
t Arml'INN, v. a. Bless, revere. — Shaw. 
Armuiste, p. part, of armuinn. Blessed. 
Armuxn, uinn, *. m. (from àr.) A hero, warrior; a chief. 

Air slios an armuinn, on the warrior's side. — Old Putm. 

Suil mheallach an armuinn, the winning eye of the hero. — 

t Arn, airn, s. m. A judge, 
t ARXAinii, s. m. A surety, a bond. — /;-. 
t Arocii, oich, s. m. A little village, a hamlet. — Shaw. 
t Aroch, 0. Straight; upright. Laf. arrect-us. 
Arois, gen. sing, of arcs, 
t Aroll, oill, s. m. Great slaughter ; a great many ; a great 

deal. — Shaw. 
Aros, ois, s. m. A house, abode, residence. Aros nan long, 

the abode of ships. — Oss. Fing. An loisgear aros nam 

Fiann ? shall the abode of the Fim^alians be burnt? — 

Oss. Tuur. 
Arosacii, a. (from aros.) Habitable; having or containing 

houses ; of, or belonging to, a house. 
Arosacii, aich, .v. ni. (from aros.) An inhabitant; a lodger; 

a resident householder. iV. pi. arosaichean, householders. 
Arpag, aig, s.f. An harpy; any ravenous creature. — 

Macd. N. pi. arpagan. 
Arpagach, a. (from arpag.) Ravenous, grasping. Lat. 

harpago, a grappling hook. 
t Arr, s. m. A stag, a hind. 
Arra, ai, «. m. Treachery ; also a pledge. 
Arra-bhalaoch, laoich, s. m. A traitor; a treacherous 

fellow, .\rrabhalaoch garg, a fierce traitor. — Old Song. 
Arracii. aich, .s. ?«. A pigmy, a dwarf ; a spectre; an appa- 
rition; a centaur. Uaill san arrachd, pride in the dwurf.-^ 

Arrachar, air, *. «(. A rowing, steerhig; also the name of 

a place in Argyllshire. 
.Arrachd, aichd, *. m. See Arracii. 
Arrachdacii, a. (from arrachd.) Dwarfish, diminutive; 

spectral ; also manly, able. Written also arraiceach. 
Arraciidas, ais, s. m. (from arrachd.) Power, strength, 

Arraciiogaidh, s.m. The hound lliat first winds, or comes 

up with the deer. — Shaw. 
t Arradii, aidh, s. m. An armament. — /;•. 
Arragiiaideacii, «. Negligent, idle, careless. —SAan;. 
Arragiiloir, s. f. Prattle, garrulity, idle talk. 
Arraohloireacii, a. Garrulous; given to prattle. 
Arraiceach, a. Large; able-bodied, effective; manly. 

Each arraiceach treasdach, a large thorough-pacing horse. 

— Old Puem. Cum. and sup. arraiciche. 
Arraichdean, J. p/. Jewels; precious tilings. 
Arraid, i-.y. Vice. Fear làa arraid, a ?fla« yu// o/'t/ce. — 

Old Song. 
AiiR-iiD, V. a. Corrupt, deprave, make vicious, 
t Arraidh, s. jbZ, i\lisdecds; evil deeds; misconduct. 
Arraidh, a. Generous, liberal ; hospitable. 
Av-iwiTSG, s.f. A stitch, convulsion. A^ /;/. arraingean. 
f Arrais, v. n. Arrive at, reach. 
Arronnacii, a. Becoming, fit, suitable, decent. Com. and 

sup. arronnaiche, inore ur mott becoming. 
Arronnaciid, i.yi Fitness, suitableness ; decentness. 


A S C 

+ Arronnaich, f. a. Fit, suit. Prct. a. dh' arronnaich, 
fitted ; flit. off. a. arronnaichidh, ihall or uitl Jit. 

Arronnaiche, ro/«. and ii//). of arronnach. More or most 

Arronta, a. Bold, daring, brave; confident. Fior-dheas 
arronta, trulj/ active and bold. — -Macdoii. 

Arrontachd, s.y. Boldness, bravery; confidence. 

Ars', Arsa, I', def. Said. This verb is never used with 
propriety, exce|)ting in corresponding expressions, with 
taid I, said he, &c. In the order of syntax, the nominative 
case never precedes this verb, not even by a poetical license ; 
and this forms the distinction between it and the correspond- 
ing preterite t/iiib/iairt, said. The Gael say, Duinc a thu- 
bhairt gu, but not diiine arsa gii, a man who said that. 
Ars' an ceannaiclie, said the hiii/cr. — Stew. Pro. Ars' oighe 
nan aodann gradhach, said the maids of' the lovely visages. — 
Old Poem. 

Ahsaciid, s. f. (for arsaidheachd.) .\ntiquity ; antiquari- 
anism ; the pursuits of an anti(iuary. 

Arsadii, aidh, s. m. Antiquity; age. 

Ausaidu, a. Old, superannuated; old-fashioned, ancient, 
antique. A Bhla-blieinn arsaidh, tlioii ancient lila-bliciiin. 
— Uld Song. Bla-bheinn is a mountain in Skye. 

Arsaidheachd,*./'. Antiquity; antiqiiarianism. 

Arsaidh'ear, ir, v. OT. An antiquary. arsaidli'earan. 

Arsaidh'earachd, «, /. Antiquity; antiquarianism. 

AusAiR, «. ni. (yòr arsaidh'ear.) An antiquary. 

Arsaireachd, s. f. {from arsair.) Antiquarianism; the 
pursuits of an antiquary. 

AusANTACii, a. Old, antique, ancient, old-fashioned ; fond 
of the study of antiquity. 

Arsneal, eil, s. m. Sadness. More commonly written 
airsncal ; which see. 

Arsnealach, «. Sad. See Airsnealach. 

Arson, prep. For. See .^ir-son. 

t Art, Airt, s. m. God. Hence sagart, a priest. 

t Art, airt, s. »1. A bear. Or. apxro?. JF. aerth. Cor;;, arth 
aud orth. //■. art. 

t Art, airt, i. m. (La/, art-us.) A limb, a joint ; flesh. 

Art, airt, s. m. (Ir. art ) A stone; also a house. (Dun. aerts, 
a mineral. Hence also hard, and Germ, hart, hard.) 
Tarruing art, a loadstone ; gach reile-art, every shining 
pebble. — Old Poem. N. pi. artan. 

Artach, a. (y>o?n art.) Stony; also a quarry; stony ground. 

Artan, ain, s. m. (dim. of art.) A little stone, a pebble. 

Artaracii, aich, s. m. A ship-boat. 

Art-tiieine, *. m. A flint ; literally a fire stone. 

t Artiiracii, aich, v. m. A wherry, a boat ; a ship. 

t Artiiraicji, v. Navigate ; also enlarge. — 57/ait. 

AuuiNN,*. A kidney. SccArainn. 

t Arusg, uisg, .V. OT. The neck. — //-. 

t As, ais, .V. OT. Milk, beer, ale. 

As, prep. (Arm. cus.) Out of, from out. As a nihuir, out of 
the .sea; as an Eadail, y}wH Italy ; as an taobh eile, /itom 
the oilier side. Arm. eus an tu all. 

•}■ As, I', a. Kindle, as a firn; also do, make. I'rct. a. dh'as, 
kindled; fiit. af. a. asaidh, shall kiniltt. 

As, comji. pron. Out of him, out of it; from him, from it. 

A 's. [a, i.».] Who is, who are, who art; who has, who hast, 
who have. Oigh a 's gile lamli, a i)iaid \u-lio is'\ of the 
fairest hands. — Uss. Comala. Fear is liathc colg, a man of 
[who has] the greyest hair. — /(/. 

As, conj. (for agus.) And. 

t Asa c II, aich, .s. m. A shoemaker. 

t AsACii, a. (from as.] Milky, watery ; like milk, beer, or ale. 

AsAD, comp. pron. [as tu.] Out of thee, from thee, in thee, 

on thee. 
AsADA, emph.form. o/"asad. Out of thee, from thee, in thee, 

on thee. Asada rinn ar sinnsir bun, in thee our fathers 

trusted. — «S'm. 
t AsADH, aidh, s. m. Anchoring, resting, settling. 
AsAiciiTE, a. Shod. 
AsAiD, s. f Delivery, as in childbed. 
Asa ID, r. a. Deliver, as a female in childbed. Pret. dh' 

asaid ; /'«^ aff. a. asaididh. Dh' asaideadh mise, / uas 

delivered.— Slew. I A', ref. 
Asaidh, gen. sing, of asadh. 

t Asaidh, *.y. A resting, a settling; reposing, anchoring. 
AsAiBH, cotn. pron. [as sibh.] Out of you, from you, in you. 

Tha mi 'cur earbsa asaibh, / trust in you. Ir. useabh. 
.\sAiBHSE, emph.form o/' asaibh. 
t Asaidh, v. n. Rebel, revolt. 
AsAL, gen. sing, of asal 
Asainn, comp. pron. [as sinn.] Out of us, from us, from 

amongst us. 
AsAiNNE, emph.form o/ asainn. 
AsAiR, .V. in. The herb called asarabacca. — Macd. 
AsAiR, .V. w;. A shoemaker. A'^. ;>/. asairean. 
fAsAiTUH, !. Abandon, quit, evacuate ; put out of place; 

eject. Pret, a. dh' asaitich, evacuated. 
Asal, ail, s. f. An ass. Marcachd air asail, riding an an 

ass. — Stezc. Zech. Mac na h-asail, a colt. — Id. 

Dan. aesel. Croat, ossal. Dal. oszal. Pol. osiel. Boh. 

wosel and ossel. Lus. wosel. Germ. esel. Belgic, esal. 

Anglo-Sax. asal. Manx, assyl. Laf. asinus. It. asino. 

Fr. t asne. Corn, and Arm. asen. /r. asal. Span. &sno. 
This is one of the few vocables which may be considered 

AsAiVi, comp, pron. [as mi.] Out of me, from me; on me, 

in me. Ir. aseim. 
t Asantadh, aidh, s. m. Mutiny, sedition, rebellion. 
+ Asard, aird, s. m. A debate, dispute ; assertion, 
t AsAiiDACH, a. Litigious; quarrelsome; contentious, 
t AsAiiDAiR, (from asard.) A litigious person ; a wrangler; 

a disputant. Lat. assertor. 
AsARLAiGHEACHD, s.f. Conjuration, magic; intoxication. 
AsBHUAiN, ,!./. (as anrf buain.) Stubble. Asbhuain an :\ite 

conlaich, stubble instead of straw. — Stew. Gen. 
i Asc, s. A snake, an adder. 
1" AsCACH, aich, s. m. An escape, 
t Asc AICH, V. Escape. 
AscAix, V. n. Ascend, mount, climb. Pret. a. dh' ascain, 

ascended ; fit. aff. a. ascainidh, shall climb. 
AsCAiLi., gen. sing, of ascall. 
AscAiRD, gen. sing, of ascard. 
AsGAiRT, s.f. A budding, sprouting. 
Ascall, aill, s. m. An onset; a conference; a flowing of 

the tide ; a mangling, a mangled carcass, carrion ; a term 

of nuich personal contempt ; a miscreant. An t-ascall a 

rinn tàir oirnn, the miscreant who has reviled us. — Old Song. 

Ir. ascall. 
AscAOiN, (7. Harsh; inclement; unkind. 
AscAOiN, .«. /'. A curse; excommunication; hardness; in- 
clemency; also adjectively, harsh, inclement. Tionndadh 

ascaoin na sine gu tlàths, turn to mildness the incUiinncy of 

the blast. — Macfar. 
Ascaoin, v. a. Curse, excomiiiunicate. Pret. a. dh' ascaoin, 

cursed ; fat. aff. u. ascaoinidh, sliull or will curse. 
Ascaoin EACH, a. (y/'H/ra ascaoin.) Of, or belonging to, a 

curse ; harsh, inclement. 


A T H 

AscAOiNEADii, idh, s. jn. The act of cursing, or excommu- 
nicating ; a cursing, an excommunicating. 

AscAOiN-EAGLAis, s. f. Excommunication ; a curse; a 

AsCARD, aird, s. m. Tow, hards. Snathainu asgaird, a thread 
oftow.^Slew. Jud. 

t AscATH, A. m. {from cath.) A soldier; a combatant. 

•f Ascnu, choin, s. m. A water dog ; an eel ; a conger eel. 

AscNADii, aidh, s. m. An ascending, climbing, mounting. 

AsCNADn, (ag), pr. part, of ascain ; which see. 

AscuLL, s. m. See Ascall. 

AsDA, cump. pron. [as iad.] Out of them, from them, in 
them, on them, from amongst them. 

AsDAR, air, *. m. See Astar. 

AsGACH, aich, s. m. A winnower. N. pi. asgatchean. 

AsGAiDH, s. f. A boon, a present; also free, gratis. 

AsGAiLL, gen. sing, of asgall. 

AsGAiLT, s. f. A bosom, breast, armpit. Asgailt dhorch 
na h-iargaill, the dark bosom of the storm. — Uss. Gaul. 

Asgall, aill, .v. m. A bosom, a breast, an armpit; a sheltered 
place ; a covert. Thug mi do d' asgaill, I gave to thy bosom. 
— Stew. Gen. ref. 

Gr. ^-a(Tj(;aX-j). Lat. axilla. Heb. azzel. It. ascclla. 
Sued, by met. axsel. Goth, ocksel. Germ, achsel. Anglo- 
Sax, ehsle, eaxle, and exla. ^Irtn. asell. Corn, ascle. 

AsGAN, ain, s. m. A grig; a merry creature ; any thing be- 
low the natural size. 

AsGNAiL, *.y". The bosom ; armpit ; covering. See Asgall. 

AsGNAG, aig, s.f. A fan for hand-winnowing. 

t AsiON, s.f. A crown, or coronet. — Ir. 

AsLACiiADH, aidh, s. m. A supplicating, entreating; are- 
questing ; an entreaty or request. 

AsLACHADii, (ag), p;-. ;7flr^of aslaich. Supplicating, begging, 

AsLADii, aidh, J. ?«. A supplication; an entreaty. 

AsLAicii, s.f. A bosom; armpit; breast. Sgian aslaich, 
a dirk ; na aslaich, in his bosom. — Stew. Pro. ref. 

AsLAicii, t'. Supplicate, beg, beseech, request. Prtt. a. dh' 
aslaich, entreated ; ful. aff. a. aslaichidh, shall entreat. Nan 
aslaicheadh tu, iftlimi wjuldst entreat. — Stew. Job. 

AsLONACii, a. Prone to tell; tattling. 

AsLONADii, aidh, s. in. A discovery, a telling. 

AsLucnADn, aidh, s. m. A supplicating, an entreating; a 
supplication, an entreaty. Le gach uile asluchaidh, xeith 
all supplication. — Stew. Eph. 

AsLuciiADii, (ag), pr. part, of asluich. 

AsLuicn, V. Supplicate, entreat, beg, request. Written also 

AsNAG, aig, s.f. A hand-winnow. K. pi. asnagan. 

AsNAGACH, a. {from asnag.) Of, or belonging to, a hand- 
winnow ; like a hand-winnow. 

Astar, air, s. m. {Gr. aarri^. Lat. astrum, a wandering star. 
Ir. aisdear.) A journey ; a space ; distance ; a way, a path. 
N. pi. astara and astaran. Air astar gu dian, Journttfing 
■with speed. — Oss. Fing. Astar nam faobh, the path of spoils 
or conquest. — Id. Fad air astar, far away ; an earb air 
astar, the roe afar off. — Oss. Conn. A gearradh a h-astar 
feadh thonn, cutting her way among the waves. — Oss. Lodin. 
Astar sheachd laithean, seven days' journey. — Stew. Gen. 
Cliluinnte an saltraich astar cian, their tread was heard at a 
great distance. — Old Poem. Ag astar o 'n ear, travelling 
from the east. — Fingalian Poem. 

AsTARAicii, V. (from astar.) Travel, journey. Pret. a. dh' 
astaraich, travelled; fut. aff. a. astraichidh, shall or will 

AsTARAiciiE, s. ?n. {from astar.) A pedestrian, a traveller. 

N. pi. astraichean. 
AsTAHAiR, s. m. A porter. — /;■. 
AsTAiiAN, n. pi. of astar. 

AsTARANAiCHE, s. A traveller, a pedestrian. 
t AsTAS, ais, s. m. A spear, or javelin ; a missile weapon. 

Lat. hasta. Ace. pi. liastas. 
A sTEACH, or 's TEACH, adv. [san teach.] In, within; in the 

house. //•. id. 
As-THARRUING, S.f. An extract; an abstract. Ir. as- 

As-THARRUING, i'. a. Extract; abstract. 
As-TiiARRuiNGEADH, idh, .s. m. The process of abstracting 

or of extracting ; an abstracting, an extracting. 
A STiGii, or'sTiGH, adv. [i. e. san tigh.] In, within; in the 

house. Cuir 'stigh e, put it in; bheil t-athair a stigh? is 

your father in the house ! 
AsTRACHADH, aidh, s. in. A travelling, a journeying. 
AsTRACHADH, (ag), pr. part, of astaraich. 
Astraichean, n. pi. of astaraiche. Travellers. 
AsTRANACJi, aich, s. m. {from astar;) A traveller. 
At, t'. Swell, pufF up, become tumid. Pret. a. à\\ at, suellcd ; 

fut. aff. a. ataidh, shall swell. Ataidh an t-eolas, knowledge 

piffeth up. — Stew. 1 Cor. Tha m' eudann air a h-atadh, 

my face is swelled. — Steiv. Job. 
At, s. m. A swelling ; a tumour. At ban, a while swelling. 

— Tr. id. 
Ata, sub. verb. Am, art, is, are. 
Atach, aich, i. ;h. A request ; a fermentation. — //■. 
Ata'd, ( for ata iad.) They are. Ni 's niillse na 'nihil ata'd, 

sweeter they are than lionei/. — Sm. 
Atadh, aidh, s. m. A swelling, a tumour. Atadh ban, a xchite 

Atadh, (ag), pr. part, of at. 
t Atail, a. Deaf. 
Ataim, {for ata mi.) I am. Lag ataim gun cheist, weak I 

am, without doubt. — Sm. 
Ataimse, [ata mise], emphatic form o/"alaim. I am. Ataiins' 

a labhairt, / am speaking. — Stew. Slat. 
Ataireachd, s.f. {from Sit), contraction for nlmhoireachd. 

Swelling, raging, blustering ; a fermentation. Ataireachd 

lordain, the swelling of Jordan. — Stew. Jer. 
t Atais, s.f. Woe, grief, lamentation. 
Atan, ain, s. m. A cap ; a garland. — Shaw. 
At-chuisle, 6-. Aneurism. 
Ath, a. Next; again. Air an ath làtii, on the day. — 

Stew. John. An ath-bliadhna, i/cur ; an ath-sheach- 

duin, the next week. 
Ath, in composition, denotes repptiiic)ii,:ui(l maj be compounded 

with every active verb. It is equivalent to the Latin re, again. 
Ath, s. in. A ford ; any shallow part of a river reaching from 

side to side. Ath na sùi, the corner of the eye. — Macd. 
Ath, s. m. A kiln. Nur bha sinn san ath le cheile, when we 

were in %he kiln together. — Old Song. Ath-chruachaidh, 

a drying kiln, a corn kiln; ath-bhrachaidh, a malt kiln; 

ath-chriadh chlach, a brick kiln; ath-aòil, a lime kiln ; ath 

clilacha creadha, a brick kiln. Tre ath nan dacha creadha, 

through the brick kiln. — Stew. Sam. 
t Athacii, aich, s. in. A space; also waves; a blast. Athach 

gaoithe, a blast of wind. — Ir. id. 
Atiiacii, aich, *. m. {from athadh, fear.) A giant, a cham- 
pion, a monster. JV. pi. athaich, giants. Cath ris an athach 

m\\hr, fight xcith the mighty champion. — Oss. Cat hula. Chup- 

naic sinn athaich, we suiu giants. — Stiw. Numb. ref. 
Athach, a. (from atliadh ) Timid, modest, bashful ; also 

monstrous, huge, fearful, Oganach athach, a bashful youth. 

A T H 

A T H 

■ — Oil. Tuura. B' athach an tore a mhUl e, monslroiis icas 

the boar that destroyed him. — Oss. Derm. 
Athadh, aidh, *. m. Fear, cowardice, timidity,— 0/</ Sung. 

Also a gust or blast of wind. 
Athaich, gen. sing, and n. pi. of atliacli. 
Athaile, s.f. Inattention, neglect. 

Atiiailt, «.y; A mark, scar, impression ; vestige; trace. 
Atiiailteacii, a. {from atliailt.) Full of scars or marks; 
causing a scar or mark ; of, or pertaining to, a scar ; like 
a scar. 
AriiAiy, gen. sing, ofathan; whicii see. 
Atiiainne, s.f. A firebrand. 
Athaiu, gen. sing, of athar. 
Atiiair, gen. athar, s. ?H. A father ; an ancestor. 

Gr. inarr.f. Lat. pater. Jt. padre. .S'ui-rf. and Dan. 
fadder. /J/^. father. Pers. piiader. Fr. ipètrc; now 
written pure. Goth. atta. Germ. tad. 

Athair ceile, a father inline ; literally a spouse's father. 
Alhair baistidh, atiiair faosaid, a father confessor. N. pi. 
aithriche and aithrichcan, /«//(frs. Aithriche Ardair stiùiribh 
ur mac, i/e fathers of Ardar, guide i/our son. — Ardar. 

Athair is derived from the old Celtic at, father; whence 
are derived the Tartar and Turkish ata, fatkr. Tobolsk, 
atai. Calm. Tart, atey- Phri/giun and Thessalian, atta. 
Hung. atya. Ar-ra was a Greek term of respect to an 
aged man ; at signifies parent in ataxus, great-grandfather. 
Carinth. atei. Mogul Tartars, atzia. Bisc. aita,/«//(fr. 
•(■ Atiiaireag, eig, s.f. (athair.) An aunt by the father's 

side. iV. pi. athaireagan. 
ATUAiREiL,a. (athair-amhuil.) Fatherly, fatherlike, paternal. 
Atiiaireileaciid, s.f (alhair.) Fatherliness. 
Atjiairicii, v. Adopt; father. Pret. a. dh' athairich, 

adopted; fit. aff. a. athairichidh, shall adopt. 
Atiiaik-lus, s. m. Ground ivy. Ir. id. 
Atiiaih-miiaoin, *. ;«. Patrimony. Sgap thu d' athair- 

mhaoin, you hare .tquandered your patrimony. 
Athair-jiiiout, Atiiaiu MiioiiTADii, aidh, s.m. Parricide. 

Dan. f-adder mort. 
Athair-miioutair, v. m. A parricide. 
Atiiair-thalmiiainn, v. m. Yarrow, milfoil. 
Athais, s.f. (Jr. athais.) Leisure; ease: also reproach, 
rebuke. Cr. r,a-vxi^. Jr. aise. English, ease. Corn, aisc, 
gentle. Bhfjil thu air d' athais ? are you at leisure? Thig 
air d' athais, come at liisure. Athais namhaid, the reproach 
of an enemy. — Old Poem. Gun dad athais, uilhout any 
leisure, uithout delay. — Old Song. 
+ Athais, ;. Rebuke, revile, reproach. iVc^ n. dh' athais, 

rebuhed ; f'ul. aff. a. athaisidh, shall rebuke. 
Atiiaiseacii, a. Slow, tardy, lazy, leisurely; rebuking, 
reviling. Com. and sup. athaisiche, more ur most slow. 
Ir. aghaiseach and athaiseach. 
Atiiaislaciid, s. f. {/'rum athais.) Slowness, laziness, 

Atiial, ail, *. m. A flesh hook. 

.\tiian, ain, s. m. A ford, a shallow; a shallow part of a 
river, reaching from bank to bank. N. pi. athanna. Aig 
beul an àthain bhàlliadh an gaisgcach, at the mouth of the 
ford the hero U'nv drouned.— Old Song. Athanna lordain, 
the fords of .Jordan. — Stew. .Judg. 
Athanna, n. pi. of athan. Fords. 

Athau, air, s.m. Sky, firmament; air, atmosphere. Gr. 
iii6)i{. I^it. aether. 

Tlie Gael do not priinounce th in atliar. Tlic Latins made a 
similar uiiiiiiiilon, and widte uer. 
Athar, ^'<7;. sing, of athair. 
Atii.\uail, a. Ethereal, atmospheric. 

t Atii ARAIS, S.f. Mimicry, mocking ; ludicrous gesticulation. 
Atiiar-amharc, *. in. Aeroscopy. 
Athar-eolas, ais, s. tn. Aeromancy. 
t Athargadii, aidh, s. m. A sharp engagement. 
Atiiar-iùl, s. Aerology. 

Atharla, s. a quey, a heifer. X. pi. atharlan. 
Atiiau-mheidii,«.?h. Abarometer. N. pi. athar-mheidhean. 
t Atharrach, a. Strange, curious, droll. 
Atiiarracii, aich, s.m. A change, an alteration, a removal. 
ATiiARRAcnvnii, aidh, s. m. A changing, a flitting, alter- 
ing, removing; a change, alteration, removal; a version. 
Atharrachadh guilain, a changing of conduct. — Stew. Pro. 
Atharrachadli itmtinn, a change of mind, repentance. — Slew. 
Cor. ref. Cha robh thu riamh air atharrachadh, 3^01« were 
never otherwise. 
Atharrachadh, (ag), pres. part, of atharraich. 
Atharrachail, a. Changeable; changing; alterative. 
Atharraich, Atharulich, v. a. Change, alter; remove; 
turn; budge; translate; flit. Pret. a. dh' atharraich, 
changed ; fut. aff. a. atharraiehidh, siiall chancre. Dh' ath- 
arraich e iad, he removed them. — Stew, Gen. Dh' atharruich 
e cuibhrionn mo shluaigh, he hath changed the portion of my 
people. — Stew-. Mic. A shaor agus a dh' atharraich sinn, 
who delivered and translated vs. — Stew. Col. 
Athbhach, aich, s. m. Strength. 
Ath-bharr, .«. m. A second crop; an after crop. 
Athbhàs, ais, s. m. A second death. 

Athbheachd, s.f. (ath, again, and beachd.) A retrospect; 
a second thought, an after thought, consideration, recon- 
Ath-bhkothachadh, aidh, s. m. A reviving, a rekindling, 
a refreshing, reanimating. Rinn do bhriathran m' ath- 
bheotliachadh, thy words have revived me. — Sm. 
Ath-bheothachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath bheothaich. 

Reviving, rekindling, refreshing, reanimating. 
Ath-bheothachail, a. {W. advywiawl.) Causing to revive, 

refresh, or rekindle. 
Ath-bukothaich, r. (ath, ««(/ beothaich.) W. advywiaw, 
advywiocaw. Revive, refresh, rekindle, reanimate, quicken. 
Pret. a. dh' alh-bheothaich, revived ; fut. aff. a. ath-bheoth- 
aichidli, shall revive. Ath-bheolhaich t-obair, revive thy 
work. — Stew. Heb. Dh' ath-bheothaicheadh e, he revived, 
became reaninwted. — Slew. K. Athbheothaiehidh e, he 
will refresh.'- Slew. I'ro. Ath-bheothaich mi, r/ulcken me. 
— Smith. Ath-bheothaich an teine, rekindle the /ire. 
Ath-bheothaichidh, fut. aff. a. of ath-bheot!iaich. 
.'VTH-BnroTii AiCHTK, /). part, of ath-bheothaich. Revived, 

refreshed, reanimated, rekindled, quickened. 
ATH-iiiii.iM)nNA, s. f. Next year; a second year. Anns an 
athbhliadhna, in the ne.vt year. — Stew. Gen. .Mu 'n triith 
so 'n ath-bhliadhna, about this time net t year. 
Ath-bhri.ith, s. An after birth, a second birth; regene- 
Ath-bii Ri ATHAR, air, .V. ?H. Tautology; repetition; a second- 
hand saying. 
Ath-bhriathrach, a. Tautological. 
Ath-bhri atarachas, ais, *. m. Tautology, repetition. 
Ath-bhriathraiche, s. m. A tautologist; also one who 

uses second-hand expressions, 
f Ath bhroi), v. Resuscitate, reawaken. Pret. /1. dh' ath- 

Ath-bhuosnachadh, aidh, s.m. A rallying, a resuming 

of courage ; a reinspiring with courage. 
Ath-bhrosnachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-bhrosnaich. 
Rallying ; resuming courage ; reinspiring with courage. 
Ag ar n-ath-bhrosnachadh, rallying us. 

A T H 

A -T H 

ATii-iiiinosxAicH, Ath-bhrosnuich, r. a. Rally^ re- 
eucourage ; resume courage. Pret. a. dh' athbhrosnaich, 
raUud ; dh' ath-bhrosnaich iad, (hey rallied; fut. off. a. 
ath-bhrosnaichidh, sliull or uill ralli/. 
Ath-biiuosxaiciite, p. part, of ath-bhrosnaich. Rallied; 

Ath-biiuail, X. Strike again; beat ajain. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-bhuail, struck again ; fut. aff. a. ath bhuailidh, .shall 
strike again. Com' nach d' ath-bhuail thu do shleagh ? 
v:hi) ditht thou not again strike thy shield! — Oss. Gaul. 

Athbiiuailidh, yi/^. aff. a. of ath-bhuail. 

Axri-BiiUAiLTE, p. part, of ath-bhuail. Struck again, beaten 
again, reconquered, or a second time conquered. Gu bràth 
na pilhbh aih-bhuailte, nexer come back reconquered. — O.vs. 
Oi'mara. Sgrios ath-bhuailte, duulile destruction. — Stexv. Jer. 

Atii-bhuain, v. Cut down, or shear again. 

Ath-bhualadh, aidh, s. m. A second striking; a recon- 
quering ; repercussion. 

Ath-biiuaxaich, I. a. Regain, recover, gain a second 
time. Pret. a. dh' ath-bhuanaich, regained ; fut. aff. a. ath- 
bhuanaichidh, shall or xiill regain. 

Ath-eiiuaxaiciite, pret. a. of ath-bhuanaich. Regained, 

Atii-biuidiiixx, v. Regain, recover, repossess. 

Ath-biiuidhixxeadii, idh, s.ra. A regaining, a recover- 
ing, a repossessing. 

Axu-ciiAGAix, t. a. Chew again ; ruminate; chew the cud. 

Atii-ciiagxacii, a. That chews the cud; ruminating. 
Ainmhidh ath-chagnach, an animal that chexcs the cud. 

Ath-chagxadh, aidh, s. m. A chewing of the cud; ru- 

Atii-chairicii, f. a. Repair, mend again. 

Atii-chaiut, s.f. A granting a charter; renewal of a lease. 
Lat. adcartatio. 

Ath-ciiaramii, s. a repairing, a mending a second time. 

Ath-chas, r. a. Retwist. 

Atii-ciiasaid, 4.y. Second charge ; a second complaint. 

Atii-chasta, a. Retwisted ; strongly twisted. 

Atii-ciieaxxach.vdh, aidh, s. m. The act of redeeming, a 
redeeming ; repurchasing. 

Axii-ciir.AXXACHADH (ag), pr. pait. of ath-cheannaich. 
Redeeming; repurchasing. Ag ath-cheannachadh na 
li-aiaisir, redeeming the time. — Stexv. Col. 

Atii-cheaxxaich, r. Redeem; repurchase. Pret. a. dW 
ath-cheannaich, repurchased ; tut. aff. a. ath cheannaichidh, 
shall repurchase ; fut. pass, ath-cheannaichear, 0//«// be re- 

Atii-cueanxaiciite, p. part, of ath-cheannaich. Redeemed; 

ATH-CHEASXACnADH, aidh, s. m. X re-examination. 

Ath-cheasnaicii, v. a. Re examine. 

Atii-ciiei'mnaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A repacing ; a reca- 

ATH-citnuMXAicn, r. Repace, pace over again; remeasure 
by pacing ; recapitulate. 

Atii-ciileamhxas, ais, s. m. A connexion by a second 
marriage. Is fuar comain an h-ath-chleamhnais, bold is the 
connexion -xith a first alliance after asecond is formed. — G.P. 

Atii-ciixeadii, s. m. A second wound. Is leigh fear ath- 
chneadh, a man is a surgeon for his second -wound. — G. P. 

Atu-ciioisich, r. Repass ; travel again. Pre/. «. dh" ath- 
choisich ; fut aff. a. ath-choisichidh, shall or xcdl repass. 

Ath-ciioisichte, p. part, of ath-choisichte. Repassed, 

At!i-ciioimiiearax, ain, s. m. A register. 

Atii-choimhre, s.f. An abridgment. 

Atii-chomain, 6-./. A requital, recompense; retaliation. 

t ATii-CHOMnAi"RC, r. Shout again. 

Ath-chomiiairleachadh, aidh, s. m. A readvising, a 

.4.TH-CHO.MIIAIRLEAC11AD11 (ag), pr.part. of ath-chomhair- 
lich. Readvising, readmonishing. 

Atiichomiiairlich, v. a. Readvise, readmonish. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-chomliairlich, readxised ; fut. aff. a. ath-chomhair- 
lichidh, shall reudxise. 

Atii-ciio5iiiairliciite, p. part, of ath-chomhairlich. Re- 
advised ; readmonished. 

Atii-chostas, ais, s. m. An after-cost. 

Atii-chre, Atii-chriadii, s. m. A brick-kiln. — Stexc. Xah. 

Atii-ciiruinneachadii, aidh, s. in. A rearatheiing ; a 
reuniting ; a rallying. 

Atii-chruixxeaciiadii (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruinnich, 
Regathering; rallying; reuniting. 

Aiii-cuRUixNicii, I'. Regather ; reunite; rally. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-chruinnich, regathered ; fut. aff. a. ath-chruinnichidh, 
shall resathcr. 

Atii-ciiruivxiciiear, fut. pass, of ath-chruinnich. Shall 
be gathered again. 

Atii-chruinxichte, /). part, of ath-chruinnich. Gathered 
again; reunited; rallied. 

Ath-chruthachadii, aidh, s. m, A recreating; a regene- 
rating, regeneration, a reformation. Anns an ath-chrutha- 
chadh, in the regeneration. — Stexo. Mat. ref. 

Ath-ciirutiiaciiadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruthaich. Re- 
creating, regenerating. 

Ath-chruthaicii, r. «. Create again ; regenerate, reform ; 
reconstruct. Pret. a. dh' ath-chruthaich, regenerated ; fut. 
aff. a. ath-chruthaichidh, shall regenerate. 

Ath-chruthaicheah, fut. pass, of ath-chruthaich. Sliall 
be regenerated. 

Ath-chruthaiciite, p. pass, of alh-chruthaich. Regene- 
rated, reformed ; reconstructed. 

Atii-chuimhxe, s.f. Recollection, remembrance. 

Ath-ciiuimhseachadh, aidh, *. ni. A recollecting, a re- 

.\th-ciiui.mhxeachadh (ag), ;);■. part, of ath-chuimhnich. 
Recollecting, remembering. 

ATii-cnuiMHNirn, r. Recollect, remember, bring to mind 
again, put in mind a second time. 

t Atii-ciiuimirc, s.f A rehearsal of a cause.— SAou-. 

Ath-chuixge, s.f. {Ir. id.) A prayer, petition, request, 
supplication. Ag iarruidh athchuinge bige, asking a small 
petition. — Stcxc. 1 K. Written also achuingc. The proper 
othography is perhaps ath-chuimhnc ; i. e. a second putting 
in mind ; so the corresponding terra in English, request, 
from the Lat. rcquiru, strictly, means a second asking. 

Atii-chuixgeacii, a. Supplicatory, petitionary, entreating; 
supplicant; like-a prayer or petition ; of, or belonging to, 
a petition. 

Ath-chuixgeax, n. pi. of ath-chuinge. 

Ath-chuin giche, s. m. A petitioner, a supplicant. 

f Atii-chuir, v. a. Banish ; surrender. — /;■. 

t Ath-ciiumain, r. Deform, transform. 

t Atii ciiur, .$. Banishment, exile. — Ir. 

Ath-diiAn, dhàin, s. m. A byeword, byename, nickname. 
Bithidh tu a d' ath-dhàn, thou shall be a byexvord. — Stew. 
Deut. ref. 

Atii-dhiol, v. Repay, requite, recompense, refund. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-diiiol, repaid ; fit. aff. a. ath-dhiolaidh, shall repau. 
ath-dhiolaidh mise, / uill repay.— Sleis. 0. T.- 

Atii-dhiol, Ath-dhioladh, aidh, s. m. A restitution, 
a requital, a repayment, a requiting, a recompensing, re- 
funding; retaliation. Mar ath-dhiol air caoimhneas, «s a 
requital of kindness. — 2lac Lach. 

A T H 

A T H 

Ai II-DIIIOI.ADII (ag), pr. part, of athdhiol. Requiting, re- 
paying, refunding, recompensing. 

Atii-dhiolta, a. Requited, repaid, recompensed, refunded, 

Atii-diiulmd, r. Shut again, close again. Pnt.a.dWath- 
dhrmii, s/iiil again ; f'ut. aft', a. ath-dliruididh, shall shut again. 

Atii-diirlidtf, ;>. /)or/.of ath-dhruid. Sliut or closed again. 

Atii-diiùblacii.vdh, aidii, s. m. A redoubling, a redupli- 

Ath-dhublaciiadii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-dhublaich. Re- 

Atii-dhubiii.aiiii, r. (alli, again, and dublaich.) Redouble. 
Prit. a. dli' atli-dbublaich, redoubled; /at. aff. a. atli- 
dliiiblaicliidli, shall or ziill redouble ; fut. pass, atb-dhu- 
blaichear, shall be redoubled. 

ATii-DiiunLAiciiTF,, p. part, of athdhublaich. 

Atii FHÀS, .V. m. Aftergrowth, second growth, second crop. 

Atii FiiEAU, fhir, *. HI. A second man, a second thing. 
An t-alii-f hear, t/ie next man, or second man ; the next or 
.second object or thing. — Stew. 1 Chron. ref. 

Atii-hiuaracii ADii, aidli, s. m. A recooling, the act of 
cooling again, or a second time. 

Atii FiiUARACiiADii, (ag), pr.part. of ath-fhuaraich. Re- 

Atii-fiil'araich, r. Recool; cool again. P/f/. a. dh' alh- 
fhuaraich, recuoled; fut. aff. a. ath-fhuaraichidh, shall or 
vill recool. 

Arii-FHUAKAiciiTE, p. par^ of ath f liuaraich. Recooled. 

Atii-ghabii, r. Retake, recover, regain, resume. Pret. a. 
dh' ath-ghabh, regained ; /nt. aff. a. ath-gliabhaidh, shall 
or rcill retake ; Jut. pass, alh-ghabhar, shall be retaken. 

Ath-ghabiite, p. part, of ath-ghabh. Retaken, recovered, 
regained, resumed. 

Atii-ghearr, a. Short, brief, quick. Gu h-aith-gheurr, 
shortly, briejly, quickli/. 

Atii-oiiearr, r. Abridge, shorten, cut again. I'rct. a. dh' 
ath-ghearr, abridged ; Jul. aff. a. dh' ath-ghearr. 

Atii-giiearraciiadh, aidh, *. m. The act of abridging, 
an abbreviating, an abbreviation, an abridgniciit. 

ATii-GiiEARRACiiADii,(ag),/;r./;a;/. Abridging, abbreviating. 

Atii-ghearrad, aid, *. m. Shortness, briefness. 

ATii-GiitARUADii, aidh, An abbreviation, a shortening; 
a second cutting. 

Atii-giiearradii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghearr. 

Ath-giiearraicii, r. Abridge, abbreviate. Prcl. a, dh' 
ath-ghearraich, abridged; Jut. aff. a. ath-ghearraichidh, 
shall abridge. 

Atii-c.ii earkaiciite, p. part, of ath-ghearraichte. Abridged, 

Atii-giiis, r. Regenerate, renew, produce a second time ; 
recreate, renovate. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghin, regenerated; 
Jut. ajf. a. iith-ghiridh, shall regenerate. 

Atii-giiineamiiuin'N, s. f. Regeneration; reproduction. 
Anns an alh-ghineanihuinn, in the regeneration. — Slew. Mat. 
\Vrittcn also ath-ghinmhuinn and nth-ghiontuinn. 

ATir-iiiiixMiiui.sN, *. /'. A regeneration; reproduction. 

Atii-giiinte. p. part, of ath-ghin. Regenerated; reproduced. 

Atii-giiiontuinn, s.f. A regeneration ; a reproduction. 

Atii-oiii,ac, v. a. Retake, resume, catch again, apprehend 
a second time. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlac, retook ; fut. aJf. a. 
ath-t:hlacaidh, shall or will rilake ; fut. pass, ath-ghlacar, 
shall be retaken.— Jr. id. 

ATii-Giii.ACTK, p. part, of athlac. Retaken, recaught, re- 
apprclieuded., v. a. Rcpolish, refine, recleanse. Pret. a. dh' 
alh-ghlan, repoliJud ; fut. a//', a. ath-gblanaidh, shall re- 
polish ; Jut. aff. a. alh-glilanar. 

Ath-giilan, r. a. Recleanse, repolish, refine, furbish, scour. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlan, recleansed ; fut . aff. a. ath-ghlanaidh, 
shall or will recleanse. 

Atii-ghlanadh, aidh, i. m. A recleansing ; the act or the 
process of recleansing. 

Atii-giila>j ADI1. (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghlan. Repolishing, 
recleansing, or furbishing. 

Atii-ghlanta, p. part, of ath-ghlan. Recleansed, re- 
polished, furbished, scoured, burnished. — Ir. id. 

Axii-GiiotRiUD, s. A short time, a moment. 

Atii-iarr, v. a. Seek again ; request. Pret. a. dh' ath-iarr, 
sought again. 

Ath-iarrtas, ais, s. m. A request; a second asking or 
seeking; a second order; repetitions as in prayer. N. pi. 
ath-iarrtais, repetitions. Ah-iarrtais dhiomhain, rain repe- 
titions. — Stew. Mat. 

Arn-iAKiiAiVH, (ag), pr. part. Requesting; seeking again. 

Atii-lamii, a. Ready, expert, ready-handed. 

Ath-làn, i. 771. A refilling. 

Ath-lXnh MARA, s. Next tide, reflux of the sea. 

Atii-latii, s. m. Next day. 

Atii-lathachadii, aidh, «. vi. A procrastinating, procras- 

Atu lathaicii, i>. Procrastinate, delay. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
lathaich, procrastinated ; Jut. aff'. a. ath-lathaichidh, shall 
or will procrastinate. 

Ath-leasachadh, aidh, s. m. A reforming, amending, re- 
formation, amendment, correction, an amelioration, im- 
provement. Ath-leasachaidh obair, amendintnts [(iilditions^ 
of work.— Stew. 1 A'. 

Ath-leasachadii, (ag), pr.part. of ath-leasaich. Reform- 
ing, amending, ameliorating, correcting. 

Atii-leasachair, j. 77!. A reformer, a corrector. N. pi. 

Atii-i.easaicii, r. a. Reform, amend, ameliorate, correct, 
improve. Pret. a. dh' alh-leasaicli, reformed ; Jut. aff. a. 
ath-leasaichidh. Ath-leasaich do chomhradh agus do 
bheusan, amend thj/ coniersation and manners. — Old Poem. 

Atii-li;asaiciite, p. part, of ath-leasaich. Reformed, 
amended, ameliorated, corrected, improved. 

Atii-leu.m, v. n. Rebound; spring or jump again. Dh' 
ath-leum, rebounded. 

Atii-leu.mautaich, s.f. A rebounding ; a continued jump- 
ing or bounding'. 

Atii-i.ion, v. a. Refill, recruit, replenish, reflow. Pret. a. 
dh' ath lion, retilltd ; Jut. aff. a. ath-lionaidh, shall or will 

Atii-lionaijii, aidh, s. m. A refilling, a replenishing, re- 
cruiting, reflowing. Ath-lionadh feachd, a recruiting of 
the army ; ath-lionadh na mara, a rtjlowing of the sea. 

Atii-lioxadii, (ag), //;•. part, of ath-lion. Refilling, re- 
plenishing, recruiting. 

Atii-miialairt, .V. /'. Are-exchange; a second bargain. 

Arii-MiiAi.AiHTicii, v. a. Re-exchange; make a second 

Arii-iMiiA I.A1RTICIITE, p. part, of ath-mhalairtichte. 

Ai ii-MiiEAi., I. a. Reenjoy. Pret. a. dh' ath-mheal, rt- 
eii/oj/eit ; fit. iff. a. ath-mhealaidh. 

Arii-MiiKALTUiNN, S.f A re-cnjoying, re-enjoyment. 

Atii-miieai.tuinn, (ag), pr.part.oi ath-mheal. Re-enjoying. 

Arii-NEARTACiiADii, aidh, .V. m. A restrengthening, a re- 
cruiting, a reinforcing, a reinforcement. 

Atii-\eartaciiad!i, (ag), pr.part. of ath-neartaich. Re- 
strengthening, reinforcing. 

Atji-neahtaciiail, a. Strengthening. Leighcas ath- 
neartachail, a strengthening medicine. 

A T H 

Ath-neaRtaich, v. a. (ath, again, and neart.) Reinforce, 
recruit, restrengthen, refresh, renew. Pret. a. dh' ath-near- 
taich, recruited ; fut. aff. a. ath-neartaichidh, shall recruit. 

Ath-nuadiiaciiadh, aidli, .j. m. A renewing, a renovating, 
renewal, renovation, redintegration. Ath - nuadiiachadh 
bhur n-inntinn, the renenal of your minds. — Stew. N. T. 

Ath-nuadhachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-nuadhaich. 

Ath-nuadiiaich, v. Renew, renovate, redintegrate. Prct. 
a. dh' ath-nuadhaich, renewed ; fut. aff. a. ath-nuadhaichidh, 
shall or will renew ; fut. pass, ath-nuadhaichear, shall be 
renewed ; ath-nuadhaichear a bhhadhna, the year shall be 
renewed. — JSIacfar. 

Ath-nuadiiaichte, p. part, of ath-nuadhaich. Renewed, 
renovated. Tha gach ni ath-nuadhaichte, every thing is 
renewed. — Sm. 

Ath-piiill, v. a. Return, turn again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
phill, returned; fut. aff. a. ath-phillidh, shall or will return ; 
ath-philUdh a ghaoth, the wind shall return. — Stew. Pro. 

Atii-piiilleadii, idh, s. m. A returning, a return, a coming 
back. Bhiodh ath-philleadh mar ghrian, his return would 
be like the sun. — Ardar. 

Ath-piiilleadh, (ag), pr. /(o/-^ of ath-phill. Returning. Tha 
sibh ag ath-philleadh, you are returning again. — Slew. Gal. 

Atii-philltinn, s.f. A returning. 

Ath-reiteachail, a. Reconciliatory, pacificatory. 

Ath-rìiteachadii, aidh, s. m. A reconciliation, a recon- 
ciling, reconcilement; atonement, expiation ; a second dis- 
entangling ; a second clearing or arranging. 

Ath-reiteachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-reitich. Recon- 
ciling, pacifying ; re-expiating, re-atoning ; disentangling 
again ; clearing anew. 

Ath-rìitich, t). a. Reconcile; re-expiate, re-atone ; disen- 
tangle again; clear again; re-arrange. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
reitich, reconciled; fut. aff. a. ath-reitichidh. 

Ath-rìitichte, p. part, of ath-reiticli. Disentangled again; 
cleared again. 

Atii-roinn, i.y. A subdivision ; a second division. 

Ath-roinn, v. a. Subdivide ; divide again. Prct. a. dh' 
ath-roinn, subdivided ; fut. aff. a. ath-roinnidh, shall divide. 

Ath-roinnte, p. /)0)<. of ath-roinn. Subdivided. 

Ath-ruadhar, v. Dig or delve again. Pret. a. dh' ath- 
ruadhar, dug again. 

Ath-ruadiiradh, aidh, s. in. A second digging or delving. 

Ath-ruadiiuadii, (ag), ;;;■. part, of ath-ruadhar. Digging 
or delving again. 

Ath-sdiùir, v. a. Steer again; reconduct. Pret. a. dh' 

Ath-soal, s. m. A second squall; an echo ; the echo of a 
bag-pipe, or of any loud and shrill sound. 

Ath-sgath, X'. (/. Reprune, lop again, cut down again. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-sgath, repruned ; fut. aff. a. ath-sgathaidh, 
shall reprune. 

ATn-sGEUL,gf«.athsgeòil,orath-sgèil. A tale at second-hand. 

Ath-sgriobii, r. o. Write again ; transcribe. P;f^ a. dh' 
ath-sgriobh, transcribed ; fut. aff. a. ath-sgriobhaidh, shall 

Ath-sgriobh ADH,(ag), pr.par^. of ath-sgriobh. Transcribing. 

Ath-sgriodhadh, aidh, *. m. A transcribing, a transcript. 

Ath-sgriobhair, s. m. A transcriber. N. pi. ath- 

Ath-sgriobhar, /K^ pass, of ath-sgriobh. Shall be tran- 
Ath-sgriobhte, p. part, of ath-sgriobh. Re-written, tran- 
Ath-shaor, r. a. Re-deUver. Pret. a. dh' ath-shaor, re- 
delivered; fut. aff. a. athshaoraidh, shall re-deliver. 


Ath-shaoradh, aidh, s. m. A re-delivering, re-deliverance. 
Ath-shaoradh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shaor. Re-delivering. 
Ath-shaorta, ;;. ;7art. of ath-shaor. Re-delivered. 
Ath-shaothrachail, a. Painstaking, assiduous. 
Ath-shealbhachadh, aidh, *. m. A repossessing, re- 
inheriting ; reversion ; re-investment. 
Ath-shealbhachadh, (ag), /)/-. part, of ath-shealbhaich. 

Re-possessing, re-inheriting. 
Ath-shealbhaich, r. a. Re-possess, re-inherit. Prf<.a.dh' 

ath-shealbhaich, re-possessed ; fut. aff'. a. ath-shealbhaichidh, 

shall repossess. 
Ath-shealbhaicute, p. ;7ar^ of ath-shealbhaich. Re-pos- 
sessed, re-inherited. 
Ath-sheall, r. n. Look again. Pret. a. dh' ath-sheall, 

looked again ; fut. off. a. ath-sheallaidh, shall look again. 
Ath-siiealladh, aidh, s. in. A second look ; retrospect; 

a second sight, a second view. 
Ath-shealltuinn, s.f. A second looking, a second viewing. 
Ath-shealltuinn, (ag), pr. part, of ath-sheall. Looking 

or viewing again. 
Ath-smuaine, s.f. A second thought, an after-thought. 

N. pi. ath-smuaintean, after-thoughts. 
Ath-smuainteachadh, aidh, s. m. A re-considering, 

pondering, reflecting. 
Ath-smuainteachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-smuaintich. 

Reconsidering, pondering, reflecting. 
Ath-smuainteachail, a. Apt to reflect, considerate. 
Atii-smuaintean, n. pi. of alh-smuaine. Second thoughts, 

Ath-smuaintich, v. a. Re-consider, ponder, meditate, 

reflect. Pr. a. dh' ath-smuaintich, re-considered. 
ATii-siiNAMH,r.«. Re-swim, swim over again. Pret. a. dh'ath- 

shnamh, re-swam ; fut. aff'. a. ath-shnamhaidh,i^aW re-swim. 
Ath-siinamhadh, aidh, s. m. A re-swimming, a swimming 

a second time, a swimming back again. 
Ath-siinamhadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shnarah. Re-swim- 
ming, swimming back again. 
Ath-siinamhta, p. part, of ath-shnamh. Swum over a 

second time. 
Ath-thagh, I', a. Reflect; re-choose, make another choice. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-thagh, re-elected ; fut. aff. a. ath-thaghaidh, 

shall or will re-elect. 
Ath-tiiaghadh, aidh, s. m. A re-election, a re-choosing. 
Ath-thaghta, p.;?ar^. of ath-thagh. Re-electing, re-choosiiig. 
Ath-theachd, s. a second coming, next arrival. 
Ath-tiieògh, v. a. Warm again. Pret. a. dh' ath-theogh, 

warmed again; fut. aff. a. ath-fheoghaidh, shall or txHI 

warm again. 
Ath-tiieòghadh, aidh, s. m. Warming a second time. 
Ath-theòghadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-theogh, re-warming. 
Ath-tiiighinn, s. a second coming; next arrival. Ath- 

thighinn an teachdair, the next arrival of the messenger. 
Ath-thionndadh, v. Return a second time. Pret. a. dh' 

ath-thioundadh ; fut. aff. a. ath-thionndaidh. 
Ath-tiiionndadh, aidh, 6. m. A second return ; a causing 

to turn a second time ; an eddy. Gaoth air luing, gaoth 

tre tholl, is gaoth ath-thionndadh : bad winds, wind in a 

ship, wind through a hole, and an eddy-wind. — G. P. 
Ath-tiiionnsgaix, r. Re-commence, resume, re-devise. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-tkionnsgain, re-commenced. 
Ath-thionnsgnadh, aidh.i.OT. Are-commencing, are-com- 
mencement, a resuming, a re-devising. N. pi. ath-thionn- 

Ath-tiiog, v. a. Rebuild, rear again, lift or rise again. 

Pret. a. dh' ath-thog, rebuilt ; fut. aff. a. ath-thogaidh, 

shall or will rebuild ; fut. pass, ath-thogar. 


B A C 

Ath-thooail, thogalach, *. /. A rebuilding, a second 
rearing, raising, or lifting. 

Atii-tiiogta, /(r. /)u/-/. of ath-lhog. Rebuilt. 

Ath-tiiòisf,aciiadii, aidli, s. m. A re-commencing, a re- 
suming, a re-coinmencement. 

Atii-tiiòisicii, r. Re-commence, resume. Pnf. a. dh' ath- 
thoisicli, re-cumincHceil ; Jul. off. a. ath-thoisichidh, shall or 
uill re-commeiice. 

ATii-TiiREORACHADii,aidh,i.;«. A reconducting, re-guiding. 

Atii-threoraciiadii (ag), pr. part, of ath-tiireoraich. Re- 
conducting, re-guiding. 

Atii-tiiiieòkaich, f. a. Re-conduct, re-guide. Pre/, a. ah' 
atli-threòraich, re-tondiuted ; fuf. ajf. a. atli-tlireòraieiiidh, 
shall re-conduct ; fut. pass, ath-threoraichcar, shall be re- 
conducted. Written sometimes ath-thrcuruich. 

Ath-tiireòraiciite, p. pari, of alh-tiireoraich. 

Atii-tiiuisle, *. /'. A second fall, a stcond stumble. 

Atii-tiiuisleaciiadh, aidh, «. m. A second falling; a 
second slipping or stumbling; a relapse. Ath-thuisleachadh 
tinneis, a relapse into sickness. 

Atii-tiiuisi.f.aciiadii, (ag, pr. part, of ath-thuislich. Re- 
lapsing ; falling again ; slipping or stumbling a second time. 

Ath-tiiuislicii, ;. Fall or stumble again; relapse. 
Pret. a. dh' ath-thuislich, relapsed; fut. qtf. a. ath-thuis- 
lichidh, shall relapse. 

Atii-tiiuit, 1. II. Fall again, or a second time. Pret. a. dh' 
ath-thuit,yt7/ ff^ai'n ;fut. alt', a. ath-thuilidh, shall fall again. 

Atii-tiiuiteam, eim, s. m. A second fall; a relapse. 

Atii-tiiuth, s. a second thatching; a second cover. 
/r. attuth. 

ATii-Tiiirii, I. a. Thatch again. Pret. a. dh' atli-thuth, 
re-lhalched ; fit. aff. ath-thuthaidh, shall or ivill re-thntch. 

Atii-thutiitr, ;;. part, of ath-thuth. Thatched again. 

Ath-uaiu, s. Next time; second time. An ath-uair a 
tbig e, the next time he comes. 

Atii-uamharra, ATii-UAMHAnuAcii, a. Abominable, 
odious, execrable, detestable, horrid, terrible. — Ir. id. 

Axii-iJAMiiARnACiii), s. f. Abomination, detestation; hate- 
fulness, atrociousness, abominableness. 

ATii-unACiiADii, aidh, s. m. A renewing, reviving, refresh- 
ing, a reanimating; a regenerating; a renewal, renovation, 
a revival, reanimation; regeneration. Anns an ath-ùrachadh, 
in the regeneration. — Stexc. Mat. ref Tha e air alh- 
ùrachadh, jic is retired. 

AxH-irRACHADii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ùraich. Renewing, 
reviving, refreshing, reanimating, regenerating. 

Atiiùkaicii, v. a. Revive, refresh, renew, renovate ; reani- 
mate ; regenerate. Pret. a. dh' ath-iiraicli, rniveil ; fit. 
aff. a. ath-uraichidh, shall renew ; dh' ath-ùraich an cath, 
the battle renewed. — Old Poem. 

Ath-uraiciite, p. part, of ath-uraich. Revived, refreshed, 
renewed, renovated ; re-animated ; regenerated. 

Atmhoire, com. and sup. of atmhor. More or most swelling 
or turgid. 

At.miioireaciid, s. f. A tendency to swell, turgidness; 
pride, vanity ; bombast, boisteronsness ; the state of being 
swelled, or puffed up. Atmhoireachd nar measg, swellings 
(uf pride) amongst you. — Stexi. 2 Cor. 

Atmhou, tf. (at ««(/ mor.') Swelling; raging; turgid ; boister- 
ous; bombast. Briathran <>.im\\OT, suelting words. — Utiw. 
2 Pet. Na aonar sa chuau atmhor, atone on the raging 
ocean. — Oss. Gaul. Com. and sup. atmhoire, more or most 

Atiite, a. and p. ;;(;/•/. of at. Swelled, swollen, puffed up, 
in a rage. 

t Aun, i. m. Gold. Tiiis is an ancient Celtic word, now 
in disuse among the Gael, but often heard among their 
brother Celts in Brittany. Hence Clr. av^ov, gold ; avfoi,rich ; 
and 6to--at/^(i{, treasuii/. I -at. aur-um, gold; thes-aurus, 
a treasuri/. Aur is now written or ; which see. 


B, b, (beith, binh.) The second letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
It sounds sijinewhat harder than /;, and softer than ;;, in 
English. When immediately followed by //, it has an 
aspirated sound like i< in Er)glish. As, bhuaW, struck ; 
bhac, hindered. At the end of a word, however, or of a 
syllable, the aspiration is so feeble as not always to be 
perceived; passing into the sound of the vowel « ; as, 
searbh, 4iV/(r; fiabhras, /ijc;- ; dabhach, trt^ 

'B, ( /or a bu.) Who was, who wert, who were ; which was, 
which wast, which were. 

B' (for bu.) Was, wert, were. Co h' urradh comhrag ri 
Dearg? who was able to contend with Dan^o! — Oss. Dargii. 
B' ioniad oigh san lath sin dubhach, mam/ wen the maidens 
on that day sorrowful. — Ull. 

Ba, i.f. (Ir. bath.) Cow, cows. An aile gu màtiaich 
bithidh geum ba, instead of the xoiee of a monk, there shall 
he the towing of cows. — St. Columbii. Seachd ba, seien 
rows. — Stew. (Jen. Written more frequently bb. 

t Ba, s. Immersion; hence baist, baptize. lia is now 
written bath. 

tBA,a. Good, honest ; simple-minded, — /;-. 

t Ba, ». m. Death. 

Bin, s. m. (Ir. id.) A Unhc.—Shaw. 

Babao, aig, i.y. A tassel ; a fringe ; a cluster; short pieces 
of yarn. An lili na biiabagan cruinn, t/ie lili/ in round 
clusters. — Macdon. A', pi. babagan. 

Bahagacu, a. Having tassels or fringes; like a tassel, 
fringe, or cluster ; of, or belonging to, tassels, fringes, or 
clusters. Com. and sup. babagaiche, more or most fringed 
or tasselled. 

Babaig, gen. sing, of babag. 

Bab AN, ain, .v. ni. A tassel; a fringe; short pieces of 
thread. N. pi. babana. 

Bahanacii, a. (from baban.) Having tassels or fringes; 
of, or belonging to, tassels or fringes. Cow. and sup. ba- 

t Baiiiiaciid, .«. /'. Innocence, harmlessncss, simplicity, 
sweetness of temper. 

Baiuiaid, .s.y. A tassel. iV. p/. babhaidean. 

Babii AiDEACii, a. Hung with tassels ; like a tassel. 

Babiuiinn, iC^fH. sing, and n. pi. of babhunn. 

Babiiuinneacii, a. (from babhunn.) Having bulwarks; 
like a bulwark; of, or pertaining to, a bulwark. 

Babhunn. uinn, V. A bulwark, rampart; tower; enclosure; 
a |)lace for milking cattle. N. /d. babhninn, and babh- 
uitnican. Brisidli iad a babhuinn, they shall break her 
bulwarks. — Stew. Ezek. 

t Bac, s. m. A boat. Ir. bac. Gr. ftiKt,. Hence also 
the German back, meaning a vessel in general. /V. bacette. 
English, bucket. Scotch, backet. 

Bvc, v. f«. (Piirtug. baque, a fall.) A hindcrancc, interrup- 
tion, impediment, delay; a hollow; a thowl, or the fulcrum 




of an oar ; the notch of a spindle , a crook ; a hook ; the 

hinge of a door. Cuir bac air, hindir him. Cogull ranih 

air na bacaibh, the friction of uais on the tho-xh. — Macfar. 

Bac na h-achlais, the armpit; bac na ruighe, the armpit ; 

bac na h-iosgaid, the hough _: bac nacruachainn, the haunch. 

N. pi. bacan ; daf. pi. bacaibh. 
Bag, t. a. Interrupt, hinder, obstruct, oppose, stop, prevent; 

lame. I' ret. a. bhac, prevented ; fut. aff. a. shall prevent ; 

bac an aoibhneas, interrupt their Joi/. — 
Bacach, a. {Ir. bacach. 6'uerf. backug.) Lame, cripple, 

halt; causing hinderance, obstruction, or delay ; hilly; of 

uneven surface, rugged ; also, substantireli/, a lame person. 

Duine bacach, a lame man or cripple. — Stew. Lev. Bacach 

air aon chuis, lame on one leg ; bacach air a dha chois, lame 

on both his legs. — Stew. 2 K. Aite bacach, a rugged place ; 

na bacaich, the lame. — Stew. Mat. 
Bacadii, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of hindering, 

preventing, or obstructing; an opposing, a hinderance, 

obstruction, delay. 
Bacadh, (a), pres. part, at bac. Preventing, hindering, 

obstructing, stopping. 
Bacag, aig, s. f. {dim. o/'bac.) A little hollow; also a trip, 

a stumble, a fall. N. pi. bacagan. 
Bacaicii, f. a. Lame; stop, obstruct, oppose. Pret. a. 

bhacaich, lamed ; fut. aff. a. bacaichidh, shall lame. 
Bacaiciie, s.f. Lameness. Ir. bacuidhe. 
Bacaicue, com. and 6h/). of bacach. More or most lame or 

Bacaiciiead, eid, s. Lameness, increase in lameness. Tha 

6 dol am bacaichead, he is groning more and more lame. 
Bacaichidh, fut. qf. a. of bacaich. Shall or will make 

Bacaid, s. f. A bucket. Scotch, backet. N. pi. bacaidean. 
Bacaidii,/«<. ajf. a. of bac. Shall or will hinder. See Bac. 
Bacaiseach, a. (from bac.) Obstructive, hindering. 
Bacal, ail, s. m. (from bac.) An obstacle, iiinderance, 

interruption, a stop; a thowl, or fulcrum of an oar; rareli/ 

a slave ; a prisoner. N. pi. bacalan ; dat. pi. bacalaibh. 
Bacaladii, aidh, s. m. An oven; a bakehouse. /;■. ba- 

t Bacalta, a. {Ir. id.) Baked. — Sha:c. 
Bacan, ain, s. m. A tether stake; a palisade ; a hook ; a 

crook; a door hinge; a stake of any kind ; a knoll. An 

smeòrach air bacan, the mavis perched upon a stake. — 

Bacanacii, a. {from bacan.) Like a palisade, like a stake, 

full of palisades ; knoUy. 
Bacau, fut. pass, of bac. Shall or will be hindered. 
Bach, gen. bacha, s. m. Drunkenness, revelling, rioting. 

{Ir. bach. Lat. Bacch-us, the god of icine and of revels.) 

Bacli-thinneas, sickness occasioned by excess in drinking; a 

surfeit. — Macd. Bach-thoirm, the noise of revelry. — Old Song. 
t Bach, .5-. m. A breach ; a violent attack ; a surprise; also 

loving. Ir. bach. 
+ Bach.vid, s. f. The boss of a shield. /;•. bachoide. 
Bacha ILL, v. a. Clip round, trim. Pret. a. bhachaill; 

fut. aff a. bachaillidh. 
Bachaiu, s. m. {from bach.) A drunkard, a tippler; a 

reveller, a riotous man. 
BAriiAiuEACiiD, s. f. {from baehair.) Continued drinking; 

the practice or habit of drinking to excess, drunkenness ; 

riotousness, revellinu:. 
Bachall, aill, s. See Bachull. 
Bachanta, a. Clamorous; garrulous. It. baccano, a 

Baciiantachd, s.y. Clamorousness; garrulousness. 

Bachar, air, s. m. The herb lady's glove. Ir. bachar. 
Lat. baccar. 

Baciid. See Bac. 

Bachdach, a. See Bacach. 

Bachdaiche, s.f. See Bacaiciie. 

BÀCHDANACH, o. Noisy, tumultuous, contentious. 

t Bachladh, aidh, s. m. {Ir. bachla.) An armful ; a cup, 
a chalice. 

Baciilach, a. Curled. Ir. bachlach. 

Bach LAG, aig, .v. /'. A ringlet, a small curl in the hair; a 
lisp, or halt in speech. 

Baciilagach, 0. (/}■«»; bachlag.) Curled; having curls or 
ringlets; full of curls or ringlets; like a curl or ringlet; 
bushy as hair. Fait bachlagach dualach, curled luxuriant 
hair. — Maciut. A chiablia bachlagach, his bushy locks. — 
Stew. Song. Sol. Com. and sup. bachlagaiche, more or }nost 

Bac-lamh, s. ni. A manacle, a handcuff. 

Bac-lamiiacii, a. Disabled in hand or arm; preventing 
the free use of one's hand or arm. 

Bach-thixxeas, eis, s. m. Sickness occasioned by e.xces- 
sive drinking ; a surfeit. — Macd. 

Bach-thoirm, s. The noise of revelling. — OW Song. 

Bach-thorman, ain, s. m. The noise of revelling. 

Bachull, uill, s. m. {Lat. bacul-um. Span, baculo. 
It. bacchio. /;■. bachol. Corn, and .Irm. bagl.) A staff; 
a shepherd's crook ; a crosier ; the rim of a cart. 

Tlie pastoral staft' among the primitive Christians of Britain was 
called buhul and bachul, tVoin the Latin baculus, which, like the 
lituus of the augurs, was, according to Cicero, crooked. Romuli 
lituus, id est, iiicurvuni, et leviter à summo inilexum bacillum. 
From the circumstance of its being crooked, it was aj^o called 
cum-bhatta, or cam-bhiit, i. e. a crooked statT. The crosier of 
Colunibarius, we are told, who, in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, fonnded the monastery of Bobio in Italy, was 
called cuiiibhiiltu, or cambutta.—Sve theodor. Monach. de Vita 
Suncti JMag. toni. i. It may here be observed, that, by virtue 
of an ancient grant from an Earl of Argyll, a piece of land in the 
island of Lismore is hold on condition that the holder do keep and 
take care of the baculus of Maluag, from whom its church is named. 
Hence the holder is called Baran a Bhachuill, or the Landholder 
of the Baculus. 

Bachullacii, a. Like a staff, crook, or crosier; relating 
to a staff, crook, or crosier; provided with a rim as a cart; 
curled as hair; having ringlets. D' fhalt bachullach, thy 
curled hair. — Macint. 

Bacrach, aich, s. m. The name of a certain British Druid, 
of whom it is said that he apprized his prince of our 
Saviour's passion, at the very time when it happened, by 
means of a solar eclipse. 

B'ad, {for b' lad, i. e. bu iad.) It was they. 

Bad, baid, s. m. {ÌV. bad. Swed. bat. Ir. bad. Fr. bateau.) 
A boat. N. pi. bàdaichean. iVIore frequently written bat ; 
which see. 

Bad, baid, s. m. ; n. pi. badah. A tuft ; a bunch, cluster; a 
wisp ; thicket, clump, copse, grove. Morbheiun nam bad, 
xcoody Morven. — Oss. Gaul. Gabhaidh sibh bad, you shall 
take a bunch. — Stew. Exod. Balbh marbhadan nah'oidhche, 
quiet as the grove of evening mild. — Oss. Fmg. Bad- 
muUaich, a top tuft or cluster ; the hair on the top of the 

BÀDAN, n. pi. of bad ; which see. 

Badan, ain, s. m. {dim. of bad); n. pi. badain. A little tuft; 
a tuft or clump of trees; a thicket; a groves a tuft of 
hair. Badan coille, a tuft of wood ; a clump or grove. — 
Sfexc. Ex. Ghearr e ua badain, he cut down the thickets. — 
Oss. Comal. 

Badanach, a. {from badan.) Tufty, bushy, bunchy ; 
clustered, in tufts, in bushes, bunches, or clusters ; abound- 


B A I 

ing iu thickets, groves, or clumps; like a thicket, grove, or 
clump; of, or belonging to, a thicket, grove, or clump. An 
sobhracli a chinncas badanach, the primrose that ^ro-ds in 
tufts. — Mdctlun. Bàrr an f hraoich bhadanaich, t/ic tup of 
the bunchv heath. — Old Song. Com. and iup. badanaicho, 
more or most tufty. 
Badh, s. {Ir. badh.) Friendship, affection, love; also a 

promise, a bond. 
Badh, baidh, s. A harbour, a bay, a creek, an estuary. 
Sronbhàidh, or Stronbhàidh, Stoniouay, literally the nose 
of the bay. 
Badiiach, a. (from badh.) Loving, kind, afftctionate, 
friendly ; also beloved. Freasdal badhach, ufeetiunate 
Freasdal. — Fingalian Poem. A laoich mhcidhich bhadhaich, 
thou mild and friendly hero. — Death of Carril. Com. and 
sup. badhaiclie, more or most hind. 
Badhach, a. ( from hSiù\i, harbour.) Abounding in bays or 
harbours, creeks or estuaries ; like a bay or harbour ; of, 
or belonging to, a bay or harbour, creek, or estuary. 
Badhachd, s. f. ( /VoHi badh.) Kindness, affectionateness, 

friendliness ; the state of being beloved. 
Badhan, ain, s. m. {dim. o/"badh ) A little harbour, a creek, 

a narrow estuary, a road for ships ; rarely a bulwark. 
Badsadh, aidh, s. m. Provision for a journey, ria/itum. — 

Macd. Perhaps biatsadh. 
Bag, baig, *. m. A bag, a pock; a stomach, a belly. Bag 

pioba, t/ie bag of a pipe. N. pi. bagaichean. 
Bagach, a. {from bag.) Ir. bagach. Corpulent, bellying; 
also warlike. Com. and sup. bagaiclie, wore or most cor- 
Bagaich, t. a, atid n. Make bellied or coqjulent, grow 
corpulent; belly, bulge. I'rct. a. bhagaich ; fut.ajt'.a. 
Bag A I CHE, com. and 4«;). of bagach. More or most cor- 
Bagaichean, n. pi. of bag. Bags. 

Bagaid, s. f. A cluster, a bunch. Bagaidean searbh, sour 

clusters. — Stew. Deut. Bagaidean abuich, ripe clusters. — ■ 

Stew. Gen. Bagaid fhion-dhearcan, a cluster of grapes. 

A', pi. bagaidean. 

Bagaideach, a. {/toot bagaid.) Full of clusters, clustered, 

in bunches. 
Bagaidean, n. pt. of bagaid ; which see. 
Bagailt, s.y. A cluster, a bunch. Bagailt chno bu taine 
plaosg, a cluster of thin-shelled nuts. — Macint. N. pi. ba- 
Bagailteacii, a. {from bagailt.) In clusters or bmithes, 

as nuts. 
Bagaiu,*. m. (//o;h bag.) A glutton, epicure. iV. ;;/. ba- 

Bagair, r. (/;•. bagair.) Threaten, dtnoimce evil, terrify. 
I'ret. a. bliagair; fut. aff. a. bagairidh, >hall or will terrify. 
This vcrl) is commonly followed by the preposition air, 
either simple or compounded. Bagramaid orra, let us 
threaten them. — Stew. Acts. 
Bacaireachd, s. {from bagair.) Gluttony; threatening. 
Bagaikt, s. f. (Ir. bagairt.) A threat, a threatening, a 
denouncing. Cha d' theid plàst air bagairt, no plaster is 
applied to a threat. — G. P. 
Bagairt, a.; prcs. part. o( hagziT. Threatening, denounc- 
ing. A bagairt oirnne, threatening vs., ^. /'. A cluster, a bunch, as of nuts ; baggage. 

A'. /)/. bagaislcan. Written also bagaid. 
Baoaisteacu, «. Clustered, in bunches, as nuts; having 

IJagannta, rt. Warlike; also plump, corpulent, tight. An 
dreathan baganiita, the plump wren. — Macfar. 

Bagau, air, s. m. A threat. X. pi. bagaran, threats; 

d. pi. bagaraibh. 
Bagaracii, a. {from bagar.) Threatening, minacious, prone 
to threat. Jsp. form, bhagarach. Is i 'n Aoine bhagarach 
ni 'n Salhairn deurach, the gloomy Friday makes the rainy 
Saturdat/. — G. P. 
Bagarachd, s.f. A threatening, a habit of threatening. 
Bagaradh, ,aidh, *. m. A threatening, a denouncing, a 

t Bagii, .s. (Ir. bagh.) Kindness, friendship; a bond, a 

tie. Written also badh. 
Baghach, a. Kind, friendly, loving; binding, obligatory. 
Baghaciid, «.y". Kindness, friendliness ; obligatoriness, 
t Baghadh, aidh, s. m. Fighting, quarrelling. 
Bagiilach, a. Dangerous, hazardous. 
Baghlaciid, s.f. Danger, hazard. 
Baguadii, aidh, s. m. A threat, denunciation; the act or 

circumstance of threatening. 
Bagradii, (a), pres. part, of bagair. Threatening, denounc- 
ing. Tha e a bagradh orm, he is thnatcning we; more 
frequently written bagairt. 
Baguid, s.f. A cluster, a bunch. Written also bagaid; 

which see. 
Baguideach, a. In clusters, in bunches. See also Ba 

t Baic, gen. baice, s.f. A turn or tmst.—Shaw. 
t Baiceach, a. Having twists or turns. 
BAicii, s. {i.e. ba-theach.) A cow-house; a cattle-house. 

N. pi. bàichean ; d. pi. baichibh. 
t Baich, r. {Ir. id.) Strike; touch. — Shaw. 
Baideal, eil, s. m. A pillar; fortress, tower. Baideal 
neòil, a pillar of cloud. — Slew. Ps. Mo bhaideal ard, ynii 
high tower. — Sm. N. pi. baidealan, p!7/a/-.f. 
Baidealacii, a. {from baideal.) Like a pillar, tower, or 
fortress ; of, or belonging to, a i)illar, tower, or fortress ; 
abounding in pillars, towers, or fortresses. 
Baidean, ein, s. m. {dim. of had.) A little boat, a yawl, a 

Baideanacii, «. Badenoch in the Highlands of Scotland; 

the BxtaTÌcc of Ptolemy. 
Baideil, g-frt. sing, of baideal. 
t Baidii, s. f. {Ir. id.) A wave. — Shaw. 
Baidh,*./. (/r. baidhe.) Compassion. See B.vigh. 
t Baidheacii, ich, f. »J. A coadjutor; a champion. 
BAiniiEACH,a. {from baidh.) See Baigheach. 
t Baidheai,, eil, i. wi. A cow-stall. //■. baidheal. 
Baigean, ein, s. m. {dim. o/' bag.) A little bag; a little 
glutton ; a little corpulent person. Baigean lèasaiche, a 
rennet bag. 
Baigeanach, a. {from baigean.) Bagged, bellied, cor- 
Bakìeir, s. m. and/! A beggar, a mendicant ; a covetous 
or greedy person. Peilear nam baigearean, a pebble ; lite- 
railv, the beggar's bullet. 
Baig r.i REACH, a. {Swed. begarig.) Inclined to beg; needy; 

Baiceireachd, i./; Beggary. Air bhaigeireachd, begging. 
-(■ Baigh, r. a. Endear. Pret.a. bhaigh, endeared; fut. 

a//', a. baighidh, shall endear. 
Baioh,.v. /". (//-.baidhe.) Kindness, benignity, humanity, 
mercy, friendship, fondness; ho.spilality. Dh' fheoraich i 
le baigh, she asked with benignity. — Oss hod. Is mòr a 
bhaigh ris, great is his fondness for him. — Ull. Sheid 
osnadh gun bhaigh, a wind blew without mercy ; ceann- 

B A I 

B A I 

uighe nam mile baigh, the mansion of boundless hospitality ; 
literally, the stage of a thousand welcomes. — Ull. 
Baigheach, ich, s. m. {from baigh.) Ir. baidheach. A 

companion, a coadjutor. 
Baigheach, a. [from baigh.) Friendly, kind, merciful, 

humane, hospitable, noble. 
Baigheachas, ais, s. m. Grace, favour, friendship. 
Baigheaciid, «. /'. ( /VoOT baigh.) /;•. baidheachd. Friend- 
liness, kindness, mercifulness; hospitableness ; co;npanion- 
ship, coadjutorship. 
Baighealachd, i. f. (y>om baigheil.) Friendliness, kind- 
ness, humanity. 
Baigheil, (/. (i. e. baigh-amhuil, from baigh.) Humane, 
merciful ; favourable, kind. Cha bhi thu baigheil, thou 
shall not [countenancel he favourable. — StcK. Exod. 
f B.viGHiN, s.f. A chariot; a waggon or wain; a dray. 

Ir. id. 
Bail, s.f. Economy ; the allowance of a mill to the poor ; 
also prosperity, good luck. Dean bail, spare, save, or 
economize. Clia bhi bail air aran fuinte, baked bread is not 
spared. — G. P. 
Bailbh, gen. sing, of balbh. Mute. Aspirated form, bhailbh. 

Teangadh an duine bhailbh, the tongue of the dumb man. 
Bailbh E, *■. /'. Dumbness, muteness. /;•. bailbhe. 
Bailc, s. f. A balk, or ridge of earth between two furrows. 
— Macd. A flood; a mountain-torrent; in the Scotch 
Lowlands called a speat ; a loud noise; also a ligature. 
Bailc nan sgiath, the noise of the shields. — Fingalian Poem. 
t Bailc, a. Strong, bold, daring. 
Bailceach, a. Balked; like a balk; abounding in balks ; 

of, or belonging to, a balk. 
Bailceach, a. Rainy, innndating, causing a flood ; of rain, 
of a flood; like a flood. A bhealtuinn bhailceach, rainy 
Mai/. — Macfar. 
Bailceach, ich, s. m. A strong robust man ; a stout 

straight-bodied man. 
+ Baile, s. m. A clan; a tube. — Shau-. 
B.ULE, s. m. A city, town, village. N. pi. bailte, or 
bailtean. Am fear a bhios carrach sa bhaile so bithidh e 
carrach 'sa bhaile ud thall, he icho is mangy here uitl be 
mangy every uhere. — O. P. Hence the Latin + billa, a 
country-seat, now villa ; h and v, being palatals, are easily 
changed the one into the other. I think it is O'Reilly who 
observes, that the Celtic word baile, a town, and the Latin 
vallis, a valley, were originally the same; as the ancients 
built their dwellings in low sheltered places, near rivers 
and rivulets. 
Baileach, a. {fiom baile.) Careful, economical, frugal; 
thorough, complete ; quite. Gu baileaclt, uholly, com- 
pletely, quite, thoroughly Glanaidh e gu ro bhaileach, he 
uill purge thoroughly. — Stcic. Mat. Com. and sup. bailiche. 
Baile-diiuthaich, s. Tain in Scotland ; literallv, the vil- 
lage of St. Duthac, the tutelary saint of the place. 
Baile-geamhraidh, s. m. An infield; ground always 

Baile-margaidh, s. m. A market-town, a burgh. — Macint. 

Batle-mhòid, s. Rothesay; literally, the town where the 

court of justice is held. 
Baile-mor, s. m. A lart;e town, a city, a metropolis; a 

large village. JV^. pi. bailteam-mòra. 
Baile-puiut, s. m. A sea-port town. N. pi. bailtean 

Bailgeaxn, BAiLG-FiiiONy, a. (balg, belly, and fionn, 

u-hite.) Spotted, speckled, pie-bald; white-bellied. Laogh 

bailgeann, a uhite-bellied calf — Macfar. Na gabhair 

bhailg-fhiono, the spotted goats. — R. 

BÀILISDEAR, ir, s. m. A vain-glorious fellow; a man who 

talks idly ; a blusterer. 
Bàilisdearach, a. Vaunting; inclined to talk idly; 

BÀiLisDEARACHD, .5. f. The habit of talking idly or 

B'ÀiLL, (for bu àiU.) Would. B' aill leam, leat, leis, leatha, 

I, thou, he, she would; b' aill leinn, leibh, leo, u:e, iiou, they 

Kould ; am b' aill leat mo mharbhadh ? wouldst thou kill 

vic ! clod a b' aill leat? vchut would you have? what would 
you like ! what is your pleasure ? 
Bailleag, eig, s.f. A twig, a sprout; a sucker. 
Bailleagach, 0. Full of twigs, sprouts, or suckers; like 

a sprig or sucker ; slender, pliable. 
t Baillean, ein, s. m. A boss ; a stud ; any thing round. — 

Bailleanacii, fl. Bossy; studded. 
Bàilhdii, s. m. A bailiff; a baillie, Sco?c/4 ; an underling 

officer of the peace. Fr. baillie. It. balio, a bailiff. 
Baillidheachd, s. a bailiwick ; a province, a district. — 

Bailm, s.f. {Ir. bailme.) Balm, balsam. — Macd. 
Bailmeach, a. Balmy, abounding in balm, made of balm. 
Bail.meaxta, a. Balmy, balsamic. 
Bailte, n. pi. of baile. Towns, cities, villages. Leig thusa 

bailte treun, thou hast thrown down mighty cities. — Sm. 
Bailteach, a. {from baile.) Abounding in towns or in 

villages ; of, or belonging to, a town or village ; civic. 
Bailteaciias, ais, s. m. {from baile.) Planting or founding 

towns, colonizing. 
Bailtean, of baile. Towns, cities, villages. D. pi. 

BiiN, gen. sing, of ban ; which see. 
Bainbh, s. f. A young pig. 

/;■. banabh and banbh. /F. banw, swine. Arm. vano. 

Corn. banv. 
BAiXBiiEACiin, s.f See Bainehidheachd. 
Bainbhidheachd, contr. bainbheachd, s.f. {from bainbh.) 

Pigging; furrowing; piggishness, swinishness. Tha mhuc 

a teannadh ri bainbhidheachd, the sow is about pigging. 
Bainbhinn, s.f. A suckling pig. 
Bainchead, a. Authority, license. 
Bain-cheadaichte, ;)«;•/. Authorized, licensed. 
Baindeachd, s. f. {contr. for baindidheachd.) Female 

modesty, bashfulness ; effeminacy, reserve. Ge mor am 

baindeachd, though great be their modesty. — Old Song. 
B.viNDiDn, a. {from ban.) Ir. banda, a female. Modest, 

feminine, female, effeminate; unassuming. Gu baindidh, 

Baindidiieachjj, s.f. {from baindidh.) Female modesty, 

bashfulness, reserve ; effeminacy, delicacy. Cha n f haic 

mi leithid air baindidheachd, / shall not see her equal for 

BXiyz, s.f. Paleness, whiteness, fairness. Aspirated form, 

bhàine. A sioladh a bhàine, concealing his paleness.^ 

Oss. Tern. 
BÀINE, COOT, and iu/). of ban. More or most pale. //■. bàine. 
Baineasg, isg, s. m. A ferret. — Ir. id. 
Baineasgach, a. Like a ferret; abounding in ferrets ; of, 

or pertaining to, a ferret. 
Bainidh, s.f. Fury, madness, rage. Ir. bainidhe. Corn. 

Bainisg, s.f. A little old woman. N. pi. bainisgean. 
Bainisgeag, eig, s.f. {dim. of bainisg.) A little old woman. 

N. pi. bainisgeagan. 
Bainisgeil, a. (bainisg-amhuil.) Like an old woman. 

B A I 

B A I 

Baimoxn, Baixmoxx, a. (/;•. baiiiion.) Female, femi- 
nine; slie. Firionn agus bainionn, male and female. — 
Stexe. G. R. Na gabhair bhainionn, tiie she-goats. — Siexv. 
Gen. Written also huirionn. 
Baixioxnacii, Baixxioxx ACii, aich, s. f. A female. 

Written alse Imiriunnach. 
Baixioxxacii, a. Female, feminine, effeminate. Firionnacli 

a^us baiiiionnach, 7nale and female. — Stew. Gen. 
Bainionxachd, i.y. (/;-o»i bainionn.) Effeminacy. 
Baisionnas, ais, *. »n. Muliebrity. — Shau\ 
t Baixxe, «./. A drop of any liquid. Now written /jo!«nf; 

which see. 
Baixne, «. OT. (//■. bainne.) Milk, milky juice. A sruthadh 
le bainne agus mil, Jloxcing iiil/i milk and iioney ; bo- 
bhaiune, a milch cow ; cro-bhainne, milch cattle ; camhail 
bhainne, milch camels. — Stew. Gen. Bainne na cipe, the 
milky juice of the mountain-herb. — Macint. Bainne blàth, 
fresh milk ; bainne or, fresh milk; bainne mills, sucet or 
fresh milk; bainne lorn, skimmed milk; bainne chaorach, 
sheep's milk ; bainne giiabhar, goat's milk ; bainne chapull, 
mare's milk; bainne asal, asses' milk ; bainne nois, biestings ; 
bainne binntichte, curdled milk ; bainne goirt, sour milk ; 
bainne na ciche, the milk of the breast ; bainne-ghamhnach, 
Bainxeach, a. Milky, lacteal, like milk, abounding in 
milk ; milk-producing. A Bhealtuinn bhainneach, wilk- 
proilucing ]\Iai/. — Macfar. 
\ BvixxKAi-ACii, aich, .V. m. A dropping of rain. 
Bainneau, a. Milky, abounding in milk. — Macint. 
Bainn-fiirkagradii, aidh, s. m. A bond; a stipulation. 

— Shaw. 
Baixxse, geH. «!HD-. of banais. Of a wedding. — Ir. id. See 

t Bainxsf.acii, ich, s. m. A plain, a field ; sheep-walk ; a 

solitary place. — SJiaw. 
Bainnseachd, *./. Feasting, banquetting. — Shaw. 
Baixnsean, 71. jtl. of banais. Weddings. 
BAix-sriiiKAG, eig, s. f. A sparrow-hawk. — Shaw. The 

falco nisus of Linnceus. N. pi. bain-spireagan. 
BAix-si'iREAGAtii, a. Like a sparrow-hawk, of a sparrow- 
Baix-tioiiearxa, *. /". A lady ; the lady of a baronet, or 
of a knight; a name for ladies in general; a gentlewoman. 
N. pi. bain-tighearnan, ladies ; guidheam ort a bhain- 
tighearna, J beseech thee, ladi/. — Stew. N. T. 
Baix-tigheaunas, ais, s. m. The rule or sway of a lady. 
Tha e fu' bhaiu-tighearnas, he is under petticoat govermnent. 
Baix-tigiiearxachd, «.y. Ladyship. Do bhain-tighear- 

neachd, your ladyship. 
BAix-TREAmiAcii, contr. baintreach, iche, s.f. A widow. 
Baix-tueauiiaciias, ccintr. baintreachas,*ais, s. m. Widow- 
Baixtreacii, ich, s.f. A widow. N. pi. baintrichean, 

widows. Written also bantrach. 
Baixtreaciias, ais, .v. m. Widowhood. Written also 

BÀIK, baire, s.f. A buttle ; a strife ; a game ; also a road, 
a path. — jVaiv/. Air niagh na bane, on the plain of battle. 
— Fingalian I'ocm, 
Baircean, ein, s. m. A ferret. — Shaw. 
+ Bairciie, n. Strong; brave. — Ir. id. 
t BAiRcirE, ».y. A battle. — Ir. 

Baircixn, s. pt. Cross slicks, or side timbers lor a house. 
Bairu, gen. sing, and >i. pi. of bard. 

I Bairdiieis, s.f. The point, tip, or end, of any sharp 

Bai read, eid, s. m. (barr, top, and eididh, dress.) A bonnet, 
cap, hat, helmet. 

Ir. bairead. Vulgar Gr. 0ifira.. Lut. biretiim. Germ. 
baret. Sclav, baretta. It. baireat. 
Bair-eatrom, a. Light-headed; nimble, swift. 
Bairgeanta, a. Strong, stout, sturdy ; swift, 
t Baiiuìueax, ein, s. m. A cake; a floor; a plot of ground. 

— Shaw. 
Baiughik, s. m. A begotten son. — Shaw. 
Bair-ghinteach, a. Begetting sons ; also, substantively. 

a woman who bears sons. — Shaw. 
t Bairiceax, ein, s. m. A ferret. 
BÀIRICH, V. n. Low, bellow, roar. Fret. a. bhàirich, roared ; 

fut. uff. a. bàirichidh, shall roar. 
Bairich, s. f A lowing, a bellow, a roar. A leum ri 
bàirich nam hb. jumping at the lowing of the cows. — Macdon. 
Ciod a bhàirich th'ort ? -ahat arc you bellowing at Ì 
BÀ1RICIIEADII, idh, s. m. A lowing, a bellowing; a con- 
tinued lowing or bellowing. 
BÀIRICIIIDI1, /'«?. ajf. a. of bairich. Shall or will low. 
Baiiug, v. {Du. bereik, reach.) Bestow, confer, grant, 
present. Pret. a. bhairig, bestowed; fut. aJf, a. bairigidh, 
shall or will present. 
Bairill, s.y. A barrel of any description. See Baraill. 
Bairin, s. /; A small cake. i/rA. baroth; b/k/ barah, /nAe 

refreshment. — Buxturf. Lev. Gr. jio^it, meat. IV. bara. 
t Baiuixn, s.f. A firebrand. /;-. id. 
BÀIRLINN, S.J'. A rolling wave, or sea; a high sea; also a 
warning or summons of removal. Gaoir na bairlinn,' ///c 
noise of' the rolling sea. — Macfar. N. pi. bair-linntichean, 
or bair-linntean. Am fear a thug dhomh a bhairlinn, he 
who gave vie the warning. — Old Sotig. 
Bairlinneacii, a. Rolling, as a high sea ; billowy; sum- 
moning, or warning, to quit one's residence. 
Bairxeacii, ich, s. m. A limpet. — Mucd. 
t Bairxeacii, fl. Perverse, obstinate, fretful; also filial. 
t Bairnicii, v. a. Fret; judge. Pret. a. bhairnich,y}f</f(/; 

fut. aff. a. bàirnichidh, shall or will fret. 
Bairneaciid, s.f. A judging; a judgment, a decision at 

law ; also perverseness, obstinacy, fretfulness. 
Bairseacii, ich, s.f. A scold, a shrew. Ir. id. 
Ba 1 RSEACII D, s.f. A scolding, raillery; satire. /;•. bairseachd. 
Bairseag, eig, s. f A young scold; a young shrew. 

N. pi. bairseagan. 
Bairseag, eig, *. f. The top of the windpipe. — Shaw. 
Bairsich, t'. u. (7r. bairsigh.) Scold, rail; satirize, lampoon. 
Pret. a. bhàirsich, scolded ; fut. «//'. biiirsiciiidh, shall scold. 
t Bais, s.f. Water. Ir. id. 
Biis, gen. of has ; which see. 

Bais, gen. of bas; more commonly written bos ; which see. 
f Baisc, II. Hound, ir. id. 
Baisciiailce, .v. /'. Ruddle. — V(«K'. 
Baisceall, ill, .V. m. A wild, ungovernable person ; a mad 

person. /;•. id. 
Baisceanta, a. Sec Basganta. 
Baiseacii, a. Having a large palm; flat, smooth. 
Baiseaiii 1), .s. /! (//oHi bas.) Palmistry. More frequently 

written boiseachil, from bos. 
t Baiseal, eil, s. w. Pride; arrogance. Ir. id. 
Baisealacii, a. -{from baiseal.) Proud, arrogant. Com. 

and sup. baisealaiclie, more or most proud. 
\ Baisleacii, icii, .V. w. An ox; also a handful of water or 

any thing. — Shaw. 
Bmst, r. a. Baptize; perform the ceremony of baptism. 
Pret. a. bliaist, baptized ; Jut. ajf. a. baistidh, shall baptize. 

B A L 

B A L 

Nach do bhaist mi h-aon agaibh, that I hare vot baptized 

any of iiou. — Stew. 1 Cor. 
Baiste, p. part, of baist. Baptize. 
Baisteadh, idh, s. »1. A baptism; a baptizing. Aon 

bhaisteadh, one baptism. — Sleic. Kph. Tha e air a bhais- 

teadii, he is baptized ; tha i air a baisteadh, she is baptized. 
Baistidh, fut. aff. a. of baist. Shall or will baptize. 
Baistidh, a. Baptismal. Amar baistidh, a baptismal font. 
+ Baistidiie, s. Drops from a house. — Shan. 
BÀ1TE, ( /or bathte), /i. ;7a;Y. of bath. Drowned. Asp. form, 

bhàite. A bhileag bhaite, a green iveed that is observed on 

f/ie surface of pools or standing xcater ; a water lilj/. 
Baiteal, eil, .¥. m. A battle. Cliuir iad baiteal, thei/ had a 

pitched battle. 

jr. bate]. Fr. bataille. Span, batella. Sued, batalje. 

Bisc. batalla. Old liurgiindiaii, batalia. I'ortug. batalha. 
Baithis, i.y. A forehead, a brow. Do bhailhis bhog bhàn, 

till/ soft and fair forehead. — Old Song. 
BÀL, bail, s. m. A ball or dance. 

Old Celtic, ball. Eng. ball. //, ballo. Span, bayle. 

Fr. bàl. Gr. gaXXia-fio;. 
Balacii, aich, .v. m. Icontr. fur balaoch, /. c. ba-laoch.) A 

lad, a young man, a clown, a fellow, a sturdy fellow. 

/;■. bathlach. K. pi. balaiche, lads. Balach na h-aimhreite, 

a name given to a quarrelsome disorderly/ fc/luw. 
Bal.vchail,(/. f.balach-anihuil), o. Clownish; boyish. puerile. 
Balacii AX, ain, s. m. {dim. of balach.) A little boy; a boy. 

Nuair bha thvi do bhalachan faoin, when thou wert a helpless 

boy. — Oss. Tern. Maide balachain, a boy's stick. — Id. 
B.'VLACnAix, ^e«. sing, of balach; which see. 
Balagam, aim, *. OT. A mouthful; a sip ; a gulp. Balagam 

bainne, a mouthful if milk ; gabh balagam, take a jnouthful. 
t Balaighe, s.f. Advantage, profit, benefit. — Ir. id. 
Balaist, s.f. Ballast. — Macd. 
Balaoch, laoich, s. m. {i. e. ba-laoch, a cowherd.) A boy, lad ; 

clown ; a fellow. X. pi. balaoich. Chuireadh tu uaill anns 

a bhalaoch, thou wouldst put pride into the clown. — R. 
Balbh, «. (/(■. baibh.) Mute, dumb, silent, quiet, at peace. 

Mar uisge balbh a glinn, like the silent water of the vallei/. 

— Oss. Fin. and Lor. Mar bhalbh dhriuchd, /ike the silent 

dew. — Oss. Fing. Gen. sing, bailbh ; aspirated form, bhailbh. 

Airson an duine bhailbh, for the dumb man. — Stew. Pro. 

Coin, and sup. bailbhe. 
Balbhachd, s.f. {from balbh.) Dumbness, muteness; 

silence, quietness. Marbii bhalbhachd na h-oidhche, the 

dead silence of night. — Old Poem. 
Balbiiax, ain, *. m. (//•. balbhan.) A dumb person. Labhair 

am balbhau, the dumb spoke. — Stew. Mat. N. pi. balbhain. 
Balbhaxachd, s.f. (y;-o;H balbhan.) Dumbness, muteness; 

dumb show. 
Balc, bailc, s. A balk; a boundary; a ridge of earth 

between two furrows : also the crusty surface of the earth 

occasioned by long heat. II'. balc. Swcd. balk, a parti/ion. 
t Balc, a. Strong, stout; lusty, sturdy. — //-. id. 
Balcaxta, a. Stout, firm, strong. Gu balcanta, Jirmlv. 

stoutly. — Macfar. 
Balg, s. m. A man of learning. — Ir. id. 
Balg, builg, s. m. A leather bag, a budget, a wallet, a pock, 

a scrip, a satchel ; a belly, womb ; a blister. Balg-saighead, 

a quiver ; balg-losgainn, a mushroom ; balg seid, a pair of 


Gr. .Fol. /3oXyo?. Lat. f bulga. Belg. balg. Hind, baelg, 

a sack. .S'qj. beige. Germ. balg. 

Balg is an ancient Celtic vocable, and in every language where 

it is seen, it lias the same signification as in Gaelic. The ancient 

Gauls and Britons, the Goths, Saxons, and Franks, used it to 

denote a wallet, and often a quiver. " Bdlgas Galli saccos 

scorteos appellant." — Festus. And Goxthorn, in Lex Ant. hrit. 

has bitlgan and bolgan, meaning a quiver. From balg comes the 

word BtLGAE itself, which means quiver-bearers; for these people 

were always armed with bows and arrows. Balg is often written 

bolg ; which see. 
Balgach, «. Like a bag, like a wallet; bagged, bellied, 

Balgaich, v. a. and n. Belly out, as a sail ; blister; stow 

in a bag or satchel. 
Balgair, s. in. A fox ; a dog: also, in contempt, a cunning 

fellow. J\\ pi. balgairean. A bhalgair òglaich, thou fox 

of a fellow ; a bhalgair tha thu an, thou for that thou art ; 

bnail am balach air a charbad, is buail am balgair air an 

t-sròin, strike the clown on the cheek and the dog on the 

nose. — G. P. 
Balgaire.vchd, s. f. Slyness, cunning, craftiness. 
Balgairean, n. pi. of balgair. Foxes. 
Balgan, ain, s. m. {dim. of balg.) A little bag, a satchel, 

a wallet ; a little pock, a little sack ; a little blister ; a belly. 

X. ;;/. balgain. Balgan-uisge, a water bubble. 
Balgax seididii, s. m. A little pair of bellows ; also a 

Balgax-suaix, «. w. A sleepy bag. Chuir iod am balgan 

suain fo 'n ceann, they have put the sleepy bag under their 

heads. — G. P. 
Accordina to Maclfintosh, this proverb, said of a person who 

indulges in sleep, alludes to the dormant state of the caterpillar 

vvlieri it is enclosed in something like a bag, here called the 

sleepy bajj. 

Balgan-uisge, s. m. A water bubble; also a blister full of 
watery humour. 

Balg-biiroxxach, a. Swag-bellied. Badach beag balg- 
bhronnach, a little swag-bellied churl. — Old Song. 

Balg-ciiosacii, a. Bow-legged. 

Balg-losgainn, .?. OT. A mushroom; toad-stool; paddock- 

Balg-saigiiead, .j. m. A quiver. Bha bhalg saighead ri 
thaobh, his quiver was at his side. — Oss. Cathluno. 

Balg-seididii, s. m. A pair of bellows. 

Balg-siiùil, s.f A large prominent eye. 

Balg-shuileacii, a. Having prominent eyes. 

t Ball, s. m. {Bisc. bull.) A skull. 

Ba^l, gen. buill, s. m. A member, a limb ; a member of a 
society ; the male instrument of generation ; an instru- 
ment, tool, or implement ; a ball, a foot-ball, a globular 
body ; a boss ; a spot, a plat of ground, a place ; rarely a 
cable. \. pi. buill. Do 'n bhacach lùgh nam ball, strength 
of limbs to the lame. — Smith. Dh' uireasbliuidh na bhall- 
aibh, lacking in his parts. —Stew. Lev. Buill slioilleir, 
bright spots. — Id. Buill a Ciiomuixn Giiaidiieal- 
AICH, the members of the Highland Society. A bhall so, 
this plat. — Stew. Heb. ref. Ball oibre, a tool to work with ; 
ball airm, a weapon; ball acfhuinn, a toul ; ball amhairc, 
a spectacle ; ball sampuill, a specimen ; ball scire, a beauty 
spot ; ball-dobhrain, a mole ; ball faobhrach, a sharp instru- 
ment ; ball-fearais, the male instrument of generation ; ball 
àbhachd, ball àbhachais, a gazing stock ; ball sgòid, a sheet 
rope; ball tàmailt, an object of disgrace ; ball-matjaidh, an 
object of derision ; ball sgòd, a blemish ; ball otraiche, 
a puddle. 

This old Celtic word is to be met with in many tongues, 
sisjnifying a globular body. Gr. va.M.a. apud Hei/schium. 
Gr. BicXXu, throw. Germ. ha.\\, a globe. Belg. ba\. Fr. hiUe. 
Du. bal. Span, bala, a bullet. Ir. ball. English, ball. 
Pol. piela. 

Ball [air], arfr. Immediately; on the spot. 7r. ar bal. 

Balla, ai, s. m. See Balladii. 

B.vLL-ÀBiiACiiAis, s. w(. A gazing stock ; a laughing stock. 
Ball àbhachais bi-bhuan, a perpetual laughing stock. — Stew. 
Jer. and Heb. ref. K. pi. buill abhachais. 

B A L 


Ball-àbiiaciid, s. f. A laughing stock; an object of 
mockery ; a gazing stock. Ball abhachd do na bheil mun 
cuairt, a laughing stuck to all around. — Smith. 
Ballacii, (7. (frum h^W.) Or. ^a^io^, maculosus. Spotted; 
striped ; tartan ; bossy ; walled ; having lofty walls. Breac 
asus ballarh, .sptcklcd and spotted. — Stew. Gen. An sgiath 
bhallach, the bossy shield. — Oss. Fi/tg. Sgiath bhallach 
nam beum, the spotted shield of hloies. — Oss. Tern. Bonaid 
bhallach, a spotted or tartan bonnet. — Macfar. Coin, and 
sup. ballaiche. 
Ball', for balladh. 

Ball-acfhuinn, «. w. A tool ; instrument; tackling. 
Balladii, aidh, Balla, ai, s. m. (7,«^ vall-uni. .Saiet/. vail. 
/;■. balla.) A wall, a rampart ; also the boss of a shield. 
Balladh a bhaile, the nail <f the town. — Stew. Jos. Bade 
nam balla cam, the toun of the winding walls. — Oss. Tern. 
Meirg air a balla, rust on its boss. — Oss. Cath. and Col. 
Balladh dealachaidh, a partition-wall. — Stexc. 1 K. N. pi. 
Ballag, aig, s.f. An egg-shell; also a skull. Ir. ballog, 

a skull. 
Ballag-losgainn, i.y. A toad-stool ; a mushroom. 
Ball-airm, s. ni. A weapon. Thilg gach ball-àirm, everj/ 

weapon was thrown aside. — Oss. Fing. 
Ballairt, gen. sing, of ballart. 

Ballan, ain, i. »71. {Ir. ballan. 5co/cA, balden.) A tub ; a 
bucket; a churn; a shell; a covering; a broom; a teat 
or udder. Ballan binnliche, a cheese-press ; ballan losgainn, 
n toadstool ; ballan balnne, a nulk-tub ; ballan nigheachain, 
a washing-tub ; ballan seilcheig, ballan stiallach, a kind of 
Ballan-binnticiie, i. m. A cheese vat or press. 
Ballan-losgainn, «. ?n. A toad-stool; a mushroom. 
Ballan-nigheachain,Ballan-nigiieadaireachd,*. ?». 

A washing-tub. 
Ballan-seilciieig, i. m. A snail-shell. 
Ballan-stiallacii, s. m. A pillory. Air ballan stiallach 
'g ad sparradh, fastening thee to the pillory. — Old Poem. 

The bnllan-sliullach was a kind of pillory, used of old in the 
Hi);lilancls, for punishini; liars and petty offenders. It was a sort of 
frame erected on a pillar, to whicli the culprit was tightly hound 
with a rope about the shoulders, by which he hung, exposed vo the 
ridicule and maltreatment of passengers. 
Balla Ru, Ball art, airt, s. m. Loud noise, clamour, turbu- 
lence. Gun bhallart, gun ndiòrchuis, without noise or 
boasting. — Moladh mhoruig. 
Ballakdach, Ballartacii, a. Noisy, turbulent, clamo- 
rous, troublesome. Com. and sup. ballardaiche or ballart 
aiche, more or must noisy. 
Ballardaciiadh, Ballaktaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A pro- 
clamation ; the act of proclaiming, bawling, or making a 
Ballardaciid, Ballartachd, s.f. ,A proclamation; 

noise ; clamour. 
Ballaroadii, Ballartadii, aidh, 4. m. A proclamation. 
Ballardaicii, Ballartaich, *./. A loud noise ; a howl- 
ing; a shouting, hooting. Ciod a bhallartaich th' art? 
■what arc you howling at > 
Ballardaicii, Ballartaicii, r. n. Proclaim; howl, 
shout, hoot. I'ret. a. bhallardaich, shouted; fut. ajj'. a. 
ballardaichidh, shall shout. 
B,\ll-iiiireac, BALL-iiiiREAciin, «. Variegated, chequered, 
spotted, gristed. A bhoatli bhall-bhrcachd, lariegated life. 
— Ois. Conn. Mar neulaibh ball-bhrtac, like spotted clouds, 
i. e. like that modification of cloud which metereologians 
term cirro-cumulus. 
Ball-ciirith, s. Trembling; terror; tremor; a trembling 
with terror. An darach air ball-chrith, tlie oak trembling. 

— Orran. Fo bhall-chrith mar dhuilleach, trembling like 
/raif.v. — Oss. Duthona. Ball-chrith air righrean an domh- 
ain, terror on the kings of the earth. — Stew. 0. T. Le ball- 
chrith deanaibh gairdcachas, rejoice -with trembling. — Sia. 
Ball-cluaise, 4. m. The sheet rope of a vessel. 
Ball-coise, i. ;«. A foot-ball. 
Ball-deise, s. m. An instrument to which two persons 

have a right ; a tool ; any useful instrument or weapon. 
Ball-dhearc, a. Grisled ; bay-coloured. Eich bhall- 

dhearg, bay horses. — Steie. Zcch. 
Ball-diomiiair, 4. m. A secret member : membrum puden- 
dum. Buill dhiomhair, secret members. 
Ball-dobhrain, *. m. A mole. 
Ball-dubii, s. m. A blot, a blemish. — Macd. 
Ball-fanaid, i'.m. A laughing stock; an object of mockery. 
Ball-faobhrach, aich, s. m. A sharp-edged instrument. 
Ball-feauais, s. m. Membrum virile. 
Ball-fociiaid, s. m. A laughing stock; an object of de- 
rision. — Stew. Job. 
Ball-ghalar, air, *. m. A plague ; a gonorrhoea. 
Ball-iomchair, s. m. A suppoit, a prop ; an undersetter. 

—Stew. 1 K. ref. 
Ball-magaidh, s. in. A laughing stock; an object of de- 
rision. — Stew. Job. 
Ball-mosglaidii, s. m. An instrument for sounding an 

alarm. — Oss. Tern. 
Ball-oibre, *. w. A tool, an instrument. JV.;;/. buill oibre. 
Ball-òtraiche, s. m. A puddle or slough ; a miry place. 
Ball-sampuill, i. ?H. An example; a sample, a specimen. 
Rinn e ball sampuill dhiubh, he made an example of them. — 
Stew. Cut. 
Ball-seirce, s. m. A beauty-spot. — Macd. 
Ball-sgeig, ,«. m. A laughing stock, a mocking stock, an 
object of derision. Ni mi a chathair na ball-sgeig, I will 
make the city a (hissingj laughing stock. — Stew. G. li. 
Ball-sgeimiie, s. m. A beauty-spot. — Macd. 
Ball-sgiatii, -sgeithe, *. f. A bossy shield. Fionnghal 

nam ball-sgiath, Fingal with the bossy shield. — Oss. Fing. 
Ball-sgiorradii, aidh, s. m. A deed done unexpectedly; 

a feat. 
Ball-sgiorrail, a. Performing unexpected deeds. 
Ball-sgòid, s. m. A sheet rope; a spot, a blemish. — Macd. 

A blister. — Shaw. 

Ball-tamailt, s. m. An object of disgrace, or of reproach. 

Tha thu do bhall tàmailt, thou art an object of disgrace. — 

Mac Lach. 

B A LL-ToiRM ISO, .«.?«. A forbidden tool ; a forbidden weapon. 

Balt, bailt, .V. m. (Ir. balta.) A welt; a belt, a border. 

N. pi. baltan. 
Baltacii, a.. Welted, belted, bordered. 
Baltaicii, v. a. Welt, belt, border. Pret. a. bhaltaich ; 

fut. af. a. baltaichidh. 
BAn, bain, s. m. The matrix of a cow. 
t Ban, bain, s. m. Copper; a copper mine. — /;•. id. 
Ban, s.f. (Pers. bann, a dame. Ir. ban.) A female; a 
woman, wife, a dame. Asp. form, bhan. Beul bhan 
coimheacli, the moufh of strange women. — Slew. Pro. Am 
measg bhan òg, among young females. — Old Song. 
BAn, a. White, pale, fair, fair-haired; also vacant, waste. 
Nighean bhroillich biiiin, white-bosomed maid. — Oss. Fing. 
Siùil bhan, white sails. — Oss. Carrieth. Fhir bh;\in, thou 
fair-haired man; talamh ban, waste ground; eich bhan, 
white hurses. — Stew. /ecli. Com. and sup. bàine. 

Ir. ban. Manx, bi\n. Ileb. and Chald. la-ban, white. 
Si/r. labano, white. Samaritan, laban, white. Arab, labana, 
a white jioplar. 



Ban-aba, s.f. An abbess. Ir. banab. 

BÀNACHADH, aidh, i. m. A wliitening, a bleaching; growing 

pale or white; a laying waste. 
BÀNACIIADH, (a), /)r. /jflrt. of banaich. Whitening; growing 

pale, laying waste. 
Bana-chàha, Bana-chauaid, s.f. A female relative, a 

kinswoman.— S^fZD. Song of Sol. 
Ban-adhaltraxacii, aiche, s.f. An adulteress. — Stew. Pro. 
Goirear ban-adhaltranach dhith, s/ie shall be called an adul- 
teress.— Stexc. Rom. 
BÀNAG, aig, i. /. (dim. from h-kii.) Any thing white; a white- 
faced girl ; a grilse ; a cant term for a shilling. 
Banag, aig, i.y. ( /'row ban.) A smart little woman. N. pi. 

Ban AICII, ; . a. and n. Whiten, bleach, make pale, lay waste, 
make waste or vacant ; grow white, pale, or bleached. 
Pret. a. bhànaich, ivhiteiied ; fit. off. a. bànaichidh, shall or 
will whiten. /;-. banaigh. 
Banail, ff. (i. f. ban-amhuil.) ?r. benywawj. //-. banamhail. 
Modest, womanly, womanish, feminine; comely. A bhean 
bhanail, his modest xeife. — Oss. Lodiii. Gillian banail, 
U'Omanli) deportment. — Old Song. Lie bhanail, comely cheeks. 
Oss. Carlh. 
t Banailt, s.f A nurse. Ir. banailt. Bisc. banlitu. 
Banais, gen. bainnse. (//•. banais.) A wedding ; perhaps 
ban-fheis, a female feast. Fear na bainnse, the bridegroom ; 
bean na bainnse, the bride; culaidh bainnse, a wedding 
dress. — ISlacdon. N. pi. bainusean, weddings. 
t Banaiteacii, a. Serious, grave, sedate. 
Banaltraciid, s.f. Nursing; the business of a nurse. 

Mach air bhanaltrachd, out at nursing. 
Banaltradh, aidh, Ò. /". A nurse, yr. banaltra. 
Banaltkum, uim, s.f. A nurse. Fhuair i banaltrum, she 

got a nurse: — Stew. Gen. 
Banaltru.macud, s.f Nursing. Commonly pronounced 

Banamiialta, a. Shamefaced, modest, bashful, /r. bana- 

Ban A.MiiALTACiiD, S.f. Shamcfaccdness, modesty, bashful- 

ness. Jr. id. 
Banaracii, aich, s.f A dairy-maid, a milk-maid. Teann 

air a bhanarach, close to the dairy-maid. — Mucinf. 
Ban-bharan', ain, s.f. A baroness. 
Ban-biiard, -bhaird, s. f. A poetess. 
Ban-biiardaciid, s.f. The verses of a poetess. 
Ban-biiicas, ais, s.f. A viscountess. — Mucd. 
BÀN-BIIUOILLEACH, 0. White-bosomed. Comhnuidh nam 
bàn-bhroiUeach oigh, the dwelling of the white-bosomed 
maids. — Oss. Temo. 
Bax-biiuachaill, 6. /. A shepherdess. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-bhuachailleachd, s.f The business of a shepherd- 
ess, the condition of a shepherdess. 
Ban-biiuidseach, ich, s.f. A witch, a sorceress. — S^fn. 

Exod. N. pi. ban-bhuidsichean. 
Ban-biiusdraich, s.f. A witch, a sorceress. — Stew. Exod. 
Banc, bainc, s. m. A balk; a limit. N. pi. bancan. Eng. 

bank. Sued. bank. It. banca. 
Bancacii, a. Having a balk; like a balk; of, or belonging 

to, a balk or limit. 
Bancait, *./. A banquet. A\ jd/. bancaitean. 
Bancaiteach, a. Banqueting; fond of banqueting. 
Bancaiteachd, s.f. Continued or frequent banqueting. 
Ban-ciiaraid, i.y. A female relative, a kinswoman. Do 
ban-charaid, thy kinswoman. — Stew. Pro. Written also 
bana-charaid ; which see. 

Ban-cheard, s. f. A female gipsy, a female tinker; often 

applied in contempt to a mannerless female. 
Ban-chèile, j.y. A wife; /;Vera//i/, a female spouse. 
Bax-cheileadaiu, s. m. An executrix. N. pi. ban-cheilea- 

Ban-chleamiiuinn, s./! A daughter-in-law. Nochd do 
bhan-chleamhua, the nakedness of the daughter-in-law. — 
Stew. Exod. IVIaille ri a ban-chleamhuinn, with her daughter- 
in-law.— Stew. 0. T. 
Ban-chocair, s.f. A female cook, a woman cook. — Stew. 

Sam. N. pi. ban-chocairean. 
Ban-chocaireachd, s. f. The business of a female cook ; 
the handiwork of a female cook. Tha i 'g ionnsachadh na 
ban-chocaireachd, she is learning the business of cookery. 
Ban-choig LE, «. y". A female gossip ; a female companion. 

//■. ban-choigle. 
Ban-chomh-dhalta, s.f. A foster-sister. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-chompanacii, aich, s.f. A female companion. — Stew. 

Judg. N. pi. ban-chompanaich. 
BAN-CHOMrANAS, ais, s. m. Female companionship. Na 

dean ban-chompanas ri, keep not company with her. 
Ban-chruitear, ir, s. f {Jr. ban-chruitire.) A female 

harper. N. pi. ban-chruitearan. 
Ban-chuisleanaiciie, s.f. A female who plays on a wind 

instrument. Ir. ban-chuisleanaich. 

Bandachd, i.y. Contracted for bandaidheachd ; which see. 

Bandaidh, a. {from ban.) /;•. bandha. Modest, delicate, 

effeminate, womanish. Bean bhandaidh, a modest woman. 

Bandaidheachd, 4-. f Delicacy, modesty, effeminacy, 

Bandalta, Bandhalta, s.f. A foster-daughter. 
Bandhalta-baistidh, s.f. A god-daughter. 
Ban-dia, gen. ban-de, s. f. {Ir. id.) A goddess. A bhan-dia 
a ni am bogh frois, the goddess who forms the rainbow. — 
Mac Each. 
Ban-druidh, «. y. An enchantress, a sorceress. /;■. ban- 

Ban-eigneachadh, idh, s. m. A rape. 
Ban-fhaigh, s.f. A prophetess. N. pi. ban-fhaighean, 

Ban-fheadanach, aiche, s.f. A female piper ; a female 

who plays on any wind instrument. Ir. ban-fheadanach. 
Ban-fhigheach, iche, s. m. A female weaver; a female 

who knits. 
Ban-fhigheadaireachd,4. f. The work ofa female weaver. 
Ban-fhiosaiche, s.f. A fortune-teller; a prophetess. 

N. pi. ban-fhiosaichean. 
Ban-fhlath, «./. A lady ; a heroine. jV. /;/. ban-fhlaithean, 

Ban-fiiluasgach, a. Menstrual. 
Ban-fhluasgadh, aidh, s. m. Menstrual courses. 
Ban-fhuaidhealac:iid, s.f. {pronounced banalachd.) Sew- 
ing, seaming; the business ofa sempstress, or of a milliner; 
millinery ; mantua-making. 
Ban- FHUAiDHEAi.AicHE, B AN-Fiiu ALAicHE, S.f. (pro- 
nounced banalaiche.) A sempstress, a milliner, a mantua- 
maker. jV. pi. ban-fhualaichean. 
Ban-fhuineadair, s. f A woman who bakes bread ; a 

female cook. — Stew. Sam. 
t Bang, baing, s. m. (Ir. id.) A nut; a touch; a hinderance. 
Bangait, s.f. A feast. Tcut. bancket. Eiig. banquet. 

Written also bancait. 
Ban-giirudair, s. f The landlady of an alehouse, or of 
an inn ; a female brewer. N. pi. ban-ghrudairean. Cagar 
na ban-ghrudair, the ale-wife's whisper soon turns l.'ud. — G.P, 



Bav-iarla, J./. A countess. JNT. p/. ban-iarlan. 
Ba!j-lao< II, laoich, s. f. A heroine; Amazon; a virago. 

N. pi. ban-laoich. 
Bax-lfigh, i. /. A female skilled in medicine. A', pi. 

Ban-mhaigiiistir, s. f. A mistress; a schoolmistress. 
Ban-rahaighistir nan druidheachdan, the mistress of the 
■^itchi:raf'ts. — Steii\ Nah. N. pi. han-mhaighistirean. 
Ban-mhau.histirfas, eis, s. m. The rule or sway of a 

mistress, or of a schoolmistress. 
BAN-MHAKCAiciir, Ban-mii ARC AIR, .«./. A female rider. 
Ban-mharcais.s./". a marchioness. iV. p/. ban-mharcaisean. 
Ban-muora:r, Ban-miior'ear, ir, s.y. A countess. N. pi. 

Bann, fl. High. 7JoT.icr.bann. Gr. /3oD»o!. Hence also 

the English, banner. 
Bann, bainn, s. m. A band ; abend, bill; a tie ; a hinge ; 
a chain ; a fetter; a band, as of a shirt, or any piece of 
clothing ; a girth, a belt, a sush ; a bann, a proclamation. 
N. pi. bannan and banntan, hotuh ; d. pi. bannaibh vr bann- 
taibh. Bannan bhur cuinge, the bonds of i/oiir i/ohc. — Sicw. 
Lex. Le banntaibh daingean, with firm bands. — Macint. A 
fuaidheal bhann, su-wing bands. — Id. A ceangal bhann mu 
sguaban, binding sheaxcs. — Macfar. 

Germ, bann a/irf band, a hond. T'ew^. bandi. _FraHc. bant. 
Belg. band. Span, banda, a sash. Ir. bann. Fers. bend. 
Arm. bauden, a fillet. and Runic, band. Old Sax. 
bend. Fr. bande. Also Eng. and Dan. bind. Cimhriv, 
binda, to tie. Sued, bundin, tied. Tonquinesc, bun, Join. 
I'ortug. bando, a bann. 
t BANNACii,a. (/;-. bannach.) Active, expert; crafty. — -S7/«a!. 
+ Bannacii, aich, s. m. A fox; in ridicule, a crafty person. 

Ir. bannacb. 
t Bannachd, s.y. Craftiness, deceit, /r. bannachd. 
Baknag, aig, .*-./. A new-year's gift; a treat given to one 
on his first visit on new-year's day. Is mairg a rachadh 
air a bhannaig is a theanna aig fein, it is woful to take 
from others when one has enough of his own. — G. F. 
Bannal, ail, s. ni. A company; a troop; band ; a covey; 
a gathering, a collection, a crowd. Am bannal uchd-ruadh, 
the red-breasted eoiei/. — Macdon. Arm. bannal, in compani/, 
or in common. 
Bannalacii, a. In companies, in troops, in crowds. 
Ban-na()>iii, naoimh, i'.y. A female saint ; a nun ; a sainted 

female. /;•. id. N. pi. ban-naoimh, nuns. 
Bann-biiraghad, aid, *. m. A neckcloth, a cravat. 
Bann-cii£a.n(;ail, v. a. Bind by bond. Fret. u. bhan- 
cheangail, bound by bond; fit. ajf. a. bann-cheanglaidh ; 
fut. pass, bann-cheanglar. 
Bann-ciieangail, .«. m. An obligatory bond. N. pi. ban- 

nan-cheangail, ohligaton/ bonds. 
Bannuaiu, .*. m. {from bann.) A covenanter; a drawer up 

of bonds or bills. iV. pi. banndairean, covenanters. 
Banndairbaciid, *.y. Covenant-making; a confederacy. 
Ban.>j-duirn, *-. 7». A wristband. Bann-dùini leine, the 

wristband of a shirt. 
Bann-lamii, laimh, 4. ;n. (Ir. id.) A cubit ; also handcull's. 

Aon bhanii-lamh, one cubit. — Stew. Mark, ref 
i Bannsacji, aicli, i. m. An arrow; any sharp-pointed 

missile weapon. jV. pi. tiannsaiciiean, arrows. 
Bann-siiaok, a. Free by law, licensed, authorized. Ir. 

Bann-siiaorsaciiu, s./. The condition of being free by 

law or bond. 
Bann-shaorsadh, aidh, s. in. A freedom or liberty sanc- 
tioucd by law or by a bond. 

BANN-SHAORSAiCH,r. 0. License. Pre^. a. bhann-shaorsaich, 

licensed ; fut. aff. a. bhann-shaorsaichidh, shall license. 
Banx-shorn, shoirn, s. m. A kind of girdle or bake- 

stove. — Shaw. 
Bann-taisdeanaidii, Bann-taisbein, s. m. A bond of 

Ban-ooiia, s. f A granddaughter. Ban-ogha an fhir 
ogha, the grandson s granddaughter ; ban-ogha 'n fhir 
f hiar ogha, the great-grandson's granddaughter. — Macd. 
Ban-Ò(;lacii, aich, s.f. A female slave; a maid-servant ; 
a handmaid ; a maiden. N. pi. ban-òglaichean and banò- 
glaich. Do bhan-oglaich, tliy maidens. — Stew. Fro. ref 
Ban-oighre, i.y. An heiress. iV. p/. ban-oighrean. 
Ban-oighreachd, s.f. An estate that goes to heirs-female, 
t Baxrach, aich, s. m. A fold for sheep, a pen ; a cattle- 
house. — Ir. id. N. pi. banraichean. 
Ban-ridir, «./. A baroness, a baronet's lady. ^. ;;/. bann- 

Bam-rig Ji, s.f. A queen. Mairi, Ban-righ na h-Alba, Mary, 
Queen of Scotland ; Ban-righ Bhreatuinn, Queen of Britain. 
Ban-righdire, s.f. See Ban-uidir. 
Ban-rigiiinn, s.f. A queen. O bhi na ban-righinn, /rom 
being a queen. — Stew. 1 K. N. pi. ban-righinnean, queens. 
lomarach na Ban-righinn, the Queensferry in the Firth 
of Forth. 
Ban-sealgair, i.y. A huntress. Ban sealgair Ardbheinn, 
the huntress of Ardven. — Oss. Comal. Bhan-sheaigair 
nam fuar bheannfaoin, thou huntress of the cold desert hills. 
— /(/. N. pi. ban-sealgairean. 
Bansgal, ail, s.y. A woman ; an aged female. This word 
is often applied to a female as a term of reproach. N. pi. 
Ban-siiearach, aich, s.f. A mare-colt. Ir. id. 

Ban-sitii, s.f. A female fairy. 

The Ilij^lilanders were wont to say that the wailings of this being 

were trec|iieiitly heard before the ileatli of a cliiettaiii. She was 

seldoTn visible; but when she did make her appearniice, it was in 

a blue mantle, and with dishevelled hair. 

Ban-sniu.miiaiche, s.f. A female spinner. N. pi. ban- 

Ban-solaraiche, s.y. A cateress. JV. p/. ban-solaraichean. 
t Ban-spiorao, aig, s.f. A sparrow-hawk. N. pi. ban- 

BAN-sTirmiART, airt, s.f A housekeeper, a stewardess. 

N. pi. ban-stiùbhartan, stewardesses. 
Ban-sth)iuiartach, s.f. A female surnamed Stewart. 
Ban-tighkarn' A, s. m. A baronet's lady ; a lady. N. pi. 

ban-tighcarnan, ladies. 
Ban-tu; iiEAUNAiL, (i. c. ban-tigheamail.) Lady-like. 
Bantracii, aich, s.f. Fingal's seraglio. — Shaw. 
Bantracii, aich, s.f. (ban-trcabhach.) A widow. Aspirated 
form, bhantrach. Do bhantrach mar eun tiamhaidli, thy 
widow like a lonely bird. — Macfar. N. pi. bantraichean, 
widows. Is olc a bhantrach a phiob, the bagpipe is a sorry 
widow. — G. F. 
Bantracii AS, ais, «. in. {i. c. ban-treabhachas.) Widowhood. 
Ban-traille, s. f A female slave, a bond-maid ; a maid- 
servant. Ccud-ghin na ban-traille, the frst-born of tie 
maid-servant. — Stew. Exoil. N. pi. bantriiillcan, yivHd/e 
slaves; do bhan-traillean, thy bond-maids. — Stew. Lev. 
BAN-TREAniiAcii, aichc, s.f. A widow. Biodh bhean na 
ban-trcabhach, let his wife be a widow.— Smith. N. pi. 
ban-treabhaichean ; contracted bantrach ; which see. 
Ban-tuathanacii, aich, s.f. A female who farms; a 
farmer's wife, a peasant's wife. N. pi. ban-tuathnaichean. 


B A 

Ban-tuathanachas, ais, s. m. Agriculture done under the 
direction of a female. 

Ban-tuathanaich, gen. sing, of ban-tuathanach. 

Ban-tiiathanaichean, n. p/. of ban-tuathanach. 

Bad', a. Contracted for baodh, or booth. 

Baobii, gen. baoibh, *. /. A wizard ; a wicked person, a 
mischievous female, a foolish woman. Jl'. baw, dirfi/- 

Baobiiachd, s. f. (from baobh.) The conduct of a mis- 
chievous woman ; also the croaking of a raven. Ir. badh- 

Baobiiai, Baobiiaidh, o. {ìl'. h3.v/ai, diiti/.) Mad, wild, 
foolish, fearful, destructive. Dearg nam feachd baobhai, 
Dargo of destructive hosts. — Oss. Conn. 

Baobiiail, a. Mad, wild, foolish, fearful, destructive. 
Buillean trom baobhail, heavv, fearful blows. — Oss. Der?n. 

Baobhaileaciid, s.f Madness, wildness, fearfulness, de- 

Baodh, a. Vain, giddy, foolish, soft, simple. Le solas 
baodh, with giddi/ joi/. — .Smith. Written also booth. 

Baoghal, ail, s. m. {Ir. baoghat.) Peril, danger; crisis; 
an important matter. Uisge beatha baoghal, whiskey four 
times distilled, so powerful us to affect oil the senses. Fear 
an t-saoghail fhada cha bhi baoghal h-uig, nothing will 
cut short the life of a long-liier. — G. P. 

Baogii ALACH, fl. Wild, furious ; destructive, perilous, dan- 
gerous. Roimh na gaothaibh baoghlach, before the wild 
winds. — Old Poem. Lag ri uair bhaoghlach, weak in the hour 
of danger. — Oss. Duthona. Isbaoghalach ?LXtihm\\e, perilous 
is the blow. — Death of Carril. Com. and sup. baoghalaiche. 

Baogjialta, a. Foolish, credulous, silly, simple, idiotical. 
Creididh an duine baoghalta, the sitnple man shall believe. — 
Stew. Pro. 

Baoghaltaciid, s.f. Foolishness, credulousness, silliness, 
simpleness, idiocy. Cia fhad a ghradhaicheas sibh baogh- 
altachd? how long will ye love simpliciti/ Ì — Stew. Pro. 

Baogiian, ain, *. w. A calf; any thing jolly. Baoghan an 
cois gach bo, each cow followed by its calf — Old Sung. 

Baoghanach, a. (from baoghan.) Like a calf; of, or be- 
longing to, a calf. 

Baoghlan, ain, s. m. (from baogh.) A foolish fellow. 
N. pi. baoghlain. 

Baogiilanachd, s.f. (/row baoghlan.) Foolishness; the 
behaviour of a foolish fellow. 

Baois, s. f. Concupiscence, lust, levity ; idle talk, madness. 
Ir. baois. 

Baoiseacii, ff. (/;on» baois.) Lewd, lascivious ; giddy; lust- 
ful. Com. and sup. baoisiche, more or most lewd. 

Baoiseachd, s.f. (from baois.) Concupiscence, lust, lasci- 
viousness. Luchd baoiseachd, leicd people. 

Baoisg, v. n. Shine forth, gleam, beam, radiate; peep, look. 
Pret. a. bhaoisg, shone ; fut. ajf. a. baoisgidh, shall shine. 
Nur bhaoisgeadh a gnuis, when its face would shine forth. — 

A flash of light, a gleam, a coruscation. 

Gleaming; sparkling; emitting flashes of 

Baoisge, s. f 

a peep. 
Baoisg EACH, a. 

light; peeping 
Baoisgealachd, s.f. Refulgence, brightness. 
Baoisgeil, (;'. f. baoisg-amhuil), a. Shining, gleaming, 

bright, refulgent, radiant. A gnuis bhaoisgeil, her gleaming 

countenance. — Mucint. 
Baoisleach, ich, s. m. A brothel, a house of revelry or 

riot ; also a frequenter of brothels. Ir. baoisteach. 
Baoisleachd, s.f. (/rom baois.) Lewdness, lust; revelry. 

Luchd baoisleachd, lewd people. 


Baoith, a. Airy, giddy, light, youthful. Ir. id. Mo 
bheanag bhuidhe bhaoith, my yellow-haired, airy damsel. — 
Old Song. 
Baoithe, s.f. Airiness, giddiness, lightness, or levity; 

Baoithe, com. and sup. of baoth; which see. 
Baolach, a. Con<r. ybr baoghalach; which see. 
t Baos, a. Capricious, giddy. /;•. id. 
Baosrach, aich, s. m. (from baos.) Madness, frenzy ; also 

mad, frantic. 
Baoth, o. (/r. baoth.) Profane; wild, fierce, dreadful, horrid ; 
vast; stupid, simple; soft; useless; deaf. Slighe nam 
peacach baoth, the way of profane sinners. — Sm. Fuatha- 
sach is baoth, terrible and fierce. — Oss. Temo. Fuaim 
bhaoth, a horrid sound. — Oss. Fing. Cho baoth ri d' airm, 
as vseless as thine arms. — Oss. Carricth. Ann cunnart 
baoth, in dreadful danger; tional baoth an t-sluaigh, the 
vast concourse of the people. — Id. Com. and sup. baoithe, 
more or most profane. 
Baothair, i. e. baoth-fhear, s. m. (Germ, bauer, a rustic.) 
A foolish fellow, a simpleton, an idiot. Is tu am baothair ! 
what a fool you are! N. pi. baothairean. 
Baoth A1REACHD, i.y. (y)-07n baothair.) Stupidity ; the talk 

or conduct of a fool. 
Baothairean, n. pi. of baothair. Fools. 
Baotiian, ain, s. m. (from baoth.) A young fool, a block- 
head. iV. pi. baothair. 
Baothanach, a. FooUsh, simple, silly. Gu baothanach, 

Baothanachd, s.f. Foolishness, simpleness, silliness. 
Baoth-biieus, 9. m. Immorality ; dishonest conduct. Comar 
nam baoth-bheus, immoral Comar. — Orran. iV. ;;/. baoth- 
Baoth-bheusach, a. Immoral; dishonest. Gu baoth- 

bheusach, immorally. 
Baoth-eiieusan, n. pi. of baoth-bheus. 
Baoth-cheideamh, imh, s. m. A wild creed. 
Baoth-chreideamhacii, «. Credulous; professing a wild 

BAOTH-ciiREiDMiiEACH,a. CoH^r. /b/' baoth-chreidcamhach . 
Baoth-chreidmiiiche, s. m. One who professes an extra- 
vagant creed. 
Baoth-leuji, s. m. A fearful or dangerous leap; a bound ; 

a prancing, a vaulting. 
Baoth-leumxach, a. Wildly leaping; proudly prancing. 
Each baoth-leumnach, a proudly prancing horse.— Old Poem. 
Baotii-radii, s. m. A profane expression; an idiotism. 
Baoth-radhach, a. Profane, impious, blasphemous ; talk- 
ing idly or foolishly. An teangadh bhaoth-radhach, the 
profane tongue. — Old didactic Potni. 
Baoth-shugrach, a. Inclined to profane jesting; of, or 

pertaining to, a profane jest. 
Baotii-siiugradh, aidh, s. m. Profane jesting. — Stew. Epk. 
t Bar, s. m. A son. 

//-. bar. Heb. bar ; as bar-Ionah, the son of Jonah. 
Chald. and Syr. bar. Crim. Tartars, baar, child. Goth. 
Teut. Swed. Dan. barn. Scotch, bairn. Old Sax. beam. 
From bar comes the Latin par-io, to beget, 
t BAR, bàir, s. ni. A learned man; a man; also a dart; 

jy. bara, bread. From bar, a man, comes, Eng. baron ; 
Old Sax. beorn, a man; and Old Dan. biorn. 

BAR, bair, s. m. (Ir. Corn, id.) A top or summit. Written 

also hàrr; which see. 
Barach, aich, i. »!. See Barrach. 



Bàracii, a. (^from bar.) High-topped, beetling, pinnacled. 
Mar chraig bhàrach, like a beetling rock. — Oss. Cathula. 

Bakao, aig, .s.f. See Baruag. 

Bauaoan, ain.i. w. A bargain, /"r. barguigner, ^o //ag^'/c 
or bargain. N. pi. baragain. 

Baraio, V. rt. Restore, give away, grant. Prf^ o. bharaig, 
hestowed ; fut. aff. a. baraigidh, s/iall or uill bestow. 

Barail, «. /. (Jr. barmhail.) Opinion ; a conceit ; a guess 
or conjecture ; supposition, expectation. Am barail leat? 
It it Hour opinion.' — Oss. Tcm. Is faoin do bharail, rain is 
thy expectation. — Old Poem. Glic na 'r barail fein, wise in 
i/onr oKn conceits, — SteK. Row. Thoir barail, ^«c«i ; ciod 
i do bharail ? xc/iat is your opinion ! 

Bauaill, s. f. X. pi. baraillean. A barrel or cask; the 
barrel of a gun. Min ann am baraill, meal in a barrel. — 
ate-u. 1 A'. 

It. barile. W. baril. Arm. bariih. Span, barral, a tixcntii- 
ftve pint bottle. Sclav, bargclla, a barrel. 

Baralach, a. (//om barail.) Conjectural; hypothetical. 

Baralaciiadii, aidii, s. m. The circumstance of conjec- 
turing ; a guessing or conjecturing. 

Baralaciiauh, (a), pr. part, of baralaich. Conjecturing, 
guessing, supposing, opining. 

Baralaich, V. a. Guess, conjecture, suppose. Pre?, a. bha- 
ralaich, guessed; fut. aff. a. baralaichidh, shall or uill guess. 

Bauax, ain, «. m. A baron. A''. ;;/. barain, /)o;o/ii. 

Baranaciid, s.y. A barony. 

Barandach, Barantacii, ff. Warranting; also warranted, 
sure, certain. 

Barandaciiadii, Barantaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A warrant- 
ing ; a warrant. 

Baraxuachadii, Barantaciiadii, (a), ;yr. ;;«r/. of baran- 
daich. Warranting. 

Baraniiaicii, Bauantaich, v. Warrant; assure; make 
certain ; give authority or privilege. Prtt. a. biiaranlaich, 
uarranted ; fut. aff. a. barantaichidli, shall or -will -warrant. 

Barandail, Barantaii,, a. {i. c. barantamliuil.) Wur- 

Baranuas, Baravtas, ais, y. ;«. A commission ; warrant; 
also a pledge, a pawn. 

Barbair, «. »1. A barber or hairdresser. A^ /;/. barbairean, 
barbers. Span, barbero. Corn, barbeir. S-wcd. barber. 
Arm. barber. 

Bariiaireaciid, s.f (from barbair.) The business of a 
hairdresser. Ag ionnsachadh na barbaireachd, learning 
the business of a barber. 

Barbaura, a. Barbarous, wild, fierce, cruel. — Ste-w.Col. ref. 
Gu barbarra, burbaroush/. and Spun, barbara. It, burbero. Sxeed. barbar. 

Bariiiias, ais, *. m. A village in the Isle of Lewis. 

The iiilinbitiints of this villiis;e retain the very ancient Hislilnnd 
custiiui of scndnig u inun early in the nioniin}; of the first of Way 
to crois the river liarhhus, in orilcr to prevent a female crossinj; it 
first; for in that case the people believe that the salmon would 
not enter the river on that year, at least in desirable numbers 
Throughout all the Highlands the fisher regards it unlucky to meet 
u fcnnde on his way to the scene of his spuits. 

Bar-biirigkin, .v. m. Silver weed. 

Bariirao, aig, s.f A barberry bush ; a haibcrry. 

Barc, bairc, *. A boat, a ship, a skiff. Buillieadh ur bare 
lliar ehuanta, let your ressel bound speedili/ ox er the sras. — 
Ull. Bare breid-gheal, a uhite-saiUd boat. — Old I'oem. 

Orrm. bark. Sued. bark. Dan. barke. Jt. barca. I'r. 
barque. Spun, barca. Arm, barcq. Kng. bark. Vu. boork. 
lia-ujue, barca. Turk, barce, a little ship. 

This is one of the many Celtic words which slraguled into the 
English tongue from some one of the dialects of the Celtic, pro- 
bably that which is spoken in Britagnc, commonly called the 
Armoric. rdlctier is not correct when he states that this word is 
peculiar to the Armoric dialect, 

Barc, s, m, A book. Ir, id. 

Barc, t. n. (from barc.) Embark; also rush, burst forth. 
Pret. a, bharc, rushed ; fut. aff. a. barcaidh, shall rush, 

Barcaciid, s. /". ( /Vom barc.) Embarkation. 

Barc-lann, -lainn, s. m. A library. 

t Bard, baird, s, m. A corporation. N. pi. baird and bardan. 

Bard, baird, s. m, A bard, a poet, a rhymer. N. pi. baird 
and barda. ÌV. barth. Ir. bard. Arm. barth. Gr. jSa^Joj. 
Lat. bardus. Thigeadh barda le toirm, let poets come with 
music. — Oss. Tern. Thaom na baird am fonn, the bards 
poured forth their strains. — Id. 

The Celtic bards were known to the writers of antiquity under 
the name ^a^Joi and liardi. Eia-i Jc waj' avrsC^ nal woirnai fAiXiv ivt 
Bafiwt mofta^ci/5-iv. — Diod. Sicutus. There are also amoni; them 
versifiers, whom they call hards. BagSoi ^ev Ufxvnriti ital wooixai. — 
Slruho, b. iv. They were not only poets, but musicians. Respect- 
ing the etymon of this term, 15ochart, liv. i. Des Colonies des 
Phaniciens, chap. 42, obseives, that it is of Hebrew origin, being 
derived from the word parat, to modulate or tune ; and this he 
endeavours to confirm by a quotation from Tacitus de Mor. derm. 
" Ituri in prailia canunt ; sunt et illis hsc qnoque rarrnina, quorum 
relatu, quern baritnin vocant, accendunt animos," &c. Dr. John 
Macpherson, who, himself a Celt, might have known better, asserts 
that it is idle to attempt tracing its etymon, and that, as it is a 
monosyllable, it cannot be traced to any root. In opposition to 
these opinions, it m.iy be stated that bard is of Celtic origin ; 
and tliat it properly means one who extols; being resolvable 
into b-ard. And, by the way, I may remark, that ard itself, 
a three-lettered monosyllable, is not a radical word, but is de- 
rived from the primeval root, «r, high, which is seen in every 
language on eartli, [see Ard and liàrr], and, though now gone into 
disuse among the Gael, is still retained by the Celts of Bretagne 
in their dialect called the Armoric. That hard is derived from 
ard, is the more likely, to say the least of it, since the northern 
word scald, or poet, whose pursuits were similar to the bard's, 
means also an extoller, being derived from alt, ullt, or uld, forms 
of the same word, which is common to the Celtic and Gothic 
languages, and signifying high. Bard and scald, therefore, are 
synonymous terms. 

Poetry being, in the opinicm of the ivarlike Celts, the likeliest 
method of eternizing their bravery, the bards were held by them in 
the highest veneration. Princes and warriors did not disdain to 
claim aliinity with that order. The Celts, being passionately fond 
of poetry, would listen to no instruction, whether from priest or 
philosopher, excepting it was conveyed in rhymes. Hence the 
word hard meant also a priest, philosopher, or teacher of any kind. 
Thus we find a bard often entrusted nitli the education of a prince; 
and about two centuries ago, a Highland chieftain had seldom any 
other instructor. Such was the respect paid to the ancient liards, 
that, according to Diodorus the Sicilian, already quoted, they could 
put a slop to armies in the heat of battle. After any bloody 
engagement they raised the song over the deceased, and extolled 
the heroes who survived. 

" V'os quoque qui fortes animas, belloque peremptas 
J^autlihus m lorigum vates diniittitis asvum, 
I'lurima s( cnri fudistis carmina bardi." 
When a bard appeared in an army, it was eitlier as a lurald or 
ambassador ; hence his person and property were sacred in the 
midst of his enemies and amid their wildest ravages. In earlier 
times he never bore arms ; and Owen asserts that it was unlawful 
to unsheathe a weapon in his presence. Among the ancient Hritish 
there were, according to .fones, three orders of Imrds : the I'rivardd, 
or chief bard, whom the Gael would call Piiomh-bhard ; the Pos- 
wardd, who taught what was set forth by the Privardd; and the 
Arwyddward, i. c. the ensign bard, or herald-at-arms, who employed 
himself in genealogy, and in blazoning the arms of princes and 
nobles, as well as altering them according to their dignity or 
deserts. Owen observes that their dress was sky-blue, an emblem 
of peace. 

Among the Irish Celts the bards enjovcd many extraordinary 
privileges. 1 he chief bard was called Viicadh, or Ollandi ri dan, 
a graduate or doctor in poetry, and bad thirty inferior bards as 
attendants, whilst a hard of the second-rate or order had fifteen. 
The ancient (jael were not behind any of their brother Cells in this 
absurd veneraiion. A bard had lands bestowed on him, which 
became hereditary in his family. A Highland chieftain retained 
two bards, who, like those of the Irish, had their retinue of dis- 
ciples ; and though the othce did by no means procure the same 


deep respect as in times of old, yet, like every department, secular 
or otherwise, tliat permits laziness and procures lucre, it was Wlea 
to the uttermost man. Its avarice and its iiisolence, together 
with other causes, contributed to the decline of the order. Its 
indiscrimniate satire and ungrateful abuse brought it finally into 
contempt; and the Gaelic bard of the present day is but a 
homeless, sarcastic mendicant, who will sing a song of his own 
composing for a morsel of bread. 

Another Gaelic term for bard is aoisdana ; wliich see. 

B.iRD.A, n. pi. of bard. 

BARD.vciin, *. /. (//-om bard.) Ir. id. Poetry, rhyming ; 
satire, lampooning; a sarcasm; rareli/ a corporation town. 
Ged theirinn e cha bhardaclid, though I ncre to sav it, it 
uoii/cl be no satire. — Old Poem. 

t B.vRn.vG, aig, s. f. A bos, a pannier, a hamper. — Ir. id. 
K. pi. bardagan. 

B.vRDAiL, a. (i. e. bard-amhuil.) Satirical, poetical. Ir. bard- 

B.IRD.41NN, ;s./. A summons of removal, a warning. Fhuair 
mi bardainn, I got a sunnnons of remoxal. 

+ B.\RD.\L, ail, s. m. A drake. //•. bardal. 

Bard.^s, ais, s. m. A satyr, a lampoon, /r. bardas. 

Bard-cluiche, s. m. A dramatist. N. pi. baird-cliiiche, 

Bard-dealbh-cluiche, s. m. A dramatist. 

Bard-dhàn, -dhàin, s. m. (fF. barth-gan.) Poetry, rhyme. 

t Barg, a. Red-hot. — Ir. id. 

BÌR-GHEAL, a. White-topped. 

Baris, s. m. The ancient Gaulic name of Paris, still retained 
in the Armoric dialect of the Celtic. 

t Barx, bairn, s. m. A nobleman; a judge; a battle. 
Ir. barn, a judge. 11'. Corn, barn, judgment. 

Barnaig, t. n. Summon, warn ; give summons of removal. 
— Ir. Pret. a. bharnaig, summoned ; fut. aff. a. barnaigidh, 
shall or -dll summon. 

Barnaigeadh, idh, s. m. A summons of removal. 

BÀRR, s. m. A crop, as of corn or grass; also bread, food. 
Bàrr bliuntàit, putatoe crops. 

Arm. bara. Basque, bar, nourishment. Ileb. bar, corn. 
Goth. bari. Old Sii.r. here. Scotch, bear, barlej/. Gr. Ion. 
Bog^n, food ; also £no-&/(, barn. Runic, bar, foliage. 

BÀRR, s. m. from the primeval root ar. (Ir. bar «nrf barr. 
If. bar. Cum. bar. Arm. bar. Canfabrian, barna. Hence 
also It. barruca ; Fr. perruque.) D. pi. barraibh. A point, 
as of a weapon ; acme ; a top, summit ; a crop ; a branch ; 
a height or hill ; a heap ; scum ; a head, a helmet ; su- 
periority; rareli/ a son. For this last acceptation see bar. 
Bàrr mo shleagh, the point oj' mi/ spear. — Oss. Gaul. Mar 
cheo air bharraibh nam beann, like a mist on the tops of 
the hills.— Oss. Duthona. Buntàta ag a chrathadh o'n 
bhàrr, potatoes a-shaking from the crops. — Blacfar. Cha 
'n fhàg e bun no bàrr, he xeill leaie neither root nor branch. 
— Steic. Mai. A ruith fhiadh air bharraibh, chasing deer 
on the heights. — Fingalian Poem. Bàrr maise, superiority 
in beauti/. — JMacdon. 

It is worthy of observation, that in all the Eastern 
languages, and indeed in every language in the world, the 
word burr is found either simple or in composition, and 
signifying height of some description or other. Ileb. and 
Si/r. bar, great. Heb. barhh, high. Old Pcrs. bai, uboie. 
Chald. bar, above, and baratz, heap up. Heb. cabar, to 
increase. Si/r. cabar, increased. Ethiop. cabar, renouned. 
Arab, cabar, delated. Malay, bara, lifted up. Gr. ^a^o;, 
high. Canaries, bara, great. Du. baar, a lofty surge. 
Sclav, and DuL bardo, a hill. Pol. barzo, vastly. Moscovite, 
boyar, noble. Arab, pharahh, to be elevated. Pers. phar, 
high. Old Egyptian, Pharaoh, a king. Armen. partr, 
mountain. Alban. pari or pare, an elevated man. Bohem. 
pharbek, hill. Madagascar, barou, a great deal. 


Barra, s. m. A court ; a spike ; a bar. Ir. id. 

Barrabhailc, «. m. A cornice ; entablature; a constella- 
tion. — Macd. Ir. id. K. pi. barrabhailcean ; d. pi. barra- 

Barrabhall and Barrahhalladh, aidh, s. m. Parapet, 
battlements, embrazures, bartizans. — .Macd. 

Barra-biiaud, aird, s. m. A chief poet, a poet-laureate ; 
a graduate in poetry : called also flidh. He was entitled 
to an escort of thirty inferior poets. See Baud. 

Barra-bhardaciid, s.f The condition of a poet-laureate; 
the verses of a poet-laureate. 

BAURABiiuinnE, a. (Ir. barrabhuidhe.) Yellow-topped; 
yellow- tipped; having yellow hair. 

Bakrabròg, bròig, s. f A barberry; a barberry tree. 
//•. barbrog. 

Barracaideacii, a. Proud, saucy. Gu barracaideach, 
proudly. Com. and sup. barracaidche. 

Barracaideachd, i./. Pride, sauciness. 

BÀURACU, a. (from barr.) High-topped, beetling, pinnacled. 

Barrach, a. [from bàrr.) Topped ; heaped up as a loaded 
cart ; heapetl up over the rim of a vessel. Cairt bharrach, 
a cart loaded over its rim. 

Barrach, aiche, s. m. (J'rom bàrr.) //•. barrach. Branches 
of trees ; brushwood ; also fine tow. Feadh rainich is 
barraich, among ferns and brushnood. — Macint. Snathainn 
barraiehe, a thread of tow.—Steu-. Jud. ref Fo sgaile a 
bharraich, beneath the shady branches. — Miann a Bhaird. 

t Barraciiad, aid, s. m. A cottage, a hut or booth. — Ir. id. 

Barrachaol, a. Pyramidical ; conical, tapering; also 
(substantively) a pyramid. 

Baruaciiaoin, a. Very mild or gentle. Triùir bhraithre 
bharrachaoin, three gentle brothers. — Old Poem. 

t Barraciias, ais, s. ?n. Curled hair; waving locks. — Jr. id. 

BARRACHD,.s.y. Superiority, pre-eminence; advantage, over- 
plus ; more, besides. Tha barrachd nan dan duit, thou hast 
the superior it I/ in song. — Oss. Fing. Thoir barrachd, e.rcet ; 
cha d' thoir thu barrachd, thou shall not e.vccl; a toirt bar- 
rachd, excelling. — Stew. Ezek. A bharrachd air sin, besides 
that, over and above that, moreover ; a bharrachd air a cheud 
ghorta, besides the first famine. — Stew. Gen. Chi dithis 
barrachd air aon fhear, t-xo will see better than one.— G. P. 

Barr', contr. for barradh ; which see. 

t Barradii, aidh, J. ;h. A hinderance, an obstacle. Portug. 
barra, a bar at the mouth of a river. 

Barradh, aidh, s. m. A barrow; a bier. Cuidhle-barr', 
a whccl-barrow ; barradh-ròtha, a wheel-barrow; barradh- 
bocsa, a box-barrow, barr' laimh, a hand-barrow. 

Gr. (pifiiit, to carry. It. bara, a coffin. Germ. bar. 
Eng. bier. Fr. biere. Swed. bera and baera, a bier. Ser- 
vian, bera. Teut. bar and bara. Turk, bar, a burden. 
According to Herodotus, the bier of the ancient Egyptians 
was called bar. 

Barradii-dhias, -dhèis, s. m. The point of a sword ; the 
top of an ear of corn. 

Barradiiriopair, 4. »(. A butler. iV. j?/. barradhriopairean. 

Barradhriopaireachd, s.f. The employment of a butler. 

t Barrag, aig, s.f. (Ir. id.) Posset; scum, cream ; a sud- 
den pain ; a grappling, wrestling; a girl. Cha chinn barrag 
air cuid cait, there is no cream on cat's milk. — G. P. 

t Barrag, aig, s.f. Weeds that float on the water; a 
switch, a rod. — Ir. id. 

Baraghlach, aich, s. m. Tops or branches of trees; 

Barraibh, d. pi. of barr. 

Barraich, a. (from barr.) Alatchless ; surpassing, pre- 
eminentj transcendent. 

B A S 

B A S 

Bariiaicii, v. Top ; heap up as a measure of grain ; excel, 
surpass. Pnt. a. bliarraich, surpassed; fut. aff. a. bar- 
raichidh, shall surpass. 
B.vRnAiriiTK, a. and p. part, of barraich. Tipped, topped ; 
excelled, surpassed; also excellent, exceeding. Barraichte 
mar na seudair, excellent as the cedars. — Stew. Song Sul. 
Barraic, ;. a. Bestow, grant, present. PrtY. a. bharraig; 

fill. aff. a. barraigidh, shall give. 
Bakuaii,, a. Gay, sprightly, transcendent, genteel. Jr. bar- 
ramhuil. A mhaighdean bharrail, t/ie sprightli/ maiden. — 
Old Song. 
Bahrain, gen. sing, of barran ; which see. 
Barraist, s. f. The herb called borage; green kail. — Ir. id. 
Barraisteach, a. Full of borage; like borage; of borage. 
Baruamhais, s.f. A cornice. — Macd. barraraluiisean. 
Bakramiiaiseacii, a. Having cornices. 
Barran, ain, .v. m. (from bàrr.) Edder; any kind offence, 
as thorns, glass, &c. on the top of a wall ; a tip ; a crest; 
also a fence, a hedge ; the top of a rock or mountain. 
N. pi. barrain ; d. pi. barranaibh. Anns na bairanaibh, 
in the fences. — Slew. Nah. Fraoch sleibhe mar bliarran 
air, tipped with mountain heath. — Old Song. 
Barran'dacii, a. Sure, certain, warrantable. Written also 

Bauraxd vDii, aidh, s. m. A warrant. Written also bar- 
ran tadh. 
Barran DAS, ais, «. m. A commission, a warrant ; a pledge, 
a pawn. — Macint. Ir. barantas. Written also barruntas. 
Barrantach, a. Sure, certain, warrantable. Gu barran- 
tach, warranlablij. 
Bahuaxtadii, aidh, s. m. A warrant, a commission. 
Baurantas, ais, s. m. A warrant, a commission; a pledge, 

a pawn. Ir. barantas. A'. ;;/. barrantais or barrantasan. 
lÌAKUA-ROCiiD, s. f. Sea-weed, tangles. 
Baruas, ais, s. m. ( from hh.xr .) .Superiority; residue, sur- 
plus. A bharras air sin, over and above that ; moreover. 
BAKRASACii,a. Lofty; superior; ambitious; residual. 
Bajiua-thonn, -thuinn, s. m. A high surge ; the top of a 
wave ; the surface of the deep. A siubhal nam barra- 
thonn, hounding oxer the surges. — Ullin. 
B*iui-niiuiDiiE, a. Yellow - topped ; yellow -haired. Mo 

mhaighdean bharr-bhuidhe, 7ni/ yellow-haired maid. 
Baur-iiiionn, a. White-topped, white-headed. Canach 

barr-fhionn, white-topped cotton. — Macdon. 
Barr-giiniomii, s. m. A work of supererogation; a tran- 
scendent exploit. 
nARR-fiuciii), s. f. Bloom, blossom; most frequently ap- 
plied to the bloom of leguminous vegetables, as pease. 
Barr-guchd air a mheuraibh, a bloom on its branches. — Macint. 
Bahr-iai.i,, -eill, s. m. A shoe-tic, a latchet, a thong. 

Ir. barial. 
Bas, bais, s. f. (Jr. bas.) The palm of the hand. A^ pi. 
basan, juilms ; </. ;j/. basaibh, palms. Bas icidli, a smoath 
palm ; leòis air basaibh, blisters on her hands. — Old Song. 
Written also lios. 
BÀS, Ivàis, s. III. {Ileb. baas, putn/ied.) Death, destruction; 
also a dead body. Giiin bais, the agoni/ of death. — Ull. 
Dealau bais, the lightning of deal /i. — Oss. Gaul. Faigh 
bas, die ; gheibii gach ni bis, 'even/ thing shall die. — Stew. 
Gin. Ma shaltraicheas sluagh air mo bhàs, if people tread 
on mil dead bodi/. — Ots. Tew. Droch bliàs ort ! a bad death 
lu ipiii ! a common imprecation among the Gael. 
BÌHACiiAUii, aidh, s. m. Dying, expiring; perishing, wither- 
ing. Tha e air basachachadh, it has died or withered. 
BisACHADii, (a), pr. part, of biksaich. Dying, expiring 

Bas A Dii, aidh, 5.7«. A term applied to the rubbing of the thread 

ends of tape-work, to prevent their running into threads. 
Basaicu, r. n. Die, expire, perish, starve; wither as a 
plant; grow vapid, as beer. Pret. a. bhàsaich, died ; fut. 
aff. a. basaichidh, shall or will die. 
BXsail, a. (i. e. bas-amhuil.) Deadly; deathlike; mortal, 

fatal, destructive. 
Basal, ail, s. m. Judgment; also pride, arrogance. — Ir. id. 
BXsalaciid, s./. (/rom bas.) Mortality; deadliness. 
Bas-aihm, ifc/i. bàs-arm, «. 7;/. Deadly weapons. Fhir nam 

bas-arm geur, thou hero of deadli/ weapons. — Oss. Lodin. 
Basart, airt, 4. m. A bastard. iV. /i/. basartan. 
Basbaiu, s. III. X. pi. basbairean. A fencer or swordsman. 
Bha thu na do bhasbair còrr, thou wert u noble swordsman. 
— Gael. Song. Ir. id. 
Basbaireachd, «./. Swordmanship, fencing. 
Basbairean, n. pi. ofbasbair; which see. 
Bas-biiualadii, aidh, s. m. A clapping of hands; a rubbing 

of hands, whether from grief or joy. — Stew. Luke, ref. 
BÀS-H11U1I.LE, 4. m. A death-blow. Fhuair e' bhàs-bhuille, 

he received his death-blow. 
Basbruidiieacii, a. Lecherous. 
Basbruidiieacmd, s.f. Lecherousness. 
t Basc, a. (Ir. id.) Red; round. — Shaw. 
Bascacii, aich, s. m. A catch-pole, a bailiff. K. pi. bas- 

caichean, catchpoles. 
Bascaid, (;)f;7(H;).s bascaite), *./;(«« basc. A basket. Box. 
Lex. Ant. Brit, basgawd and basged. Old French, bascod. 
N. pi. basgaide a/ii/basgaidean. Tri bascaide geala, three 
white baskets. — Stew. Gen. Martial writes, 

" Baibaia de pictis vcnil Bascauda Britanuis, 
Sell me jam vult ilicere Koma suara." 
t Basc-aium, s. m. A circle. — Ir. id. 
Bascall, aill, s. m. A wild man ; a savage. N. pi. bascaiU. 
Bascarnach, aich, s. m. Lamentation. 
Bascart, airt, s. tn. Cinnabar. 

Basc-ciiriadh, s. m. Ruddle. — Shaw. ] 

Basdalacii, a. Showy, gay, flashy. Og basdalach, a g'ay 
youth. — Macint. A ribhinn bhuidhe bhasdalaiehe, thou 
yellow-liaired showy viaiden. — 3Ioladh Mhoraig. Com. and 
sup. basdalaiche, more or most showy. 
Basdalaciii), v. /. Showiness, gayness. Chan fbac mi a 
leithid airbasdalachd, / have not seen his equal for showiness. 
Basdard, aird, s. m. A bastard. Box. Ltx. bastardd, 
spurijus. Ir. basdard. Span, and Portug. bastardo. Du. 

liasdurd is prnl.'al'lv (icrived from baoa, fornication. 
fBASG, r.a. Stop, stay. Pret. a. hUasg, stopped ; fut. off. a. 

basgaidh, shall or will slop. 
Basg AiREACii, a. Clapping the hands in the agitation of grief. 
Basoaireaciid, s. f. A mournful clapping of hands. 

Ir. basgaire. 
Basganta, a. Warbling, melodious. — Macdon. 
Baslacii, aich, s. m. .\ palmful. 
Bahg-lu AiDii, s. m. Vermillion. — Macd. 
BAsMiioiRE, com. and sup. of basnihor ; which see. 
Bas.miioikf.achi), s.f. Mortality, deadliness. 
BAsMiiÒR, a. Deadly, mortal, liable to death. An corp 
basmhor, the mortal body. — Stew. 1 Cor. Com. and sup. 
basmhoire, more or most deadly. 
Basmiioracii, a. Mortal, liable to death. Tha gach ere 

basnihorach, every body is liable to death. — Old Sung. 
Basraicii, s.f. A shouting, roaring, calling aloud, wailing 

aloud. Ri basraich, shouting aloud. — Oss. Tern. 
starving, withering. À basachadh leis an fh'uachd, starving I Bas-siii.eaoii, s. A deadly spear. Bàs-shleagh nan triath, 
•with cold ; dying or withering with cold. I tl'^ deadly spear of the chiefs. — Oss. Tern. 


B E A 

B E A 

Bastalach, a. See Basdalach. 

Bat, s. m. A bath. Bat fiona, a uine-bat/i. Bat olaidli, an 

oil-bath. — Ste-u:. Ezra. 

Dii. bad. Dan. bad. Sxi-ed. bad. JF. bath. Ir. bath. 
Bat, s. m. A stick, a staff, a baton, a cudgel, a bludgeon. 

Asp. form, bhat. Gabh nio bhat, take mii stick. N. pi. 

bataichean. Ni thu bataichean, t/>ou shalt make stares. — 

Ste^i: 2 K. 

Germ. batt. Anglo-Sax. bat. Eng. bat. /;•. bat. 

Tr. baton. 
BAT, s.m. A boat, pinnace, barge; any sailing vessel of 

inferior size. N. pi. bataichean. Bat aigheir, a pleasure- 
boat ; bat da chroinn, a ■whcrri/ ; bat aiseig, a ferry-boat. — 

Stexc. 0. T. Bat iasgaich, a fishing-boat. Chuir e bhat 

air acair, he brought his boat to anchor. — G. P. 

Dan. baad. Fr. bat-eau. Old Sax. bat. Old S-j:ed. baat, 

sccundiim Rudbeck. Runic, baatus. Isl. baatur. Du. boot. 

Span, bat-el. It. bat-ello. 
Bataichean, n. pi. of bat. Boats. 
Bataichean, n. /)/. of bat. Staves. 
Batail, *. /". A fight, a skirmish. Pc. bataille. 
Batair, s. ?«. {from bat.) A cudgeller; a lounger, an idler; 

a noisy fellow. Fr. batteur, a .striker. I'ortiig. batedor, 

one uho beats. JV. pi. batairean. 
Bataireaciid, s. f. (from bat.) Cudgelling; lounging; 

making a rattling noise. Is ann ort tha bhataireachd ! what 

a noise you make ! 
t Bath, s. (Ir. id.) The sea; also slaughter, massacre, 

murder ; death ; thirst. — Shuic. 
Bath, a. Simple, foolish; more frequently written booth; 

which see. 
Bàthachd, s. /. Simpleness, foolishness; a massacre. 

Thig bathachd ort, foolishnest shall come upon thee. — Mac Co. 
Bath, r. a. Drown ; quench, slake ; smother, as a flame ; 

rareli/ faint. Fret. a. bhàth, druicncd ; fiit. aff. a. bathaidh, 

shall or will drown. Cha bhàth na tuiltean o, the flood i 

shall not drown him. — Stew. Song. Sol. Bathadhmaid gach 

smàlan, let us drown all care. — -Old Song. Bath an teine, 

quench the fire. P. part, bathte, drowned. 
BÀTHADH, aidh, s. m. A drowning, a quenching, a slaking, 

a smothering. Bathadh mòr aig oir-thir, wrecks are most 

frequent on the shore. — G. P. 
Bath A dii, a.; pr. part, of bath. Drowning. 
Bath.vich, s. m. A cow-house. Bathaich is a corruption 

of ba-theach. N. pi. bathaichean. 
Bathais, i.^. A forehead, front, crown of the head. Na 

bhathais mhaoil, in his bald forehead. — Stew. Lev. A^. pi. 

Batiialaich, Ò-. m. A vagabond. 
BXthar, air, s. m. Crop ; wares, goods. .Am bàthar a bha 

Ban luinge, the wares that were in the ship. — Stew. Don. 
Ba-thigh, i. m. A cow-house. — Macint. 
t Bathlax, ain, s. m. (fbath and Ian.) The flux of the sea, 

a tide ; a calm. 
Bath-laodii, «. m. {Ir. id.) A helmet. — Shaw. 
t Bathroid, «.y. A token. JV". jo/. bathroidean. 
Bath-shrutii,4.?«. a calm smooth stream, /r. bath-shruth. 
t Bath-throid, s.f A helmet or headpiece. — //■. id. 
t Batros, s. m. Rosemary. — Shaw. 
B'e, {for bu e.) It was he or it. 

Be, s. { Night ; also a woman, a female. — Shaw. 
t Be.vbh, s. m. A tomb, a grave. 
t Beacan, ain, s. m. A mushroom. 

t Beacanach, a. Abounding in mushrooms ; like a mush- 
room ; of mushrooms. 

Beach, s.w. A bee ; a wasp ; a beast ; a bird. (B/'yc.bechon. 
Ir. beach, a bee.) N. pi. beachan ; d. pi. beachaibh. 
Dranndan bheachan an aonaich, the viurmur of the moun- 
tain-bees. — Oss. Dargo. Mar bheachaibh. Hi., bees. — Sm. 

Beach ACii, a. Full of bees or wasps; like a bee or wasp, 
waspish; of, or belonging to, a bee or wasp. Mios 
beachach seiileanach, the month that produces wasps and 
bees. — Macfar. 

Beachan, (rfi'm. of beach.) A little bee. Beachan chapuU, 
a wasp. 

Beachanta, a. Waspish, cross. Gu beachanta, TOa.sp!.$^/(^. 

Beacharn, aim, s.f. A prostitute. iV. pi. beachairnean. 

t Beachd, «. »). A covenant, surety; a multitude; a ring, 
a circle. Ir. beacht. 

Beachd, s. m. Opinion, memory, perception; conceptiou. 
feeling, idea ; aim, thought, attention, notice, observation ; 
vision, eyesight ; intention. A reir mo bheachd, according 
to my opinion. An do chaill thu mar mise do bheachd ? 
hast thou, like me, lost thii memory! — Oss. Conn. Tharruing 
i 'n t-sreang le rogha a beachd, she pulled the string with 
her best aim. — Ull. Chuir baird am beachd air triath, the 
bards tiled their notice on the chiefs. — Oss. Fing. Ma 's 
comhrag do bheachd, if battle be thy intention. — Old Poem. 
O bheachd, out of sight. — Oss. Fing. Na bheachd fein, in 
his own opinion or conceit. — Stew. Pro. Gabh beachd, 
obserxe, watch, make an observation. Ghabh e beachd air 
an treun, he observed the hero. — 3Iac Lach. Gu beachd, 
perfectly, clearly. 

t Beachd, r. a. (//-.beacht.) Meditate, consider, observe, 
attend, view, watch; embrace, compass ; criticise. Pret. 
a. bheachd, viewed ; fit. aff. a. beachdaidh, shall view. 

Beachdaciiadii, aidh, s. ni. A considering, viewing, medi- 
tating, watching ; consideration, meditation. 

Be.^chdaciiadh, «. ; pr. part, of beachdaich. Considering, 
viewing, meditating. 

Beachdaich, v. a. Consider, meditate, perceive, observe, 
attend, watch, eye. Pret. a. bheachdaich, observed; 
fut. (?//'. a. beachdaichidh, shall or will observe ; cha bheach- 
daich sùil a h-aite, no eye shall observe her place. — Oss. 
Duthona. Bheachdaich mi gu dùr, I observed attentively. 
— Mac Lach. Bheachdaich iad am fear mòr, they eyed the 
mighti/ man. — Id. 

Beachdaiciite, /). ;)ar^ of beachd. Considered, observed, 

Beachdaidh, a. Sure, certain; observant, watchful, con- 
siderate. Gu beachdaidh, considerately. 

Beachdail, a. {from beachd.) Observant, watchful, medi- 
tative, considerate ; rarely circular. 

Beachdair, s. m. An observer, a spy, an informer, a scout; 
a critic, a reviewer. ÌV. ;;/. beachdairean. 

Beaciidaireachd, s. f. Spying, informing; the occupa- 
tion of a critic or reviewer ; espionage. 

Beachd-Xite, s. m. An observatory; a watch-tower. 
JV. pi. beachd-àitean or beachd-àiteachan. 

Beachd-ion AD, aid, s. m. An observatory ; a watch-tower. 
A^ ;;/. beachd-ionadan. 

Beachd-sgeul, gen. beachd-sgeòil or beachd-sgeil, s. m. 

Beaciid-smuaineach, Beachd-smuainteach, a. Medi- 

Beachd- sMUAixEACiiADii, Beachd-smuainteachadh. 
aidh, s. m. Meditation, contemplation; the act of medi- 
tating or contemplating. 

Beach D-SMU.\iNEACH.\DH, Beachd -smuainteachadh, 
(a), pr. part, of beachd-smuainich or beachd-smuaintich. 
Meditating, contemplating ; talking. Tha e a beachd-smu- 
ainteachadh, he is talking. — Stew. 1 À'. 

B E A 

B E A 

Be.uhd-smtja:neaciiail, Beachd-smuaixteachad, a. 
Contemplative, meditative. 


meditate, contemplate ; talk. Fret. a. bheachd-smuaiuich, 
miifcd ; flit. (Iff. a. beachd-smuainichidh, .v//a// miisi- ; a 
blieachd-smuaineachadh san fhàiche, to meditate in tfic 
(ielil.—Steu. Oen. 
BeaCh-lan'n, lainn, s. m. A bee-hive, 
t Beaciiuax, ain, s. m. Wandering, straying. — 'S7(aa'. 
Bead, i. m. Flattery; cunning, a trick. 
Beadach, a. {from bead.) Forward, impudent; prone to 

flatter. Com. and sup. beadaiche, more or 7ììost forivanl. 
Beadachd, s. f. {from bead.) Forwardness, impudence; 

BEAnAG, aig, v./. {from bead.) A lying, enticing young 

female; a gossip. A', p/. beadagan. 
Beadaoacii, a. {from beadag.) Like a lying female; like 

a gossip. 
Beadag ax, n. pi. of beadag. 
Beadagax, ain, s. m. A petulant fellow; a tale-telling 

fellow. N. pi. beadagan. 
Beadaicite, com. and sup. of beadacli. More or most 

Beadaiche, .?. m. A flatterer, a cajoler; an enticing fellow. 

N. pi. beadaichean. 
Be vdaidii, ff. Forward, pert, petulant; mannerless; nice, 
fond of delicacies, luxurious; sweet-mouthed; flattering. 
Cho beadaidh, so foruanl.—JSl acini. Beadaidh ri linn 
socair, luxurious in time of peace. —Sinitli. Oran na circe 
beadaidh, a song from the pert lien. — O. 1'. 
Beadaidiieaciid, «./. Forwardness; petulance; flattery; 

Beadan, ain, s. m. Calumny; also a forward petulant 

BiADANACii, a. {from beadan.) Calumnious; forward; 
petulant. Gu beadanach, calumniouslj/. Cum. and sup. 
Beadan ACiiD, •*./. The habit of calumniating ; forward- 
ness, pcrtness. 
Beadarach, a. (Sxiril. bedraga, to deceiic.) Beloved, 
lovely; flattering, cajoling; pampered; delicate; indulged. 
Is beadarach an ni 'n onoir, lionour is dilicatc. — 6'. P. 
Com. and sup. beadaraiche, more or mostjlaltering. 
Beadaradh, aidh, s. m. Fondness, endearment ; fondling, 
flirting, toying; flattering. Beadaradh gu leòir, eiioug/i of 
flirting. — Macint. Cliuireadh tu bodaich gu beadaradh, 
tliou uouldst set old men a fondling. — /{. 
Beao, a. (/r. beag.) Little; young; small; light, trifling, 
insignificant; few. Asp. form, bheag. Leanubh beag, a 
liulie ; na sionnaich bheag, t/ie i/oung fores. — Sfe-u\ Song. 
.Sol. Air bheag do lathaibh, in a few dai/s. — Steii\ Acts. 
A bheag, a little, the least ; a bheag a dh' aon ni 's leatsa, 
anil [the least] particle of what is thine. — Stew. Gtn. Cha 
'n fliaigli a blicag bàs, nothing shall die. — Stew. F..iud. 
Beag is beag, little and litlU, hij decrees. — Id. Is beag so, 
this is a [trifling] light thing.— Slew. 1 K. Air bheag, 
alniotl ; air bheag nithe, atwost. — Stew. Acts, ref Is beag 
orm e, / dislike him ; iadsan air am bcagsibh, thei/ who hale 
i/ou. — Siew. Lex. Ach beag, almost; beag nach, almost. 
Na big agus na niòir, the small and the great. — Stew. i's. 
All rud clii na big, ni na big, what the i/oung see thci/ do, 
— a. I'. An ni I'hluinneas na big 's c chùnas na big, 
what the young hear thei/ repeat ; as the old cock crows, the 
young cock learns. — (•. P. Com. and sup. lugha, less, least. 
Beaoa( HA nil, aidh, s. m. A Icssenmg, a diminishing, 

Beagaciiadh, a.; pres. part, of beagaich. Lessening, 

Beagaich, r. a. Lessen, diminish, abate. Pret. a. bhea- 
gaich, lessened; fut.ajf. a. beagaichidh, shall or will diminish ; 
cha bheagaich sibh, j/e shall not diminish. 

Beagaiche, 4-. m. {from beag.) An abater, a diminisher. 

Beao Aicuii.Aii,fut. pass, of beagaich. Shall be lessened or 

Beagaichidh, fit. af. a. of beagaich. Shall or will 

Beagaichte, ;;. /Jrtr^ of beagaich. Lessened, diminished. 

Beagax, Ò-. and a. A little, a few, a small number, a small 
quantity or portion. Air bheagan ceille, with little wisdom, 
witle.'is. — Sm. Beagan uisge, a little water. — Slew. Gen. 
Fuireach beagan, stop a little ; beagan ni's fhaide, a little 
lunger ; beagan crion, a very little ; bheagan a bheagan, 
III/ little and little, by degrees ; a dol am beaganaibh, grow- 
ing into small portions, crumliling. 

Ir. beagan. IV. bechan. Arm. bihan. Corn, bian 
and vichan. In old French books we see bechan, little. 
In Franche Comte they say pechon. 

Beagchionta, s. a petty crime; a foible. N. ]d. beag 

Beag-eag ALLACii, a. Bold, fearless. — //■. id. 

Beag-luach, a. Valueless, useless. 

Bkag-n ARACH, a. Shameless, impudent. Gu beag-narach, 
shamelessly, impudently. — Stew. Hos. 

Beagnarachd, s.f Shamelessness, impudence. 

Beaiiit, «.y". A loom ; engine, machine ; harness; tackling 
of a ship; exploit; a scabbard; a truss. Fhuair e i aig a 
beairt, he found her at her loom. — ISIac Liuh. Da steud fo 
bheairt, two studs in harness. — Id. Beairt thuairneir, a 
turning loom. N. pi. beairtean. 

Beairtich, v. a. Yoke, as a chariot; provide with tackling; 
enrich. Pirl. a. bheairtich, yoked ; fat. aff. a. beairtichidh, 
shall or will yoke ; written also heartaich ; which see. 

Beal, Beil, v. m. A mouth ; proxincial for beul. 

Beal, Beil, s. m. The god Belus. Written also Beul; 
which see. 

Bealach, aich, s. m. ; >i. pi. bralaichean. (/;•. bealach.) 
A defile, a narrow passage, the pass or gorge of a mountain, 
a glen, a gap, a way. Asp. form, bhealach. Mar eibhle sa 
bhealach, like a fire in the mountain gorge. — Oss. I'ing. 
Ciod am bealach am buail sinn ? through what pass shall we 
strike our way. — Old Legend. Air bealach ccairt, on a 
right way. — Sm. Druid am bealach, shut the way. — /(/. 

Bealaidh, Bealuidh, ,s. 111. Broom. Buidheag bhcalaidh, 
a yellow-hammer. 

BEALmiAN-KUADii, S.7H. A sort of liawk. — 67/UU'. 

t Bealtaine, s.f. An agreement, a compact, a bargain. — 
//■. id. 

Bkatlainn, Beai.tuinn, s.f. May-day; Whitsuntide; 
the month of May. La buidhe bealtuinn, n common name 
for May-day. ', 

On tlie first of May wiis lulil a great Dnii.lical festival in 
hniioiir (if tlie Asiatic t;oil, IJe'us, ivliuin tlie Dniiils worshipped. '•■ 
On this (lay fires were kindled (in the iiiouiitain lops lor the pur- 
poses of sacrifice ; anil thniLigli these fiicis, accorthiif; to Keating, i 
the Druids ordered the cattle of the country to be driven, with the i 
desi);n of pieserviii|i them fioin oontaaion till next May-day. On i 
this day too it was usual to extinguish all the hearth tires, in order j 
that they should he kindled (roni this purifyiiii; flame. Hence it i 
would seem that tlie rii;ht iirtlKiijniiihY of lieidluinn is h'eil-teine, I 
Rchis's fire. 1m lieiittuiiiii, theietore, sipiifus th(! day of Belus's i 
fire. In some parts of the Highlands, the young folks of a hamlet ! 
wect ill the moors on the first of May. They cut a table in | 
the {;ieen sod, of a round figure, hy cuttint; a trench in the ground j 
ofsuch circuinterence as to hold the whole company. '11 cy then 
kindle :i fire, and dress a repast of eggs and milk in the consistence 

B E A 

B E A 

of a custard. They knead a cake of oatmeal, which is toasted at 
tlie embers against a stone. After the custard is eaten up, they 
divide the cake into so many portions, as similar as possible to one 
another in size and shape, as there are persons in the company. 
They daub one of tliese portions with charcoal until it is perfectly 
black. They then put all the bits of the cake into a bonnet, and 
every one, blindfold, draws out a portion. The bonnet-holder is 
entitled to the last bit. Whoever draws the black bit is the 
devoted person who is to be sacrificed to B:ial, whose favour they 
mean to implore in rendering the year productive. The devoted 
person is compelled to leap three times over the flames. — Statistics. 

Bealuidh, s. m. Broom. Goisean bealuidh, a tuft of 
broom ; written also bealuiiih. 

Bean, v. Touch, handle, meddle. Pret. a. bhean, touched ; 
Jut. ajf. a. beanaidh, s/iall or will touch ; an ti a bheanas 
ribli, he who touches you. — Stew. Zech. 

Bean, gen. mna. (Corn, benen.) A wife, a woman, a female. 
Bean a ghaòil, the wife of his affections. — Orr. Goirear 
bean ditli, she shall be culled wuman. — Stew. Gen. Bean 
nan deagh bheus, a virtuous female. A Gael, in speaking to 
his mother, says, a bhean ! xcumaii ! and not a mhathair ! 
mother! Bean-ghlùin, a midwife; bean-shiubhlaidh, 
a woman in childbed ; bean-tiglie, a housewife ; d. sing. 
mnaoi. Air do bhreth le mnaoi, born of a woman. — Smith. 
Mar mhnaoi, as a xcife, to wife. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. mnai 
and ranathan, wiies, women ; d. pi. mnathaibh. 

t Beanadh, aidh, s. m. Dulness, bluntness. 

Beanag, aig, 6'./. ((/(/;;. of bean.) fF. benan. Corw. benen. 
A little wife, a little woman ; a term of endearment for a 
wife, or for any female. Mo bheanag ghaolach, mi/ dear 
little wife. — Macint. 

Beanail, a. (from bean.) IF. benywawl. Ir. beanamhail. 
Womanly, womanlike, effeminate, feminine, modest, deli- 

Bean-baile, s.f. The lady or proprietress of a village. 

Bean-hainnse, s.f. A bride ; literulli/, the woman of the 

Bean-biiarain, s. f. A baron's lady. 

Bean-bhochd, s.f. A female mendicant, a poor woman. 
Mnathan bochd, poor women. 

Bean burathau-.vthau, «.y". An uncle's wife, the wife of 
a father's brother. 

Be.^n BIIUATHAU.-MÀTHAR, S.f. An uncle's wife, the wife 
of a mother's brother. 

Bean bhuathah-sean-atiiar, s.f. A grand-uncle's wife, 
the wife of a grandfather's brother. 

Bean-charaid, .y.y. A female friend ; a kinswoman. 

Bean-cheile, s. f. A spouse, a wife. 

Bean-chìciie, s.f. A wet-nurse. N. p!. mnathan clche, 

Bean-chinnidh, i./. A kinswoman; female ; a namesake. 

Bean-chliamiiuinn, i.y. A daughter-in-law ; a sister-in- 

Bean-choimheadaciid, s.f. A waiting-maid ; a bride- 
maid. — Shaw. 

Bean-chomharbadii, s.f. A dowager. 

Bean dalta, s.f. A foster-daughter. 

Bean-eigneachadh, aidh, s. m. A rape. 

Beangan, ain, s. m. A branch, a bough. N. pi. beangain, 
branches. See also Meangan. 

Bean-giij-UIne, i. /. (bean, woman, and glùn, offspring.) 
A midwife. Thuirt a bhean-ghlùine ria, the midwife said 
to her, — Stew, Gen. 

Bean-leigu, s.f. A female physician. N. pi. mnathan- 

Bean-nigheachain, s.f. A washerwoman, a laundry- 
maid. N. pi. mnathan-nigheachain. 

Bean-osda, *.y. A hostess. JV. p/. mnathan-osda. 

Bean-rigiidir, s.f. A baronet's lady. Mnathan righi- 

Bean-siiiìibhlaidii, s.f. A woman in childbed. N. pi. 

Bean-stuiopachais, s.f. An adulteress, a faithless wife. 
— Stew. Hos. 

Bean-tighe, i.y A housewife; a housekeeper; landlady, 

Bean-uasal, gen. mna uasail, s.f. A lady, a gentlewoman. 
JV. pi. mnathan-uasal. 

Beann, Beinn, s.f. A degree; a step; a horn ; a skirt ; 
a drinking-cup. ; a beam ; a corner. A bheann iùbhraidh, 
its beam of yew.— Fingalian Poem. Fiadhachd bheann, the 
hunting of mountain-deer. — Old Song. 

Beann, Beinne, s. f A hill, a mountain, a summit. 
Aghaidh na beinne, the brow of the mountain.— Oss. Fing. 
Ir. beann. ÌF. bann and pen. Pcrs. avien. Gr. ^ovmi. 
Germ, hann, high. Hence also, Eng. banner. Germ, pinn, 
a summit. Lat. pinnae, pinnacula, summits or pinnacles. 
Hence Apenninus ; hence also Deus Penninus, (Dia nam 
beann, the god of the hills), worshipped, as mentioned by 
Livy, book xxxi., on the top of the Alps. Cluverius 
thinks that this was the Celtic deity whom the old Germans 
called Pinn. 

Beannach, a. (from beann.) Horned; cornerways ; skirted; 
chequered ; mosaic. Com. and sup. beannaiche, more or 
most horned. 

Beannachadh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of 
blessing; a blessing. Thug e leis mo bheannachadh, he 
took with him mi/ blessing. — .Stew. Gen. Srnth-bheannachadh 
nan ceatharn, the stnooth address of the robber. — G. P. 

Beannachadh, a.; pr. part, of beannaich. Blessing. 

Beannachd, s. f. (Ir. beannacht. Corn, banneth.) A 
blessing ; salutation, compliment ; a farewell expression ; 
as, beannachd leat, farewell ; i. e. a blessing go with you. 
Beiribh beannachd, be ye blessed. — Fingalian Poem. Bean- 
nachd le cleachda na h-òige, farewell to the pursuits of 
youth. — Ardar. Beannachd do t-anam is buaidh, blessing 
to thy soul and victory. — Ul/. Cuir mo bheannachd, send 
my compliments ; thoir mo bheannachd, give my compliments. 
N. pi. beannachdan. 

Beannachd a bhàird, s. The poet's congratulation. 

Among the ancient Gael, if at any jovial meetin*;, any man 
retired, for however short a time, he was oblit^ed, before he was per- 
mitted to resume his seat, to m;tke an apology for his absence in 
rhyme. If he had no talent for poetry, or if, from humour, he did 
not choose to comply, which was seldom the case, he was obliged 
to pay such a proportion of the reckoning as the company thought 
proper to propose; and this, according to IMartin, was beunnachd- 

Beannachdach, n. Prone to bless ; prone to salute. 

Beannaich, r. a. (Ir. beannaigh.) Bless, salute, hail; 
invoke a blessing. Pret. a. bheannaich, blessed ; fut. off. a. 
beannaichidh, shall or will bless. Na beannaich dha, do not 
salute him, — Stew. 2 K, Dhia beannaich sinn ! God bless 
us ! Fut. sub. bheannaicheas ; fut. pass, beannaichear, 
shall be blessed. 

Beannaichidh, y«<. off. a. of beannaich. Shall or will 

Beannaichte, /).pa/Y. Blessed; saluted. Asp. form, hUe?Ln- 
naiclite. Barr beannaichte, a blessed crop. Arm, bara 
benniguet, blessed bread. Runic, benediged. Corn, benigaz. 
/;•. beannuighte. Arm. beneguet. 

Beannag, aig, s.f. A coif ; a linen cap. Ir. id. N. pi. 

Beannagach, a. Having a coif, like a coif. 

Beannan, ain, s, m. (dim. of beann.) A little hill. K. pi. 


B E A 

B E A 

Beasnta, Beasntan, n. ■pi. of beanu. Hills, mountains. 
Beakntacii, II. Hilly, mountainous, rocky, pinnacled. 

Dùlhaich bhoanntach, a hillii country. 
Beakntacii D, s. f. Hiilincss, mountainousness. 
BfeAX-NUADii-PHOSDA, s.f. A young wife, a newly married 

BEANNUCirAnii, aidli, s. m. (/;-. beannujihadh.) The act 

of blessing; a blessing. Written also ifan««ù7(. 
Beannuicii, I. a. Bless; invoke a blessing; salute. 

Pret. a. bheannuich ; f'lit. a/', a. beannuichidh, s/iall ur v:it/ 

bless. Written also /)fa«na;c//; which see. 
t Bear, BiR, i. »(. A spit. See Biou. 
+ Bear, *. m. A bear. See Beithir. 
Bearachd, s.f. Judgment, 
t Beauan, ain, s. ni. A young man ; also pen; a little spit. 

N. pi. bearain. 
t Bearg, s. m. Anger; also a champion. 
+ Beargaciid, s.f. Diligence. — S/iaxv. 
Bearg NADU, aidh, s. m. The vernacular language of a 

Bearla, .v. f. The language of the Scotch Lowlanders. 
Bearn, Br.AiRS, and, s.f. (Ir. beam.) N. pi. be- 

araan ; clat. pi. bearnaibh. A breach ; a gap, an aperture ; 

a separation ; a fissure. Asp. form, bhearn. Ro bhearna 

nan neul, through the fissure of the clouds. — Oss. Lodin. 

Le bearnaibh, vith breaches. — Stexv. Amos. 
Bear.n, v. a. Notch; hack; make a breach or gap. 

Prct. a. bhearn, notchid ; fit. iiff. a. bearnaidh, shall or 

will notch. 
Bearnacii, a. (from bearn.) Chopped ; having breaches 

or gaps ; notched, hacked ; fractured ; having fissures, 

apertures, or clefts ; causing gaps, notches, fractures, or 

clefts. An sgiath mheallach bhcarnach, the bossi) fractured 

shield. — Oss. Verm. 
Bearxan, n. pi. of beairn ; which see. 
Bearnan, ain, s. m. (dim. of bearn.) A little breach; a 

little notch. N. pi. bearnain. 
Beaunan BRÌDE, s.m. The flower called dandelion. Am 

bearnan bride is a pheighinn rioghail, the dnndclion and (he 

peimi/roi/al. — Macint. N. pi. bearnain bride. 
Bearn-miiiol, s. m. A hare-lip. — Shaw. 
+ Bearr, a. Short, brief. 
Bearr, r. a. .Shave; shear, clip; crop, curtail, lop, prune. 

Prff. c. bhearr, shaved; f'ut.ii(f.a. hea.TTa.\dh, shall ur Kill 

sliaxc. Bhearr se c fein, lie shaved himself. — Stew. Gen. 
Bearua, ai, s. m. A spear, a dart; any sharp-pointed 

instrument; also short hair; a cut, a slice, shred, or frag- 
ment; a segment. — Shaw. 
Bearradair, s. m. ( /ram bearr.) A barber, a hairdresser; 

a critic; one who carps, clips, or Crops. Ealtain bcarr- 

adair, the razor (fa Imrber. — Steu\ Ezek. A'. /;/. bearrad- 

BeaUha DAKiKACiiD, S.f. (/>o;» bearr. The occupation of 

a barber ; a clipping, a cropping; a carping, criticising. 
Bearradaihran, s. ; n. pi. of liearradair. 
Bearrauii, aidh, .«. m. (from bearr.) A cutting, as of hair, 

or any other crop ; a shearing, clipping, shaving; a lopping, 

a pruning ; a spear ; short hair ; a cut, a slice, a shred ; 

a segment. Dean do bhearradh, shave thyself, make thyself' 

bald. —Slew. Mic. 
Beahhadii, aidh, s. m. The top of a mounUiin ; a mouTitain 

cliff or pinnacle. N. pi. bearraidhean. 
Bearrag, aig, .s./. (/>o»n bearn.) Ir. bcarog. A razor. — 

Maid. N. pi. bearragan, razors, 
Bearu mche, s. m. (from bearr.) Ir. bearrthach. A barber, 

a hairdresser. A'^. ;;/. bearraichean. 

Bearraideach, a. (from bearr.) Light, nimble, active. 
Gu bearraideach, lightly. 

Bearra-sgian, sgein, s. m. A razor; a pruning-hook. — 
Macd. N. pi. bearra-sgeinichean, razors. 

Bearrta, Bearrte, p. part, of bearr. Shaven, cropped, 
clipped, pruned, shorn. — .SYc;;-. ./^cr. An treud bhearrta, 
the shorn Jloch. — Stew. Song. Sol. 

Bearrtacii, a. Shaving, cropping, clipping, pruning; 
carping ; fond of cropping, clipping, or pruning. 

+ Beart, Beairt, «./. A judgment; a covenant, or com- 
pact; a game at tables. — 6'^aa'. N. pi. beairtean. 

Beart, Beairt, i.y. (/r. beart.) An engine, a machine ; 
a loom, a frame; a deed, work, or exploit; a harness, a 
yoke ; a burden ; shrouds ; tackling, as of a ship ; a sheath 
or scabbard; a bundle or truss; clothes. N. pi. bearta, 
beairt, beartan. A bhearta iongantach, his wondcrfil 
uurks. — .Stew. Ps. Bearta treubhantais, feats of valour. — 
Sm. Cuig barcai fo 'm beairt. Jive ships in full equipment. 
— Oss. Conn. A lann fo bheart, his swurd in the scabbard. 
— Oss. Tern. Ar siùil 's ar beartan, our sails and our 
shrouds. — Mac far. Beart-thuairnein, a turner's loom; 
beart-f higheadair, a weaver's loom ; beart-treabhaidh, a 
plough ; beart-uchd, a poitrel. 

Beartacii, a. Rich, wealthy; of, or belonging to, a machine ; 
like a sheath or scabbard, sheathed. Cha blii e beartach, 
he shall nut be rich. — Stew. Job. Com. and sup. bcartaiche, 
7nore or most rich. 

Beartaich, v. a, (from beart.) Yoke, as a chariot; pre- 
pare, make ready ; begin ; enrich ; brandish, flourish ; also 
meditate. — Shaxe. Pret. a. bheartaich, vo^'''/; fut.aff.a. 
beartaichidh, shall or will i/oke. Bheartaich c a charbad, 
/le yoked hi.s chariot. — Stew. Gen. Put. pass, beartaichear. 

Beartair, i. w. A brandisher. — Shaw. 

Beartas, ais, i'. w. Riches; honour. Beartas agus urram, 
riches and honour. — Stew. Pro. 

t Beartiia, a. Clean, fine, spruce, genteel. — ShaxL\ 

Beas, s. See Beus. 

Beasan, ain, s. m. (Fr. bassin. //■. baisin.) A basin. 
N. pi. beasanan. 

t Beasc, s.f. A prostitute. — Shaxe. 

t Beasgjjadii, aidh, s. m. A speech, a dialect; peace. 

Beatii, s.f. Birch-wood, a birch-tree. Written also beithe : 
which see. 

Beath, i-./". (/;•. beatha. Gr. ^iariì. Dor. Piara. /.<//. vita.) 
Life ; food ; livelihood ; welcome ; salutation. Is nmhuil 
aisling ar beiith, our life is like a dream. — Oss. Taura. 
Is i do bhealh 'n so, i/ou are welcome here. Bhur boath-sa, 
ghaisgich ! you are welcome, O heroes ! — Oss. Ping. Bheir 
duine bcath air eigin, ach cha loir e rath air eigin, a man 
may force a livilihood, but cannot force good luck. — G. P. 

Beatiiacii, aich, s. m. (from bcath.) //■. beathach. A 
beast, animal, creature ; strictly speaking, it has the same 
conipreliensive meaning with the Gr. ^uot, and the La(. 
animal ur animans, any living thing ; yet it is never applied, 
but by way of reproach or pity, to a human being. N. p/. 
beathaichcan. Heathach is also written bcothach, from heo. 
Beathach liadhuich, a xtild beast ; beathach oibre, a beast of 
burden ; am beathach mosach, the nasty beast ; a l)healhaich 
thrnaighe ! pour creature ! poor thing ! 

Beatiiachadii, aidh, v. m. .'V feeding; a nourishing ; also 
food, sustenance, nourishment; a living, a benefice; main- 
tenance. Arson beathacliadh,/ò;/òof/. — Slexe. Gen. Chum 
beathachaidh, Jor mainlenunce. — Stew. Pro. Ir. beatha- 

Beatiiaciiadii, ti. ; pr. part, of beathaich. Feeding, nou- 
rishing, maintaining. 


B E I 

B E I 

Beathadach, aich, j. ?n. A beaver. Ir. beathodach. 

A^. pi. beathadaiche. 
Beathag, aig, s. m. A bee ; a beech-tree. — S/iaw. Also 

the name Sophia. 
Beatiiaich, t. a. (Ir. beathaigh.) Feed, nourish, main- 
tain, support; welcome, salute. Prr/. a. bheathaich, /erf; 

fut. atf. a. beathaichidh, s/iall ur liilt feed. Bheathaich e 

chuid eile, he fed the rest. — Ste-iV. Gen. Bheathaich e 

athair, he maintained his father. — Id. Tut. pass, beathaichear. 

Beathaich thusa mise an diugh, is beathaichidh mise thusa 

am maireach, feed me to-day, and I uill feed t/ou to-morron'. 

—G. F. 
Beath.^ichidh,/)/^. aff. a. of beathaich; which see. 
Beathaiciite, p. part, of beathaich. Fed, nourished, 

maintained, supported; welcomed. 
Beathail, a. (i. e. beath-amhuil.) Vital; pertaining to 

life. Aile bheathail, vital air, or o.riigen. 
Beatii-àile, s.f. Vital air, oxygen. 
Beatiialacii, a. (from beath.) Lively, sprightly. Gu 

beathalach, liveli/. 
Beathalachd, s.f. Liveliness, sprightliness. 
Beath AN.\x, s. sing, and pi. Food, victuals. — Macd. 
Beath-eachdraidii, s.f. A biography, 
t Beatiira, ai, s. m. (th silent.) Water. 

Old Celtic, ber. Turk, bar and behr, sea. Pers. baran, 

rain. Then, bir, 'aells. Arab, bir, nells. Ir. bir, a xiell. 

In Madagascar, bihar means sea. 
Beic, s. f. A courtesy. Dean beic, courtesi/. 
Beic, s.f. A cry, shout, roar; an outcry, an uproar. More 

commonly-written bene ; which see. 
Beic, s.f A point, a nib, the bill of a bird. Hence Tr. bee. 

It. becco. Eng. beak and peak. 
Beiceasach, o. ( /}'ow beic.) Bobbing; courtesying; skip- 
ping ; hopping. — Macint. 
Beiceil, a. (from beic.) Courtesying, bobbing. 
Beiceil, s. f. A courtesying, bobbing, frequent bobbing. 

.\ beiceil gu foirmeil, courtesying formally . — Macfar. Ciod 

a bheiceil th' ort ? ahy do i/oii bub so ? 
Beiceil, (a), pr.part. of beic. Courtesying, bobbing. 
Beic-lei'mxacu, a. Prancing, skipping, bobbing, hopping, 

Beigxeid, «./. A bayonet. .AT. /;/. beigneidean. 
BiiL, gen. iing. of beul. 
Be'il, (/. e. beath-uile, the life of all.) Bel, the name under 

which the British Druids adored the Divinity. Bel, in 

V/eleh, means war or havoc. Owen observes, that Mars 

was called Del by the Britons ; and he grounds his opinion 

on the following inscription upon a British Roman altar, 

which was found in the north of England, " Bel y dw 

Cadyr ;" Bel, the god of icar. 
t Beil, gen. beile, s.f. A meal of meat, a diet. — Ir. id. 
Beilbiieag, aig, i.y; A corn-poppy ; wild poppv. N. pi. 

Beilriieagacii, a. Abounding in wild poppies; like a 

wild poppy. 
Beileax, ein, s. m. (from beul.) A mouth, a prattling 

mouth; prattling; a prattling person. Jsp. form, bheilean. 

Ciod a bheilean th' ort? nhy do you prattle so.' 
Beileanach, a. (/rem beul.) Garrulous; prating. Beul 

beileanach, a prating month ; gu beileanach, garrulously. 

Com. and sup. beileanaiche. 
Beileaxachd, .?./. (from beul.) Garrulousness ; prating. 

Is ann ort tha bheileanachd, //ou- you do prate. 

tBEiLLE, i. /. (Ir. id.) A kettle, a caldron. A', p/. beil- 

Beilleach, a. Blubber-lipped. 

Beilleachd, s.f. The deformity of blubber-lips. 

Beilleachas, ais, .?. m. The deformity of a blubber-lip, 

t Beilt, Beilte, s.f. A belt, girth, cingle.— 7r. id. 

Beim, gen. sing, of beum ; which see. 

+ Beim, «.y. A tribe, a generation ; also a help ; a piece of 
timber. Ir. beim. Eng. beam. 

Beix, gen. sing, of bian. Of a skin or hide. Clogaid bèin 
an ruadh-bhuic, a helmet of the skin of the roe. — Oss. 

Being, s.f A bench, a form, a table. 

Swed. bank, a shelf. Teut. bancke and panch, a bench. 
Dan. bene. Span, banca. It. banco. Basque, banco. 
Du. bank. Old Sax. bene. W. and Corn. benk. Ir. beinc. 
N. pi. beincean. 

t Beinc, s.f. (Ir. id.) A separation, partition, disjunction. 

t Beine, s. in. A champion ; also evening. — //■. iJ. 

Beixean, ein, s.f. A little woman. //■. beinin. Corn. 

Beixn, gen. beinne, s.f A mountain; hill; pinnacle; a 
bin. it'', pen. Box. Lex. bann. Gr. /3ol»o! ; hence also 
IIijvixo;. The /)tn of the Cimbrians and .Sabines also meant 
a summit ; hence Apenmnes, mountains in Italy. See also 

Beixne, gen. sing, of beann and beinn. 

Beinnean, ein, s. m. (dim. of beinn.) A little hill, a pinnacle. 

Beir, r. Take hold ; bear, carry; bring forth ; give; over- 
take. Pret. a. bheir, bare ; fut. ajf. a. beiridh, shall bear. 
Bheir i mac, she bore a son. Beiridh tu mac, thou shalt 
bear a son. — Stew. Gen. Beir uam fuaim d' òran, take 
from me the noise of thy song. — Stew. Am. Beiribh bean- 
nachd, beiribh buaidh, be ye blest, be i/e lictorious. — 
Tingalian Poem. Beir, with the preposition air, means 
overtake, lake hold : beir air, take hold of him, oiertake him ; 
Beiridh mi orra, I xii/l oxcrtake them. Nur chi thu bean 
oileanach beir oirre, mar beir thusa oirre beiridh fear eile 
oirre, when you fnd an accomplished woman, take her; if you 
uill not, another will. — G. P. 

Gr. (p'.fi. Lat. fer. Dan. baere. Maeso-Gothic, bairan. 
Swedo- Gothic, baera. Swed. bara. Isl. bera. Tranco- 
nian, bera. Cicrm. baeren, bear a child. An<rlo-Sax. 
bearan. Ir. beir. Eng. bear. Ber, in the end of com- 
pounded German words, means bearing ; as, beigam-ber, a 
prophet, or bringer of good news. 

t Beirbheis, s.f. Anniversary, feast, vigil. — /;■. id. 

Beir.m.ò. w. Barm, yeast. G ?;■/«. berm. Anglo-Sax. heoira. 
Dan. baermes. Aran gim bheirm, unfermented bread, — 
Stew. Gen. ref, 

Beirn. See Bearn. 

Beirxeach, a. See Bearxacii. 

t Beirt, s. a burden; a help; also two persons. — Ir. id. 

Beirte, p. part, of beir. Born. /;■. beirthe ; hence Eng. 

t Beirteax, ein, s. m. A little burden. 

Beist, BÈISTE, s.f. A beast, a monster, a beast of prey; a 
wretch. Tuiteam an stri na beiste, falling in contest with 
the monster. — Oss. Derm. Chuir droch bheist as da, an 
evil beast has devoured Aim. — Stew. Gen. Beistean doirbh, 
oppressive wretches. — Old Song. Lat. bestia. Dan. baest. 
Swed. best. Du. beest. Port, besta. Fr. t bèste, now 
written bete. N. pi. beistean. 

Beistean, ein, j. m. (dim. of beist.) A little beast. //-. beistin. 
Beistean, n. pi. of beist. 

Beitean, ein, s. m. The scorched or frost-bitten grass of 
the hills. 

B E O 

Beith, s. f. The second letter (B) of the Gaelic alphabet. 

Beith, Beitiie, s. f. (//'. bedu. /r. beithe.) Birch. Sa 

bheith chubhraidli, in the fragrant birch. — Oss. Derm. 
Beitiiik, s. m. (th silent.) A bear; any wild beast. 

llch. behir, a beast of burden, and pere, a icild ass. 
Chald. bcira, an elephant. Arab, phor, a heifer. Gr. /Bti^o?, 
rough, and (pr,f, a ui/d beast. Lat. fera. Sabine and Lat. 
barrus. Hence also verres, a ioar /)/» ; a-per, a fcoar; and 
verves. Germ. baer. Ir. bear. Eng. bear and boar. 
Anglo-Sax. bera. lielg. beer. Dan. biorn. Hung, barom, 
a beast of burden. Buhem. beran, a lamb. Bisc. abere, u 
beast of burden. 
Beitiiir, a. Wild, destructive, savage. Gr. ftn^cf. 
Beitir, a. Neat, clean, tidy. 
Bel. See Beil. 

t Bev, .!. f. An old Celtic term signifying a wain or chariot. 
Lat. benna. 

I liave somewhere seen the following rem:irk on benna : — 
" Benna linj;u& Gallicfi genus veliiculi appeliutur, unde vocanttir 
combennuiies in eàdeni bcnnil sedentes." Benna, in the lanjjuiige 
of Gaul, is a kind of vehicle; hence they who ride in the same 
chariot are called coinbennories. 

From combennones evidently comes, through the medium of the 
French compagnon, the English companion. 
Beo, a. {W. byw. Arm. and Corn. bew. Ir. beo.) Alive, 
living ; sprightly, lively ; also, substantixely, a living person. 
Am beo e ? is he alive ? Am beo i ? is she alive ' Tir nam 
beo, ///(■ land of the living. Am beo dhuit a Dheirg? art 
thou alive, O Dargo .' — Ull. B' aluinn thu ri d' bheo, thou 
'iVert handsome uhen alive. — Oss. Carricth. Rid' bheo, as 
long as i/ou live. — Macint. Thoir beo, bring alive. Cho 
beo ri breac, as sureli/ as a trout. Gu ma fad beo an righ ! 
long live the king! — Stexv. Sam. Mar is beo mi, as I live ; 
cho chinnte 's a tha thu beo, as sure as yu are alive. 
Beo-airgiod, s. Quicksilver; literalli/, live silver. So the 

French vif-argent, and the Italian argento-vivn. 
Beochak, ain, s. m. A small tire. Beochan teine, a little 

Beociianta, a. {from beo.) Vigorous; lively, sprightly. 
Beociiantaciid, s. f. (from beo.) Vigorousness ; liveli- 
ness, sprightliness. 
Beo-eaciidaireaciid, s. f. The occupation of a bio- 
Beo-eaciidraidh, s.f. A biography. 

Beo-eachdraidhiciie, Beo-eaciidraiche, s. m. A bio- 
grapher. beo-eachdraidhchean or bco-cachdraichean. 
Beo-fiiAl, fhàil, s. m. An enclosure. 

Beo-oiiaineamii, eimh, s. Quicksand. Gun tuiteadh iad 
sa bhcò-ghaincamh, that they would fall into the quicksand. 
—Steu: Acts. 
Beo-(;iilac, 1. ff. Takealive; tiike prisoner alive. I'rct. a. 

bheo-ghlac, took alive. 
Beo-(ìiiuiosacii, aicli, s.f. Hot embers. 
BeÒii-, gen. sing, of beul. Of a mouth. I, an beòil bhiadh 

is Ian bail nàire, a mouthful of meat, and a lownful of shame. 

— G. 1'. .See Beul. 
t Beoill, s.f. Fatness. 
Bto-ioiiAiRT, s.f. A living sacrifice. Bhur cuirp nam boo 

iobairt, i/our bodies as a living sacrifice. — Stew. Rom. 

N. pi. bco-iobairtean. 
Beòiii, gen. sing, bcòir and beorach, s.f. Beer. (Run. bior.) 

Gloine bc;)rach, a glass of beer. — Old Song. Beòir laidir, 

strong berr; beòir chaol, small beer. 
t Beol, Beoil, 4. TO. A robber. 
Beolach, a. Talkative. 

Beolaiche, s.m. A chronicler; a talkative person. 

B E U 

Beo-laoch, laoich, j. m. A lively fellow, a lively lad. 

A', pi. beo-laoich. 
Beo-luath, luaith, s.f. Hot ashes or embers. N. pi. beo- 

Beo-r.\dharc, i. m. Quick sight; clear sight; a lively 

view. — Ir. id. 
BEO-RADHARCACH,a. Quick-sightcd, clcar-sightcd. — Ir. id. 
t Beosach, a. Bright, glittering; brisk; trim, spruce; 

t Beosaich, v. a. Beautify, adorn, make spruce or tidy. 

Pret. a. bheòsaich. 
Beo-sg.\r, v. a. Divorce. Pret. a. bheo-sgar, divorced; 

fut. aff. a. beo-sgaraidh, shall or will divorce. 
Beo-sgaradii, aidh, s. m. A divorce, a separation during 

Beo-siilainnte, s.f. A life-rent. Tuarasdal re d' bheò- 
shlainnte, a salary during thy life, or as a life-rent. — 
Old Song. Ridir beo-shlainnte, a knight bachelor. 
Beo-shlainnteach, a. Of, or pertaining to, a life-reut. 
Beotiiach, aich, s. m. (from beo.) A beast; properly any 
living creature. Arm. bieuch. Portug. becho, a worm. 
N. pt. beothaichean. Beothach is also written beathach ; 
which see. 
Beotiiachadii, aidh, *. tn. A re-animating, quickening; 

a kindling. 
Beotiiachadii, (/. ; pr. part, of beothaich. Reanimating, 

cjuickening, kindling, reviving. 
Beotiiaciiail, (i. e. beothach-amhuil.) Having a reani- 
mating or quickening influence. 
Beotiiaciiaik, 4-. m. A reviver. IF. bywiocawr. 
Beotiiaich, gen. sing, beothach. 

Beothaich, t'. a. Kindle, light ; reanimate, revive, quicken. 
Pret. a. beothaich, revived ; fut. of. a. beothaichidh, shall 
revive. Reir t-fhocail beothaich mi, according to thy word, 
quicken me. — Sni. Beothaich a choimieal, light the candle. 
Fut. pass, beothaichear. Is trie bheothaich srad bheag 
teine mòr, often has a spark kindled a conflagration. — G. /'. 
BEOTHAiniiDii, /'»/. ajf. a. of beothaich. 
Beotiiaichte, /). ;»;;•/. of beothaich. Quickened, animated, 

kindled, lit. 
Beothail, a. (i. c. beo-amhuil, from beo.) if', bywawl. 
Lively, brisk, smart, vigorous, diligent, active ; fervent, 
zealous. Tha iad beothail, they are lively. — Stew. Exod. 
Beothail na 'r spioraid,_/<'rr cn^ in your spirit. — Stew. Rom. 

Beothalaciid, .5. f. (from beo.) Liveliness, smaitness, 

Beo-thoiir Acii, a. Quick with child ; also ready to conceive. 

Cum. and sup. beo-thorraiche. 
t Betarlagii, i. TO. An ancient law. /;•. beterlach. 
Beth, s. f. The second letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 

Written also Beitii. 
Beuhanachadh, aidh, s. tn. A mangling, a bruising, a 

maltreating. Fhuair e a bheubanachadli, he got himself 

bruised or maltreated. 
Beuuakachadh, (a), pr. part, of beubanaich. 
BEiinAKACiiD, s. f. Mangling, bruising, maltreatment, 

Beijbanaicii, r. a. Mangle, bruise, maltreat, tear. Pret. a. 

bheubanaich, mangled ; fut. a//", a. beubanaichidh, shall or 

will tear or mangle. 
BEtiBANAiCHTK, /). part, of beubanaich. Torn, mangled, 

bruised, maltreated. 
Beuc, s. tn. (Ileb. bechi and becheh.) A roar, a bellow, an 

outcry, a noise, clamour. 
Beuc, v. n. (Ileb. bachah and bechah, wept.) Roar, bellow. 


B E U 

make a noise as the sea. Pret. a. bheuc, roared; fut. 
off. a. beucaidh, shall or nill ruar. 
Beucach, a. Roaring-, noisy, clamorous; apt to roar or 
bellow. Beucach dubhlaidh, roaring and dark. — Oss.Fing. 
Muir bheucach fo ghaoith a stri, the roaring main contend- 
ing -uith the U'inds. — Oss. Lodin. 
Beucaich, s. f. A roaring, a loud noise, a roar. Beucaich 
do thonn, the roaring of fhi/ -d-aies. — Oss. Duthona. Ciod 
bheucaich th' ort? ■what are i/ou roaring for f 
'BzuCAiDH, fut. aff. a. of beuc. Shall or will roar. 
Beucair, s. m. {from beuc.) A roarer. N. pi. beucairean. 
Beuc-shruth, s. m. A roaring stream, a cataract. Turthor 

uam beuc-shruth, Turthor (f roaring streams. — Oss. Lod. 
Beud, s. ?n. Loss, pity, harm, injury ; a defect or blemish ; 
distress ; fate ; a blow, an action, an evil deed ; vice ; 
gloom. Cha d' fhuihng e beud, he si/Jfereil no harm. — 
Oss. Derm. Thill e fo bheud, he returned uith loss. — Oss. 
Lodin. Duan gun bheud, a poem Xiithout defect. — Id. 
Fina gun bheud, unblemished Fina. — /(/. Faiceam mo 
bheud, let me see mi/ fate. — Oss. Fing. 'Eudan fo bheud, 
his visage under a gloom. — Oss. Tern. From beud comes 
the English beat. 
Beudach, a. {from beud.) Hurtful, iniquitous, blemished, 
guilty ; fatal, gloomy. Is beudach borb am buille, fatal 
and fierce is the bloie. — Death of Carril. Am fear a bhios 
beudach cha sguir e dh' eigneach chàich, he uho is guilti/ 
tries to inxoire others. — G. P. Com. and sup. beudaiche, 
more or most hurtful. 
Beudag, aig, s.f. A trifling little woman; a gossip; a 

lying female. A', pi. beudagan. 
BECDAGACii,a. Like a gossip. 
Beudagax, n. pi. of beudag. 
Beud-fhocal, aif, s. m. A taunting word or expression. 

N. pi. beud-fhocail, taunting uords. 
Beud-fhoclach, a. Foul-mouthed, opprobrious, taunting. 
Beul, Beil, s. m. The Celtic god, Belus or Bel. See 

Beul, gen. beil and beòil, s. m. {Ir. beul. Or. l3r,x-oi, a 
threshold.) A mouth, opening, aperture. Beul nach 
cànadh ach stuaim, a mouth that ixould not utter but modest 
■words. — Macint. Cluinnear nuallan do bheoil, the murmur 
of thi/ mouth shall be heard. — Ull. An taobh beòil, the 
forepart. — Stew. 1 K. Beul ri, about, or near about. 
Beul ri tri miosa, about three mouths. — Stew. Gen. 
Beulach, (7. ( />um beul.) Fair-spoken; plausible; prating; 

flattering; large-mouthed; mouthed. 
Beulais, s.f Prating, babbling. 
Beul-aithris, s.f Tradition, oral tradition. Beul-ailhris 

dhaoiue, the tradition of men. — Stew. Col. 
Beulan, ain, s. m. {dim. of beul.) A little mouth ; an orifice. 
Beulaxach, a. {from beul.) Fair-spoken, smooth-worded, 

inclined to flatter. — Macint. Also the bit of a bridle. 
Beulaobh, s. (/. e. beul-thaobh.) A foreside; a front. Air 
a beulaobh, before her, or in front of her. Air a bheulaobh 
before him, before his face. — Stew. Gen. 
Beul-bhacii, aich, s. m. A bridle bit. — Ir. id. 
Beul-bhociid, s. m. A pleading of poverty. — Sha'w. 
Bei'L-chaixsteach, c. Garrulous, prating. 
Beulciiar, {from beul.) Fair-spoken, flattering, smooth 

Beul-chrabiiach, a. Lip-religious, hypocritical, canting. 
Beul-chrabhadh, aidh, s. m. Lip-religion, cant, hy 

Beul-diiruid, X. a. Silence. Pret. a. beul-dhruid, silenced 

fut. aff. a. beul-dhruididh, shall silence. 
Beulgradh, aidh, s. m. Flattery, dissimulation. 

B E U 

Beul-maothain, s. m. The sloat of the throat. 
Beul-mòr, s. m. A bung-hole ; a wide mouth. 
Beul-oideas, eis, s. m. Tradition, oral tradition. — Ska^w. 
Beul-oilean, ein, s. m. Tradition, oral tradition. — Macd. 
Beul-phurgaid, j.y. A gargle. A''. ;)/. beul-phurgaidean. 
Beul-piiurgaideach, a. Gargling; of, or belonging to, a 

Beul-phurgaideaciid, s.f. Gargarization. 
Beul-radh, s. m. A phrase, a proverb, a bye-word. 
Beum, I. a. Smite, strike, cleave; strike, as a bell, toll; 
cut, or make a cutting remark; utter a sarcasm or criticism. 
Pret. a. bheum, smote; fut. aff. a. shall or will smite. 
An dubh-bhàs 'g am beumadh nan ruaig, gloomi/ death 
smiting them in their ^flight. — Oss. Tern. Teine athair 
a beumadh nan nial, lightning cleaving the clouds. — Id. 
On bheum na cluig, since the bells haie tolled. — Old Song. 
Beum, gen. beim and beuma, i. m. A blow, a stroke ; a cut ; 
a taunt or sarcasm ; a gap ; a stream, a torrent ; a knell ; 
a misfortune. Gach cath 's na bhuail mi beum, cieri/ 
battle where I struck a blo'w. — Fingalian Poem. IMo chuis 
lean mar bheum, mii veins like a torient. Bhrùchd iad 
a dh' aon bheum, thei/ poured forward in one bodi/. — 
Mac Lach. Beum-cheap, a whipping-post ; beum-greine, 
a coup-de-soleil ; beum-sgeithe, u;i a/arm ; beum sleibhe, a 
torrent ; beura-soluis, a sun-beam; beum sùla, the blasting 
influence of an evil eye. 
Beu.macii, a. {from beum.) Full of gaps; destructive; 
taunting, bitter, sarcastic. Mar theiiie beumach, like a 
destructive fire. — Oss. Trathal. Aineolach, beumach, ignO' 
rant and bitter. — Macint. 
Beum-cheap, -chip, s. A whipping-stock. 
Beum-cluige, s. m. A knell. 

Beumnach, a. {from beum.) Destructive; causing breaches, 
taunting; reproachful, depraved. Buillean colhromach 
beumnach, heavu, destructive blows.'- Oss. Cathula. Biiean 
beumnach, reproachful or depraved lips. — Stew. Pro. 
Beum-sgeithe, s.m. A striking the shield; the usual mode 
of giving a challenge, or of sounding an alarm, among the 
old Caledonians. Le beum-sgeithe ghlaodh iad comhrag, 
with a blow on the shield they called to battle. — Oss. Dargo. 
Bhuail Treunmor beum-sgeithe, Trcunmor sounded an 
alarm. — Ull. 
Beu.m-sleibhe, .5. m. A mountain torrent, especially that 
which is caused by the bursting of a thunder-cloud. War 
dha bheum-sleibhe o 'n f liireach, like two torrents from the 
height.— Oss Dargo. 
Beum-sùl, s. m. A blasting of the eye; the supposed in- 
fluence of a malignant eye ; an optical delusion ; a coup- 
Beum-soluis, .s. ?H. A sun-beam ; a beam of light. Feucli 
am beum-soluis caol, behold yon small beam of light. — 
Oss. Manos. 
Beur, s. m. A point ; a pinnacle. Beur ard, a lofty pinnacle. 
— Oss. Lodin. Ro bhearna beur nan neul, through the 
fissures of the castled clouds. — Id. 
Beurla, s. f The English tongue ; the language of the 

Scotch Lowlanders. 
Beurlach, a. Relating to the English tongue, or to that 

of the Scotch Lowlanders. 
Becrra, beurtha, a. {ll'. bertli.) Genteel, clean, well- 
spoken ; sharp. Fir bheurra, genteel ?nen. — Macdon. 
Beus, beusa, s.f A bass-viol. 

Beus, j. Moral quality, virtue ; behaviour, conduct; deeds; 
custom ; a quality, whetlier good or bad. Bean nan deadh 
bheus, a virtuous woman. — Ste^w. Pro. ref. Aithnichear 
leanabh le bheus, a child is known by his doings. — Stew. Pro. 
Beus na dh' fhalbh, the deeds (conduct) of the departed. — 
Orr. Fo bheus, quiet, on one's good behaviour ; tonnan fo 

B H E 

B H R 

bheus, tiaref at peace. — Oss. N. pi. beusan. Beus na 
tuath air ain bithear, is e 'nilhear, the uay of the folk i/ou 
live nit it is Ti/ial i/ou muòt Jolloto. — G. P. 
Becsacii, fl. (/'lum beus.) Well-behaved, modest, well-bred, 

gentle. Mar aiteal beusach, like a gentk breeze. — Oss. Tern, 

Com. and sup. bcusaiche. 
Beut.iil, i. /". Cattle; a cow. J";-, bataille. 
B'fhearr, {for bu fhearr.) Were better, was better, wert 

better. See Feakr. 
Bh*, {for bha), r. Was, wert, were. 
Bha, { pret.ofaux.rerl) be.) Was, wert, were. Bha samhladh 

na bha a boillsgeadh, the spectres of tliosc who [wert] once 

existed irerc shining. — Oss. Coiiia/a. Bha phealacli air 

eudan nan earn, t/ic moon was on the face of the rocks. — 

Oss. Ijoilin. 
Oil AC, pret. a. of bac. Hindered, interrupted, forbade. See 

Bhag.»ir, pret. a. of bagair. Threatened. 
BiiAiGn, asp. form of baigh ; which see. 
BiiAin. See Ban. 

BiiAiRD, roc. sing, and gen. sing, asp, of bard. See Bard. 
BhjIis, asp. form of bàis, gen. sing, of bàs ; which see. 
BllALBii, asp. form of baibh. See Balbii. 
Bhallacii, asp. form of ballach ; which see. 
BiiALLAiiiii, (lot. pi. asp. form of balla. 
Bhallaibii, (lat. pi. asp. form of ball ; which sec. 
BiiJIn, a., asp. form of ban. W'hite, fair, pale. Arm. venn. 

See BAn. 
Bhìn, a bhàn, adv. (Swcd. afan, from aboxe.) Down, 

downwards. Gun suidheadh e bhàn gu fonn, that he 

would sit down to sing. — Oss. Tem. Cuir a bhan e, put 

him or it down. 
Bhaobii, roc. of baobh. O wicked woman! Also the asp. 

form of baobh. Mad, foolish, wicked. 
Bhaotii, asp. form of baoth; which see. 
BiiARD, asp. form of bard ; which see. 
BmXrr, «., asp. form of bàrr. See BArr. 
BhArr, [o bliàrr], prep. From, from off, down from. Bhàrr 

aghaidh na talmhainn, /)om the surface of the earth.— G. B. 

Theirihg i bhàrr a chainhuil, she alighted f-om the camel.— 

Strw. Gen. Bharr do clios, from o/f t/ii/ feel.— Stew. Ex. 

A bliarr air sin, oxer and above that, besides that ; bharr an 

rathaid, of the wai/ ; bliàrr an fheòir, of the grass, of the 

pasture. — .Slew. 1 K. Bharr a leapach, from his bed, off 

his lied. — Stew. 2 Sam. Bharr na ciche, weaned. 
BiiARRACiiD, (a), /jrr/). Besides; over and above. A bhar- 

rachd air a cheud gliorta, besides the/irst famine. — Stew.Gen. 
BiiAk, asp. form of has ; which see, 

Bii AT, asp. form of bat. A staff. Mo bhat, wiv stick. See Bat. 
Bu At, «.s/?. /orm of bat. A boat, k \)\\k\., his boat . See Bat. 
BiiEACii, *., asp. form of beacli. 
BiiEACiii), asp. form of beachd, s. f Opinion. A reir mo 

bheachd, in mi) opinion. 
BiiEACiiDAicii, /j/r/. (2. of beachdaicli. Viewed, reviewed. 
Bii E AG, (7.*/). /orm of bcag. Little. Cha d' fiuiair iad a bhcag, 

they gut not the lea»t. 
BliEAiRT, asp. form of beairt. 

BiiEAN, /yrc/. a. of bean. Touched, handled. See Bean. 
BiiEAN, asp. form of bean. Wife, woman. A bhean, his 

wife. Also voc. ting, 
Bmeannaich, pret. a. of beannaich. Blessed. 
BftEANNAicnTF., asp. form of beannaichtc ; which sec. 
BuEiL, prcs. neg. and inter, of bi. Am, art, are. 

Bheileam, {^for bheil mi.) Am I. Am bheileam fèin am 

aonar ? am I left alone? — Oss. Gaul. 
Bheart, asp. form of beart. 

Buriu, fut. af. a. of tabhair. Shall or will give. Co e a 
bheir comhrag? who is he that will give battle! — Oss. Lod. 
Bheir niise ort gum fainich thu e, / will make i/ou feel it, 
or smart for it ; bheir me ort a dheanamh, I will make you 
do it. 

BiiEiR, pret. of beir. Caught; overtook ; bore, or bare, as 
a child. See Beir. 

BiiEiUEAR, Jut, pass, of tabhair. Shall be given. 

BiiEiRiNN, 1 sing. pret. sub. of tabhair, and also of beir. 
1 would give ; 1 would bear. 

BiiEiRTEADii, 1 sing. pret. sub. pass, of tabhair. Should or 
would be given. — Stiw, Pro. 

BiiEO, asp. form of beo. 

Bheòil, asp. form of beòil ; also toe. pi. of beul. A bheòil 
nan dan, ye mouths of the song, ye bards. — Oss. 

Biieotiiaicii, pret. a. of beothaich; which see. 

BiiEuc, pret. a. of beuc. Roared, bellowed, shouted, hal- 
lowed. See Beuc. 

Bheucacii, asp. form of beucach ; which see. 

Bheul, asp. form of beul; which see. 

BiiEUM, ;»re^. a. of beum. Smote. See Beum. 

Bheum, asp. form of beum. 

BiiiADii, o«;).yo/w of biadh. JNIeat. Arm. vyou. SeeBiADii. 

Biiiadii, ;;/f<. «. of biadh. Fed. See Biadh. 

BiiiNN, asp. form of binn, a. See Binn. 

BiiiTii, s., asp. form of bith; which see. 

Bjiitii, (a), in/in. of bi. To be. 

BniTiiEADii, imperf sub. of bi. Would be. 

BiiiTJiEAS, fut. sub. of bi. Shall or will be. 

Bhitiiinn, 1 sing. imp. sub. of bi. I would be. 

BiiLAis, ;)re<. a. of blais. Tasted. See Bi.ais. 

BiilAr, asp. form of blàr; which see. 

Biiò, asp. form of bo. A cow. 

Biio, prep, and adv. From ; of or belonging to; since; since 
the time at which. losa biio Nazarot, Jesus of (i. c.from) 
Nazareth. — Stew. Blat. rt-f. Biio chunnas thu se ladh nan 
nial, .Since / saw thee sailing in the clouds.— Ull. 

BiioBH ! interj. O dear ! strange! 

BiiociiD, asp. form of bochd. See BociiD. 

BiioG, (pciih-bhog). The fourteenth letter (P) of the Gaelic 

BiiOG, pret. a. of bog. Dipped. 

BiiOG, asp. form of bog, a. Soft. 

BiioGAicii, pti'. a. of bogaich. Softened. Sec Bogaicii. 

BiioGiiA, asp. form of bogha; which see. 

BnoiDiiEACii, <7. See BoiDiiEAni. 

BiioiDniciiE, asp. form of boidhiche. 

BiioiL, asp. form of boil. 

HiioiuioNN, usp. form of boirionn ; which see. 

BuòisG, y;r(Y. a. of boisg.. Shone, gleamed. See Boisg. 

Biioi.GACii, aich, s.f. The venereal. 

Hiioi.GACii, «., asp. form of bolgach. Bossy. 

But) 'n DÈ, s. The day before yesterday. An de no air bho 
'n do, yesterday or the day before. — Stew. Dent. ref. 

BiioNN, asp. form of bonn. 

Biios, prep. On this side ; here. An taobh bhos, this side. 

BiKiiiiAN, asp. form of bothan. 

Bii RAT, asp. form of brat ; which see. 

BiiiiATii, «,?;). /òrm of brath. Air brath,/o!/«f/; to be found. 
Clia bhi 'm bard air blirath, the bard shall be no more. — 
Bard's l^tsh. 

B I A 

B I D 

Bhrathair, roc. sing, of brathair. O brother! Also asp. 

form of brathair. A bhrathair, his brother. 
Bhreab, pre^. fl. of breab. Kicked. See Brf.ab. 
Bhreid, s. See Brèid. 
Bhrè. See Brì. 
Bhri.aciiaill Bhrochaili., s. J". The banner of Gaul, 

the son of Monii. His motto was, Toiseach teachd is 

deireadh falbh, Jirst to come, and last to go. 
Bhrigh, conj. Because. A bhrigh, because; do bhrigh, 

Bhris, pret. a. of bris. Broke, splintered ; failed, became 

bankrupt. See Bris. 
Bhriseas, flit. sub. of bris ; which see. 
Bhriste, asp. form of briste ; ;;. part, of bris ; which see. 
Bhròn, asp. form of bròn; which see. 
Bhru.ach, asp. form of bruach ; which see. 
Bhruan, prct. a. of bruan. Broke, splintered. 
Bhruth, ;)re^. a. of bruth. Bruised. See Bruth. 
Bhuaidii, asp. form of buaidh. 
BuuAiL, pret. a. of buail. Struck, smote. 
Bhc.vtn, pret. a. of buain. Reaped. See BrAiu. 
Bhuair, pret. of buair. Tempted, vexed, disturbed, dis- 
Bhuaireas, /i/?. sub. of buair; which see. 
Bhuaireas, asp. form of buaireas. 
Bhuaitiie, provincial for uaith ; which see. 
Biiuaxaicii, pret. of buanaich. Continued. See Buaxaicii. 
BnuAPA, provincial for uapa; which see. 
Bhuig, gen. m. roc. of bog. Soft, moist, effeminate. Fhir 

bhoidhich bhuig, thou handsome effeminate man. — MacLach. 
Bhuige, asp. form of bulge; com. and ntp. of bog. 
Bhuill, xoc. pi. of ball. 
^HViìi, pret. a. of buin ; which see. 
Bhuineadii, prct. pass, of buin ; which see. 
Bhiisxte, asp. form of buinnte ; past part, of buin. 
Biivv., poss. pron. Your. Spiorad bhur n-inntinn, </jc .spiViV 

of your 7ninds. Bhnr is often written ur. 
Bhus, asp. form of bus ; which see. 
Bi, aux. V. Be. Pr. aff. ta or tha, (/w, art, is, are ; prct. 

bha, xcus, nert, iccre ; fut. aff. bithidh, shall be ; pret. inter. 

and ncg. robh, zlus ; an robh e, ttoy he ; nacii robh e, ■ 

he not ; prct. sub. bhithinn, / nould he. Bi falbh, begone ; 

bi samhach, be quiet. 
B' I, ( /or bu i.) It was she ; she. 

BiACHAR, ( from hiadh.) Coni')'. for biadhchar ; which see. 
BiADH, t. a. Feed, nourish, maintain. Prct. a. bhiadh, /«/.• 

fut. aff. a. biadhaidh, 4/«/// or uillfeed. Biadhaidh se iad, 

he -xillfccd them. — Steu\ Hos. 
BiADH, gen. beidh and bidh, s. m. Meat, food, victuals, diet; 

fodder, provender. Chum hiA\\, for food. — Stew. G. B. 

Biadh-briste, fragments; biadh-eoinein, uiuod-sorrel ; biadh- 

nòin, lunch ; biadh-madainn, breakfast. 

W. bwyd. /;■. biadh. Corn. boet. Arm. vyou. Mam. bi. 

It. biada. Bisc. viauda. 
BiADiiADH, aidh, s. m. A feeding, a nourishing; a feed; 

meat, victuals, provender. Is fearr a bhiadhadh no ionn- 

sachadh, he is better fed than taught. — G. P. 
BiADiiADH, (a), pr. part, of biadh. Feeding, nourishing. 
BiADii-BRisTE, s. Fragments ; crumbled food. 
BiADH-EoiNEix, i. 7«. Wood-sorrel. Mu 'm biodh am biadh 

eoinean a fas, about which the wood-sorrel grows. — Macdon. 
B1ADI1-EUXAIX, s. m. Wood-sorrel. Written also biadh- 
BiADH-FEASGAiR, .«. 7«. An evening meal, supper. 
BiADH-M ADAisx, s. m. Breakfast. 

BiADHCHAR, a. Fruitful, Substantial ; affording substance ; 

esculent. Arhhar biadhchar, substantial crops. — Macint. 

Tha thu biadhchar pailt, thou art substantial and prolific. 

— Macdon. 
BiADii-cuLUAN, ain, s. m. A kitchen. — Shaw. 
BiADH-LANN, lainn, s. m. A pantry. 
BiADH-LUiBii, s. Salad. W. bwydlyss. N. pi. biadh- 

BiADn-Lus, -luis, *. ;h. .Salad, /f. bwydlys. A^. /)/. biadh- 

BiADii-xoix, i. m. A luncheon, a mid-day meal. — Stew. Pro. 
BiADiiTA, biadhte, p. part, of biadh. Fed, nourished. Damh 

biadhta, a stalled or fed o.r. — Steic. Pro. 
BiADHTACii, aich, s. m. ( from biadh.) A hospitable farmer; 

a certain order of Irish tenants, who procured provisions 

for the nobles. — Shaw. 
BiADH-TniGii, «. w(. An eating-house. ?r. bwythy. N. pi. 

t BiAiL, s. f. An axe or hatchet. — /;-. id. 
t BiAL, biail, s. m. Water. — //■. id. 
BiAN, beine, i. m. {Ir. bian.") A skin or hide ; a pelt; abode. 

Bian an tuirc, the boar's hide. — Ull. Bu ghile a bian na 

canach sleibhe, whiter was her skin than mountain cotton. 

— 0.S5. 

BiAX-DHUBH, a. Swarthy; black-skinned. 

BiAX-GiiEAL, a. White-skinned, fair-skinned. Nan gnuis 

bhian ghil, in their ichitc-skinned faces. — Old Song. 
BiAX-LEASAiCHE, s. vi. A curricr, a tanner. N. pi. bian- 

BiAST, beist, s. ?n. (f;-. blast. La/, beslia. Pr. t beste.) .\ 

beast; a reptile; in contempt, an insignificant person. 

Biast-donn, an otter ; biast-dubh, an otter. 
BiAsTAiL, ff. (biastamhail.) Beastly, beastlike, impish; nig- 

gardlv. Gu biastail, imjiislili/. 
B1AS.TALACUD, s. f (y>oOT blast.) Beastliness, impishness, 

Bi.\sT-DOXN, s. m. An otter. — .Shaw. 
Biast-dubh, s. m. An otter. — Macdon. 
BiATACii, aich, s. m. A hospitable man ; a provider; a pro- 
curer of provision ; a raven. — /;•. id. N. pi. biataichean. 
BiATAS, ais, s. m. The herb betony. 
BiATSADn, aidh, s. m. Provision for a journev; viaticum. — 

BiBH, {for bithibh } Be ye or you. Bibh trie an tigh a 

bhròin, be often in the house of mourning ; bibh coimeas do 

cheud, be a match for a hundred. — Oss. Fing. 
BiCAs, ais, s. m. A viscount. 
BicEAR, eir, .V. in. A cup ; a bottle ; a little ansated wooden 

dish. JF. bicre, a bottle. Scotch, bicker. 
t Bi-ciiEARB, -ciiirb, s. Mercury, quicksilver.^//', id. 
t Bi-CHEARDACn, aich, s. m. A victualling-house, a tavern. 

— Ir. id. N. pi. bi-cheardaicli. 
Bi-CHiONTAS, ais, i. in. The state of being common. 
Bi-CHiONNTA, a. Common, general, frequent. 
Bi-CHURAM, aim, s. m. Continual care, continual solicitude, 

anxiety. — Macd. 
t Bid, s. A hedge. — Ir. id. 
BÌD, s. The chirping of birds, or any shrill sound that 

resembles chirping. 
BiDEAG, eig, s. f. A little bit, a morsel. Bideag chrion, 

a little bit. N. pi. bideagan, 
BiDAG, aig, s.f. (more correctly hiodag.) A dirk, or Highland 

dagger ; a stiletto. I^. pi. bidagan, dirks. W. bidawg. 

Fhir na feile-bhig 's na bidaig, thou man with the kilt and 

dirk. — Oil Song. See Biodag. 
BiDEA>f, ein, s. m. A hedge or fence. 

B I N 

B I O 

BioElL, s. f. A continued chirping. — Stcv:. Is. A shrill 

sound, a squeak. 
BiDH, gen. sing, of biadh ; which see. 

B)dh, a. Quiet, peaceable. Bi bidh, be quiet; hold your 
peace. Cho bidii ri luchag, as quiet as a mouse. 

BiDji, (/orbithidli.) Shall or will be. Bidh ar leaba sa bhàs 
CO-ionann, our bed in death shall be the same. — Oss. Gaul. 

BiDiir.AJfTAs, ais, s. m. Frequency. Am bidheantas, y)t- 
quentli), perpetually. 

BiDiiis, s.y. A screw. .AT. /i/. bidhisean. 

BiDHisEACH, a. Like a screw, spiral. 

BiDSE, i.y. (Germ, baetse.) A whore ; a bitch. 

BiDSEACiiD, S.J'. Whoremongering ; the conduct of a 

Big, gen. sing, of beag; which see. 

Big, (7.,- H. ;)/. of beag. Little, small ; young. Na big agus 
na mòir, the small and the great. — Stew. P.v. An rud chi na 
bit; ni na big, the i/oung xcill do as thty see done. — Old Prov. 
Na cloiniie bige, of the tittle children. — Stew. Jos. See Beag. 

High, s.f. Glue; birdlime. Bighchraobh, the gum of trees; 
bigh-eòin, birdlime. 

+ BiL, bile, s. m. A beard ; a mouth ; a bird's bill ; a blos- 
som.—//-, id. 

BiL, bile, .5. m. {jr. byl.) A lip, a border, a welt, alid; arim; 
a brim, the margin of any thing. Air a bhil uachdaraich, 
on his upper lip. — .Stexr. Lev. Ag imeachd air bil na tràigh, 
walking on the sea-shore. — Oss. Troth. N. pi. bilean and 
bilidh. A bilidh cur faillte ort, her lips saluting thee. 

Bii.BiiF.AG, eig, s.f. Corn-poppy; papaver agrestis. — Macd. 
N. pi. bilbheagan. 

BiLEACH, a. {from bil.) Lipped; bladed as grass ; having 
a border or welt; billed as a bird. 

BiLEACH, ich, s. m. The leaf of a tree, or herb; a quantity 
of leaves ; also a young leafy tree. JV. pi. bilichean. Barr 
nam bilichean blàtlimhor, the tops of the Jlourishing green 
trees. — Mi/cfar. 

Bilbao, cig, J. /. (//•. billeog.) A little bag ; a blade ; the 
leaf of a tree or herb. N. pi. bileagan. Bileagan nan eun, 
a species of wood-sorrel ; bileag chàile, a blade of colewort. 

BiLEAG-BiiAiTE, S.f A water-lily or flower. 

BiLEii,, (i. f. bil-amhuil), a. Labial; talkative. 

BiL-FiiocALACH, a. Labial. 

Bilidh, s. pi. Lips. See Bii.. 

t BiLLE, s. f. A rag. Ir. bille, 7nean. 

BiLLEACiin, s.f. (/>o?n bille) Poverty, raggedness. 

Bi'm, (for biom, bitheam, or bithidh mi.) I shall be. 

BiNEALTA, a. Fine, handsome, elegant. — Ir. id. Written 
more frequently /(nta//a. 

BiNiD, .v./. Runnet. /r. binid. 

BiNiDEACii, a. Like runnet; of, or belonging to, runnel. 

BiNN,a. (Ir. id.) Melodious, musical ; shrill; harmonious, 
sweetly sounding. Is balbh do bheul a bha binn, viufe is 
thy mouth that uas musical.— I'll. Is binn leam do chcum, 
sweit to me is the sound of thy footstep. — Oss. Taura. 

BiNN, *./. The hopper of a mill. — Sha-u: 

Binn, binnc, .«./. Sentence, judgment, fate ; melody. Binn 
an aghaidh dhroch obair, sentence against an evil work. — 
Slew. Ecc. Ceart am binn, Just in Judgment. — Smith. 
Thoir binn, Judge, pronounce sentence ; faigh binn, receive 

BiNNUEAcii.a. Coagulative ; apt to coagulate. 

BiNHDEAji, cin, .s. >n. Runnet. //•. bindean. 

RiNM-, com. and sup. of binn. More or most sweet or 
musical. Carruill \m bliinne fonn, Carril of the sxceetest 
strains: is bmnc iK) chomhradh nan smcòrach, swictcr is 
thy voice than the mavis. — Macjar, 

Binn EACH, o. Hilly, pinnacled; horned; light, light-headed, 

— Macint. Eilid bhinneach, the horned deer. — Old Song. 
BiKNEAD, eid, s. m. (fromhinn.) Melodiousness, melody. 

Is fhcarr leam do chomhradh na 'n smeorach air a binnead, 

/ rather thy conversation than the mavis when most melodious. 

- Old Song. 
BiNXEALACii, aich, S.J] The chirping of birds. — Shaw. 
BiNNEALTA, BiNNEALTACii, a. Pretty, bandsomc ; fair, 

comely. Written more frequently fnealta. 
BiNNEAii, eir, s. 7n. A hill, a pinnacle; a pin, a bodkin, _ 

a hair-pin. 
BiNNEAs, eis, s. m. (from binn.) Melody, music, harmony. 

A togail a guth le binneas, raising her voice melodiously. — 

Oss. Lod. 
BiNNEix, s.f A pinnacle ; a high conical hill; also a bell. 

Binnein na cariaig, the pinnacle oj' the rock. — Oss. Gaul. 
BiNN-FiiocALACJi, a. {Lat. bene-vocalis.) Melodious ; 

having a sweet-toned voice. Eunlaith binn-fhocalach, 

inelodious birds. — Oss. Conn. Gach eun binn-fhoclach, 

every melodious bird. — J\IacJ'ar. 
BiNN-GnuTii, s. A melodious voice; a sweet tone or note. 

Marr bhiun-ghuth ealaidh, like the sweet note of a dying 

swan. — Ull. 
BiìiKSE, s.f A bench. A'". ;)/. binnseachan. 
BiNNSEACii, fl. Having benches; like a bench. 
BiNNTEACH, (7. (i. f. biunideach.) Coagulative ; curdling. 
BiNNTEACiiADii, aidh, s. m. A curdling, a coagulating, 

coagulation. Ballan binnteachaidh, a cheese vat. 
BiKNTEACiiADH, (a), pr. part, of binntich. Curdling, co- 
BiNNTEAN, ein, s. in. Runnet. 

BiNXTE.vNACii, a. Like runnet; of, or pertaining to, runnet. 
BiNNTicii, V. a. Curdle or coagulate. (Ir. binntigh.) Pr. a. 

bhinntich, curdled; fut. ajf. a. binntichidh, shall or will 

BiNNTicHTE, p. part, of binntich. Curdled, coagulated. 

Bainne biuntichte, curdled milk. 
BioDAG, aig, s. f N. pi. biodagan. A dirk, a dagger; 

more frequently applied to the dagger of a Scotch Celt. 

Cha mhios a thig dliuit am biodag, no worse does the dirk 

become thee. — Macint. 
The biodag is a very old Caledonian weapon. Dio observes, 

tliat the Cak'duiiiaiiii, against whom Sevenis fought, were armed 

with this weapiiii. 
BioDAGACii, a. Like a dirk or dagger; having a dirk or 

Biodag AN, of biodag. 
BioDAiLT, s.f. Food ; victuals. — Macd. 
BioDANACii, a. Tattling, prating. — Shaw. 
t BioDii, .V. ni. The world. 
BiODii, 3 sing, and pi. iiiiper. of bi. Let be ; be. Biodh 

t-aislingaoibhinn,Aoibhir-Cliaomha! pleasant he thi/ dreams, 

Evircoma ! — Oss. Gaul, liiodh is contracted for bitheadh. 
+ BioDHANAS, ais, s. m. Discord. — Shaw. 
Bioo, S.J'. A chirp, as of a young chicken. — Stew. Is. 
BioG, s.f. A start. 

BioGACii, a. Apt to start ; causing to start. 
BiooADH, aidh, s. m. A starting, a palpitation. 
Bioo AIL, *.y. Chirping; continued chirping, as of chickens. 
BioGAiL, a. Lively; active; frisky; apt to start, 
t Biol, s. «;. A musical instrument. 
BioLAG, aig, s. f. A little musical instrument; in derision, 

a person who is fond of singing or whistling. 
BioLAGACii, a. Musical ; melodious ; fond of singing or 

whistling. Com. and sup. biolagaiche, more or most melo- 

B I 

BioLAR, air, s. m. Cresses, water-cresses. Am biolar uaine, 
the green -cater-crcsxes. — Macint. Biolar an fhuarain, f/ic 
fountain-cresses. — Old Song. Ir. biolar. N. pi. biolaire, 
or biolairean. 

+ Biolar, a. Dainty, fine, neat, spruce. 

BioLAUACii, «. (y'/om biolar.) Abounding in cresses; of, or 
belonging to. cresses. Glacag bhiolaracli, a dell abounding 
in cresses. — Macdon. 

BiOLASG, aisg, s. in. Prattle, gabble, loquacity. 

BiOLASGACH, (I. Loquacious, prating, gabbling. 

BioM, (for bithidh mi, or for bitheani.') I siiall be, let me be. 
Biom ait air raarcachd na sine, / s/ia/l be joyous in riding 
the blast. — Ardar. 

\ Biox. adw Readily, easily, usually. 

+ BiOR, s. Water ; a well, a fountain. 

Ir. bior. Arab, bir, uv/Zv. I'ers. bar-an, rain. Turk, bar 
and behr, sta. Heb. and Phen. baran, xielh. Madag. bihar, 
sea. Arm. ber, sea. 

BioR, .«.;». A thorn ; any sharp-pointed thing; a spit; a 
bodkin; a pin; a goad. JV. ;;/. bioran ; gen. pi. bior; 
daf. pi. bioraibh. A geurachadli nam bior, sharpening the 
goads. — Steu-. Sam. Nam bioraibh nar siiilibh, as thorns 
in vour ei/es. — Slew. Jos. Bior nam bride, dandelion ; bior 
an iasgair, the bird called a kingsfisher ; bior ann do dhearn 
na faisg, squeeze not a thorn in thy fist. — G. P. 

Arab, habar, a lance. Lot. as-per, rough ur prickly ; and 
veru, a spit. .Span, ber, a point. Ir. bior, a pin. ìì'. and 
Corn, ber, « lance. Arm. bir and ber. 

Bior, t . a. Prick ; gall ; sting ; goad ; spur on. Pret. a. 
bhior, pricked; fut. afT. a. bioraidh, shall or xcill prick. 

BioRACii, aich, s. f. A cow-calf, a two-year-old heifer. 
K. pi. bioraichean. 

+ BioRACH, aich, s. »1. A boat. See Bior-linx. 

BiORACii, a. {from bior.) Sharp- pointed, mucronated, 
piercing; sharp-sighted; horned, having branching horns; 
also watery. A ghreidh bhiorach na dheigh, the branching- 
horned herd behind him. — Oss. Carricth, A d' lannaibh 
biorach, icith thy pointed szcords. — Macint. Sùil bhiorach, 
a quick or sharp eye. 

BiORADH, aidh, i. m. A stinging, a pricking, a piercing. 

BiORADH, (a), pr. part, of bior. Pricking, stinging, piercing. 

BiORAG, aig, s.f. The foretooth of brutes. 

BioEAG-LODAix, s.f. The fish called a bandstickle. — Macd. 

BioUAicii, i: Sharpen at the point. Pret. a. bhioraich, 
sharpened ; fut. aff. a. bioraichidli. 

BioRAiciir., com. and i///;. of biorach. Sharper, sharpest. 

BioRAiCHE, s.f .\ colt; a foal ; a filly. Bioraiche, mac 
na h-asail, a colt, the son of an ass. — Stew. Mat. ref. 
N. pi. bioraichean. 

BioRAiDE, Ò-. /'. A helmet or headpiece; a hat; an osier; 
rarely, strife. Bioraid bu loinntreach snàs, a burnished 
helmet. — Mac Lach. Written also bàiread ; which see. 
A'', pi. bioraidean. 

BiouAiDLACH, a. Hij,h-headed ; conical. 

t BiouAiDH, 4. m. A bullock. iV. />/. bioraidhcan. — /r. 

BiORAiM, gen. sing, of bioran. 

BioRAS, a:n, s. m. f/;-. bioran.) A slick ; a staflT; a little 
stake ; a sharp-pointed thing ; also strife, anguish, vexa- 
tion. Asp. form, bhioran. Bhioran ri thaobh, his spear like 
a sta f at his side.— Oss. Fing. Bioran na laimh, a stick in 
his hand. — Oss. Carricth. 
Bioranacii, a. (/')•</;» bioran.) Like a stick ; abounding in 
sticks: also,ii/òrfan<jrf/y, a contentious person; a pincushion. 

. Bioranachax, ain, s. m. A pinraaker. 
Bioraxaicii, r. a. Vex. Pret. a. bhioranaich ; fut. aff. a. 

BiouANAiCHE, 4". m. A pinmaker. A', pi. bioranaichean. 

B I T 

Bioraxaiciite, p. part. Vexed. 

BioRAR, air, s. m. Water-cresses. — Shaic. 

Bioras, ais, .5.;». A water-lily; perhaps bior-ròs. N. pi. 

t BiOR-BiiOGiiA, i. m. A rainbow. 

+ BiOR-BHi- ASACii, aich, s. m. A water-serpent, a conger-eel. 

BioR-cuLUAisEANACii, fl. Having pointed ears; sharp- 
eared. — Macint. 

BioR-ciiLUAS, -chluais, i. /. A sharp-pointed ear. N. pi. 

BioR-CHLUASACn, a. Having sharp or pointed ears; sharp- 
eared ; quick of hearing. 

Bioa-ciiosiHLADH, aidh, s. m. A flood-gate, a sluice. 

BioR-DiioRus, -dhoruis, *. m. {Ir. id.) A flood-gate, a 
sluice. -^'. pi. bior-dhorsan. 

BioR-DiiRuiDHEACiiD, S.f. A mode of divining by means 
of water. 

BioR-DiiUBH-LUiXGE, s. m. A sliip's Stem. — Macd. 

BiOR-EiDiiE, s. An icicle. 

BioR-FHEADAX, ain, s. tn. A vyater-pipe. 

Biou-niiACALL, aill, s. m. A toothpick. 

BioR-FUixx, s. m. A landmark, a beacon. Bheirinn bior- 
fuinn a mach, I mould descry the landmark. — Old Song. 

BiORGAXTA, a. Perplexing; hampering; vexatious. 

BiDRGANTACiiD, S.f. Perplexity. 

BiOR-GREASAiDH,«.m. A goad; an ox-go^d.—Stcic.Jud. rif. 

BioR-Lixx, s. m. A boat. 

This is a very ancient word, as its composition bior-linn (pool- 
log) may sliow. It was formed in the earliest periods of societj-, 
and in the infancy of navigation, before the ingenuity of man con- 
trived any other vehicle for sailing than the hollowed trunk of a 
tree, or a piece of wood, in win h he uiijiht venture across the 
smooth pool of his river. This kind of boat was also called amur 
by the Gael, in allusion to its resemblance to a large trough. 
A'irgil had in his mind, or had seen, sui:h canoes, when he wrote, 
in Georg. I. " Tunc alnos prinmm tlnvii senscre cavatas." 

BiOR-siiRUTH, s. m. The old bed of a river. 

BioR-siiùiL, s. f. A sharp eye, a quick-sighted eye. 
N. pi. bior-shuilean. 

BiOR-SHUiLEACii, «. Sharp-eyed, quick-sighted. Com. and 
sup. bior shuiliche. Gabhair bhior-shuileach, sharp-sighted 
goats. — Ross. 

BiosA, r. (yòr bi thusa.) Be thou. Sior bheannaichte biosa, 
be thou excr blessed. — Smith. 

t BiKEiD, s. f. A breeding cow. — Shaxc. 

t BiosAK, air. s. m. Silk. 

BiosGAiR, s. m. A scrub. X. pi. biosgairean. 

BiosGAiREACHD, S.f. Scrubbishncss, meanness. 

t BiRT, s.f. A hilt ; a handle, a haft. 

t Bis, s.f. A buffet, a box, a slap. 

B'isE, (i. c bu ise.) It was she. 

BisEACii, eich, s.f. Prosperity. Ir, biseach. See Piseach. 

BisEACiiD, 4. /'. Prosperity. More frequently piWacAif. 

BtTEAG, eig, s. f. A morsel ; a fragtnent, a bit, a little bit. 
A', pi. biteagan. Chaidh e na bhiteagean, it zcenl into liils, 

BiiEiG, gen. sing, of biteasr. 

BiTii, 4. (G;-. iSiòc.) Life, existence, being; living; the world, 
Aon air bith, any one ; ciod air bith, zchatcvtr ; ni air hi, 
any thing; ni sanibi, any thing; cia b' e air bith ni,a7/uf 
thing soever. 
t BiTii, s. Custom, habit; a blow, a wound; contest. Hence 
Baile-hhithan, a place in Aberdeen, meauing the place of' 
Hounds, or of contct. In atEuity to bith are the English 
beat, and the French haltre. 
BÌTH, a. Quiet, tranquil, peaceable. Bihith, be quiet ; cho 

bith ri luch, as quiet as a mouse. 
BiTu. {IF. byth.) A prepositive particle, signifying erer, 

B L A 

B L A 

aluays ; as,bilh-bhuan, neihistiiig ; bith-dheanamh, oluavs 
BlTii-BiiEO, a. Everliving; perennial; evergreen; everlasting. 
BiTii-BiiniATiiRACii, a. Talkative, garrulous. — Stc-w. Pro. 
BiTH-EHiiic.ii, s. Essence, life-blood. 
BiTH-Biu'AX, fl. Everlasting, eternal; perpetual. Eisd Athair 

Bhith-bliuan ! Hetir, O I-Acrluxllinj; I'ut Iter ! — Mac l.ach. 
BiTii-BiirANTACiii), s. /'. Eternity; perpetuity. O bhitli- 
bhuantaolid, gu bith-bhuantaclid, from nirlcis/iiig to cnr- 
la.iting. — Stew. I's. 
BiTH-ciiURAM, aim, v. OT. Anxiety; continual care. 
BiTii-ciiURAMACH, II. Extremely careful. 
BiTH-ciiRAOiBii, .V. Gum; the sap or substance of a tree. 
BiTn-DiiEANAMii, s. A continual acting. 
BtTH-DUEANTA, (7. Frequent, continual. 
BiTH-DiiEANTA9, ais, .«. ill. Frequency, coinmonness ; com- 
mon occurrence. Am bitli-dheantas,/}r(/H('«;/)/, cuiitinuai/j/. 
+ BiTiiE, a. Female ; of, or belonging to, the female sex. 
BiTHEADn, s., sing, and pi. impcr. of bi. Let be. Bitheadli e, 

let him be. 
BiTHiDii, flit. aff. (I. of bi. Shall or will be. 
BiTH-LARiiAiRT, s. f. Talkativcness ; continued talking, 

BiTHRE, s.f Lifetime. 
BiTii-siiioR, a. Everlasting, eternal, 
t BiùiDii, s. m. A hero ; a champion. 
BiUTiiAS, ais, .!. m. A good or bad report; reputation. 

fame. — Steu\ Is. rcf 
t Blà, s. m. A town, a village; also piety, devotion; a 
green field ; a cry, a shout; the fruit of the womb ; praise. 
+ BlA, a. Yellow; health; safe; well; warm, 
t Blachd, s.f. Word. 
Blad, blaid, s. m. A mouth; a dirty mouth; a foul or 

abusive mouth. 
BLADACii,a. (//owblad.) Garrulous; abusive, foul-mouthed. 

Com. and sup. bladaiclie. 
Bladair, s. ill. {from blad.) Ir. bladaire. Lot. blatero. 
A flatterer, a sycophant ; also one of the followers of a 
Highland chieftain. N. pi. bladairean. 
Bladaireaciid, s. f Flattery, sycophancy.— /r. id. 
t Bladii, o. Smooth; soft. — Slurd:. 

Bi.ADii, s. A blossom, a flower; a garland, foliage ; renown, 

fame; meaning; essence. Chaochail do shnuadh mar 

bhlùdh, tini btiiiiti/ litis xanisltcd like a Jhmer. — Death of 

Carril. Am bladh buidlie, tlic i/cllow /toner. — Old Poem. 

Daraig is guirme bladh, an oak of the greenest Joiiage. 

7/-. bladh. Dan.\,\M\,aleaf Oerm. h\at, a leaf //'. blaw. 

Bi.ADiiACii, rt. Blossomy, flowery ; like a garland. 

Bi.ÀDiiAcir, aich,«.m. (Sfo/c//, bladach.) Buttermilk. Deocli 

bhlàdhaich, a draught of buttermilk. 
+ Bi.ADiiACiiD, s. f A siTiashing, a crumbling or breaking 

to pieces. — //•. id. 
BLAUii-i.rAiiUAiu, s. m. The contents of a book. — Shaw. 
Br.ADii-i.EAsc.AiDii, .V. TO. A garland, or wreath of flowers. 

Written also bladh JUasguidh. 
Bi.ADii-smuiii, s. ni. Elixir. 

Bi-AD-suRONACii. Flat-nosed. Com. and. vH;).blad-shrònaiche. 
Bi.AD-sPAGACii, a. Flat-soled. 

BlUuiacii, aich, t. m. Buttermilk. Written also bhulhach. 
Blàoiiacii, (7. Effectual; famous, renowned. Com. and ii/p. 

t Blacìii, r. n. (gh silent.) Puff, blow. Ildiee Eng. blow, 

and Scotch, blaw. 
Blac:iiair, s. m. A blast; a blustering wind ; a blusterer, 
a boaster. N. pi. blaghairean. 

Blaghaireaciid, s. /. Blustering; boasting; bravado. 
Blagiiantacii, a. Boastful ; blustering. Com. and sup. 

blaghantaiche, more or most boastful. 
Blagiimii ANACii, aich, s. m. A blustering fellow, 
t Blai, .v. /'. The womb. — Ir. id. 
Blaidii. See Bloidii. 

Blais, r. a. (Ir. blais.) Taste; sip; relish; try by expe- 
rience. Pret. bhlais, tasted ; fiit. af. a. blaisidh, shall or 
u-ill taste. 
Blaisidh, fut. aff. a. of blais. Shall or will taste. 
Blàiteachadh, aidh, s. in. A warming, a hatching. 
BlAiteacii ADii, (a), pr. part, of blaitich. Warming, hatch- 
ing. A blàiteachadh nan ubha bhreachda, hatching the 
spotted egg ,v. — jSIacfar. 
t Blaith, r. a. Sm.oolh, polish, level. Pret. bhiaith. 
Blaithe, com. and sup. of blàth. W^armer, softer, smoother; 
warmest, softest, smoothest. Nighean bu bhlàithe sùil, 
a maid of softest ei/e. — Old Legend. 
Blaitiiean, ein, s. in. (dim. of blàth.) A little blossom. 
Blaitji-fhleasgaidii, *. «(. A garland or wreath of flowers. 
Blaitii-leac, lie, s. f. A polished flag, a smooth stone. 
Blaitich, r. a. Warm, foment, hatch, cherish. Pret. a. 

bhlàitich; fut. aff. a. biàitichidli. 
Blanag, aig, 4'. /". Fat, tallow. More frequently written 

Blanagach, a. See Blonac ACii. 
t Blanda, ft. Gentle, mild, flattering. Lat. blanda. 

/;•. blanda. 
Blandar, air, s. m. Flattery, cajoling; blarney. 
t Blaoc, blaoic, s. m. A whale, 
t Blaodii, blaoidh, s. m. A shout, a loud calling; a breath. 

— -Shaw. 
Blaodiiag, aig, s.f. A noisy female. 
Blaodii-euv, s. in. A bird-call. — Shazc. 
t Blaodiirach, H. {Ir. id.) Clamorous, noisy. — Shan. 
f Blaor, blaoir, s. m. A cry, a shout. — Ir. id. 
Blàr, blàir, s. m. A plain, a field, a plain field; ground; 
floor; spot; a green. As plain fields were chosen for en- 
gagements, blur came to signify a battle, a field of battle. 
N. pi. blàran and blair, plains ; dat. pi. blàraibh, plains. 
Sgcudaichcar na blair, /lie plains shall be adorned. — Maefar. 
Reith a bhiair, the plain of battle. — l\Iac Lach. Fraoch nam 
blàr, the rage of battle. — Oss. Cathula. Cuir blàr, /(VA/ ; 
air a bhlàr, on the flour. — Stew. Gen. On bhlàr gu 'bhàrr, 
from the ground to its top. 
BlAr, a. White-faced; having a white forehead ; more fre- 
quently applied to black cattle and horses with white 
foreheads. Each blàr, a white-faced horse. Arm. blawr, 
white. Corn, blawr. 
Blarag, aig, s. f {dim. of blar.) A white spot on the face 
of cattle ; also a white-faced cow. An gobhal na bh\raig, 
between the legs of the while-faced cow. — Old Song. 
N. pi. blaragan. 
BlAran, {(//;;/. of blar.) Mhich. 
BlAran, {dim. of blar.) A little plain, a little green ; a 

small spot. 
Blas, blais, .V. ni. {Ir. If. Corn, and .Inn. bias ) Taste ; 
savour; Havour; experience. Bias na meal air do phogan, 
the taste of hiinei/ on tin/ kisses. — Mac Co. Air bhlas nam 
fioguis, tasted tike figs.— Old Song. 
BlAs, blais, .V. 7H. Co«/;-. of bh\thas. Warmth. See BlAthas. 
BLASACitn, 4'. f. {from bias.) A tasting. 
Blasad, (a), /)/•. part, of bias. Tasting. Gun am blasad, 

without tasting them. — Oss. Gaul. 
Blas-biieum, gen. -bheim, s. m. Blasphemy. — Macd. 
Blas-biieumach, a. Blasphemous; prone to blaspheme. 

B L E 

B L O 

Blasda, a. (Ir. blasda. Jim. blashaat, taste.) Savoury; 
sweet, tasteful ; seasoned. Biadh blasda, saioiiiy meat.— 
iVfii-. Geii. Blasda le salami, .seasoned uith salt. 

Blasdaciid, s. f. {from bias) Sweetness, savouriness ; 

Blasmhoihe, com. and sup. of blasmhor. More or most sweet. 

BLAS.MiioiRE.-.ciiD.s.y. Savouriness, sweetness, tastefulness. 

Blasmhoiread, eid, s. w. Increase in savouriness or sweet- 
ness. A dol am blasmhoiread, grouiiig more and more 

Blasmhor, (7. Savourv, tasty ; sweet; tasteful. Co7n. and 
tup. blasrahoire, more ur most saiouri/. 

Blas-phog, -phòig-, ,«. /'. A sweet kiss. 

BlAth, blailh, i. {II'.oIaw. 7;-. bladh. £«f|'. blow. Germ. 
blat, a leaf. Dun. blad.) A blossom, a flower; bloom, 
blow ; fruit, efiects, consequence ; rareli/, a form or manner, 
praise. Fuidli Ian bhlàth, in full blossom. — Stew. Gen. 
Thig e macli mar bhlàlh, he comes forth like a floicer. — 
Steiv. Job. 

Blàth, o. Warm ; warm-hearted ; tender, pleasant; rarelij, 
white, clean. Smuainte blàth a steach, -t^urm (tender or 
pleasant) thoughts icithin.— Oss. Cathula. Cha n'eil neach 
blàth, no one is warm. — Steiti. Hag. Gu bog blàth, snug 
and warm ; is blath anail na màlhar, narm is the mother's 
breath.— G. P. 

Blàthach, aich, v. m. (Ir. id. Scutch, bladach.) Butter- 
milk. Deoch bhlathaich, a drink of buttermilk. 

Blàthachadii, aidh, s. in. A warming, a fomenting, che- 
rishing ; a hatching. 

Blàtiiachadii, (a), pr. part, of blathaich. 

Blathaich, r. (7. Warm, foment, cherish ; hatch; flower as 
a plant ; po'ish, smooth. Pr. act. bhlathaich ; fut. af. a. 
blathaichidh, shall warm. Bhlathaich a chridhe, his heart 
■warmed. — Oss. Cathula. Mur do bhlathaicheadh e, ;/' he 
uas not warmed. — Stew. Job. 

Blathaichte, p. part, of blathaich. Warmed, fomented, 
cherished ; hatched. 

Blath as, ais, s. m. Warmth, heat; kindness. Thig tlùs 
is blàthas, mildness and warmth shall come. — Macint. 
Blàthas na gieine, the heat of the sun. — Ull. 

Blàth-chridheacii, a. Tender-hearted, affectionate. 

Blàtii-fhleasgaidii, s. A garland or wreath of flowers. — 
Stew. Acts. 

t Blàth-leig, s. f. A pumice-stone. — Ir. id. 

Blàtii-obair, -oibre, s. Embroidered work. 

t Bleach D, s. f. Milk; kiiie. — Ir. id. Corn, and W. blith. 
Written also bliochd. 

Bleachdair, i-. m. A soothing, flattering fellow. K. pi. 

BLEACHDAiREACnD, s.f. Flattery, soothing, cajoling. 

Bleaghainn, v. a. See Bleoghaix\. 

+ Bleasghanach, a. Emulgent.— 6'^auJ. 

Bleath, r. (7. Grind, make meal, pulverize. P/c^ n. bhleath, 
ground; fit. aff. a. blealhaidh, shall grind. Written also 
bleth ; which see. 

Bleath, Bleathadh, aidh, 4-.;«. Grinding; pulverizing. 
Luchd bleath, grinders, millers. — Stew. Ecc. 

Bleath ACH, a. Grinding, that grindeth. 

BLEATH-GiiLUXAcn, (J. In-knced, knock-kneed. 

t Bleathmhok, a. Fruitful. — .S7/«a-. Cum. and sup. bleath- 

Bleid, s. f. Larceny; cajoling, wheedling; solicitation, 

impertinence, envy, spite. Ir. bleid. 
Bleid'ear, ir, *. »(. See Bleideire. 

Bleideil, a. {from bleid.) Impertinent, teazing, trouble- 
some ; pilfering,; invidious, spiteful. Fear dubh 

dan, fear ban bleideil, a black man is bold, a fair man imper- 
tinent. — G. P. 

Bleideire, s. m. A pilferer; a beggar; a teazing peti- 
tioner ; an impertinent fellow. A'. /)/. bleideireaii. Urram 
a bhleidire do 'n stràcair, the compliments of the impertinent 
and the troublesome ; — said of those who scold each other 
scurrilousli/. — G. P. 

Bleideireachd, s. f. Begging; begrgary, solicitation; 
thievishness. Bleideireachd mholaidh, the beggary of 
praise. — Old Poem. 

t Bleidh, s.f. A cup, a goblet. — Ir. id. 

t Blein, s.f A harbour for boats. — Shaxc. 

Bleoghain'n, Bleotiiaixn, v. a. Milk. Pret. a. bhleogh- 
ain or bhleothainn ; fat. af. a. bleoghainnidh or bleoth- 
aiunidh, shall milk. 

Bleoghaxx, Bleothann, ainn, s. A milking. Aig a 
bleoghann, at the milking ; sto bleothainn, a milk pail. 

Bleoghaxs, Bleothaxn, (a), pr. part, of bleoghainn. 
Milking. A bleoghann a chruidh, milking the cows. 

Bletii, s. a grinding, making of meal, pulverizing. 

Bleth, v. a. {Ir. bleith, grind. Fr. ble, corn.) Grind; 
pulverize; powder; make meal. P;-t'/. a. bhleth, ground; 
fut. aff. a. blethidh, shall grind. Bha e a bleth, he vat 
grinding. — Stew. Jud. 

Bleth-ghlunach, a. Knock-kneed. Balaoch bleth- 
ghlunach, a knock-kneed fellow. 

Bletiite, /). part, of bleth. Ground. Gran blethte, ground 
corn. — Stew. Sam. ref. 

Bliadhxa, s. f. Ayear; the space of a year. (Cor/i.blidhan. 
-1/tfH,r. blien. r/r7«. blizenu. /r. bliaghain.) JV^. /7/. bliadh- 
naichean and bliadhnan. Bliadhna leura, leap i/ear ; an 
ceann bUadhna, //; a year's time; at the end of a year, — 
Stew. K. rcf. Eadar so is ceann bliadhna, within a year ; 
o bhliadhna na tiom so, this time last year ; a bhliadhn' ur, 
the new year. Bliadhn' a Phrioxnsa, the common name 
among the Gael for the year 1745; literally, the Prince's 
Year. Bliadhna Chuilodair, the year ofCulloden, or 1746, 
Am bliadhna, this vrar. 

I htlieve it is O'Brien who will h.ive it that blindhnn is A 
corruption of heil-un, meaning a circle of Bel or of the sun ; 
an opinion which explains the composition of the word in a 
very iiinple and ingenious manner. 

Bliadiixa, (am), adv. This year. 

Bliadhxach, aich, s. m. A yearling. Leanaidh bliadhnach 
ris na sràbhan, leanjlesh cleaves to straw. — G. P. — applied 
to worthless people who adhere to one another. N. pi. 

Bliadhnail, a. (bliadhna-amhuil.) Yearly, annual. Ir. bli- 
■ aghan-amhail. 

Bliadhxa-chàin, s.f. An annuity. 

Blian, blein, s. m. {Ir. bleun.) The flank, the groin. 
Laimh ris a bhiian, near the jlank. — Stew. Lev. 

t Blimh, Blinn, j.y^ Spittle; the frothofadeadbody. — 5Aau. 

Blinceax, ein, i. »n. A torch ; a blink. 

Bliochax', ain, s. m. Yellow marsh anthericum. — Shaw. 

Bliochd, «. /. (Cor«. and /r. blith. Yr. bleachd.) Milk; 
milkiness ; the profit arising from selling milk. 

Bliochdach, a. {from bliochd.) Milky; lacteal; milk- 
producing, giving plenty of milk. Chinn an spreidh gu 
bliochdach, tlie cattle became teeming with milk. — Macint. 
An coire bliochdach, the milk-producing dell. — Macdon. 

Bliochdar, Bliochdmhok, a. Milky, teeming with milk. 
Blioxach, aich, s. m. Lean flesh. — Macint. Also a slow 

inactive person. A', pi. blionaiehean. 
t Bliosax, ain, 4. m. An artichoke. N. pi. bliosain. 
t Blob, fl. Thick-lipped; blubber-lipped. 
Blobachd, s.f. The deformity of blubber lips, 
t Blobaran, ain, «.m. A stutterer; a blubber-lipped person. 

B C 

B O C 

t Bloc, a. Round, oibicular. Eua. block. 

+ Bloc, Bluic, 6-. ?». A block. More frequently written 
ploc ; which see. 

Blocan, ain, v. tn. (dim. of bloc.) A little block. 

Bloidf, Bloideax, *■./(/. ; (/. bloidibli. Sphnters, shivers, 
fragments, halves. A shleash na bloidibh, /lis \pcar in 
x/iiiers. — O.v.v. Derm. Nam bloidibh bcaga pronnar iad, 
t/iei/ xiialt lie hniiscd into small pitas. — Smith. 

Bloidii, s. The half of any thing ; a share, part, portion, 
splinter. iV^./i/.bloidheano/K/bloidhdean, hnhcs. //.blodb. 

Bloidii DEACi, eig, .v. f. .\. fragment, a splinter. jN'. ///. 

Bloidiidean. n. jiI. of bloidh. Fragments, splinters. 

Bloidiidear, ir, i. w. A battery; a place from which an 
attack is made. 

Bloinigean-gAraidii, *. m. Spinage. 

+ Blomas, ais, *. m. Ostentation. 

+ Blomasacii, a. Ostentatious. 

Blonag, aig, s. f. Fat, suet, lard, swine's-grease. 

W. bloneg. Corn, and Arm. bloanek. Ir. bliinag und blanag. 

BLOXAGACii.a. (//ow blonag.) Abounding in fat; fat, greasy. 

+ Blor, Bloir, .v. m. A voice ; a noise, a loud noise, cla- 
mour. — Ir. id. 

Blorach, a. Clamorous, noisy; also a clamorous, noisy 

Blp.racan, ain, »■. m. A noisy fellow. 

+ Blos, a. Open, manifest, plain. 

t Bloso ADH, aidh, s. m. A congregation ; a sound ; a report. 

Blosgach, aich, *. /«. A clown, a rustic — /r. id. 

Blosgair, s. m. A collector. iV. ;;/. blosgairean. 

t Blosg-miiaor, -mhaoir, .$. A crier at court. 

t Blot, 0-. m. A cave, a den or cavern. — Ir. id. 

i Blotach, aich, *. ?h. One who dwells in a cave. — S/ia-ui. 

t Blotach, a. Full of dens or caverns ; like a den or 
cavern. — S/iain. 

+ Blotach, aich, s. m. A cave or den. N. pi. blotaichcan. 
—Ir. id. 

Blu i rc, .?. A fragment ; a crumb ; also plural, fragments, 

+ Blusar, air, s. tn. Noise, outcry, tumult. — Ir. id. 

Bo ! An interjection to excite terror in children. 

BÒ, BoiN, .v./. (iV. pi. bà.) A cow; rwrc/v a fawn. Bo 
bhainne, n viilch cow ; bo sheasg, a barren cow ; bo ghcamh- 
raidh, a cow .\luinfur winter food ; bo laoidli, a cow that has 
a calf; bo mhaol, a cow without horns ; bo bhreac, a spotted 
cow; bo riabhach, a brindled cow; bo cheann-fhionn, a 
wliitc-faced cow; bo dhruim-fhionn, a white-backed cow ; 
bo liath, a i;rei/ cuw ; bo chas-fhionn, a white-footed cow ; 
bo-alluidh, a buffalo. 

From h'o come the Gr. /joo?, an ox, and |3o«, to roar ; and 
also Pot, which means any thing that is terrible. lut. bos, 
an 01. It. hue, or. Ir. bo, a cow. W. buw. Corn, buili and 
bu. Arm. bu. Manx. bua. Bisc. beya. I'ortug. boy, o,r. 
Spun. buey. Turk. I)ugha, an ox. 'Tom/, bo. Jap. arbo, ';r. 
Hottentots, boa and bubaa. 

Bo! no! intcrj. .Strange! 6';-. |3a /3ai ! /.n<. papac! 

t BoAO, aig, s.f. A sea-lark. — Shaw. N. pi. boagan. 

BÒ-ALLUIDI1, «./. A buffalo. 

BonAN, ain, .5. m. A term of afTcetion for a boy; also ])apa. 
Gr. ^oi/wai5, a renf young child. Germ. bub. ./;/«. bonbon, 
17 child. 

Boc, s. m. Deceit ; fraud ; a blow, a box. — Shaw. 
Boc, Buic, *. ?n. (N. pi. buic.) A buck ; a roe, a roe-buck ; 
a he-goat ; a term of ridicule for a fop. Boc-earb, a roe- 
buck ; ficliead boc, twenti/ he-goats. — .Stew. Gin. 

Arm. buch. Corn, byk and bouch. I(^. bwch. Ir. boc. 

Sw(d. and Germ. bock. Tr. buc. Eng. buck. It. bocco. 
Bclg. boecke. Anglo-Sax. bucca. 
Boc, J', n. See Bochd. 

BocACii, (/. («.«/). yòrm, bhocach.) Like a roe-buck ; abound- 
ing in roes ; of. or pertaining to. a roc-ruck. A Bhcaltainn 
bhocach, roe-producing JMin/. — Macfar. 

BocAiDE, Bocaidean, «. pi. Siuds or bosses. 

BÒCAN, ain, s. tn. A hobgoblin, a sprite or spectre. 

BocAX, ain, .«. m. A covering, a cottage ; a hook, a crook ; 
a mushroom. 

BocANACH, a. (from bocan.) Hooked, bent. A.ip. form, 

BocAN-isEARKACii, aich, s. m. A mushroom. T-ii7/«u'. 

Boc-EAHBA, s. m. A roe. K. pi. buic-earba. Co luath ri 
boc-earba, as swift as a roe. — Stew. 2 Sam. 

B0C-GAIBHRE, s. m. A he-goat. Boc-gaibhre on aird an iar, 
a he-goat from the west. — Stew. Dun. N. pi. buic-ghaibhre. 

BocHAiL, (/. Lively; animated. — Shaw. 

BocHAN, ain, s. m. A cottage, a hut or hovel. More fre- 
quently buthan. 

BociiD, a. Poor; needy; wretched; a poor person. (^Ir. 
bochd and bocht.) Treabhadh nam bochd, the tillage of 
the poor. — Stew. Pro. Leaghaidh bròn am bochd auaui, 
sorrow [dissohes] melts the wretched suul. — Oss.Cromu. 
Is fearr bhi bochd ua bhi breughach, better be poor than 
false.— G. P. 

BòniD, i. (Ir. hoc.) Swell: puff; grow turgid. Pret. a. 
bhochd; fit. ajf. a. boclulaidh, shall or xcill swell. 

Boon DA OH, aidh, s. m. A swelling ; the act of swelling. 

BociiDAiNN", BoCHDi'iNN, S.f llr. bochdaiue.) Poverty; 
trouble; mischief; mishap, bad luck. Gu boclidainn, to 
poierti/. — Stew. Gen. Aim am bocliduiuu, in /rouble. — 
Stew. Chr. ref Gun gabh' a bhochdainn thu ! plague take 
you! tha bhochdainn ort, bad luck utlend.11/ou ; the dexil is 
in i/ou ; mar bha bhochdainn ann, us bad luck would have it. 

BociiDAiNNE Acii, BocH DuiNN EACH, «. Causiiig trouble, 
poverty, or misery. 

BocHDAN, n. pi. of bochd, s. The poor. D. pi. bochdaibh ; 
V. pi. bhoehdan. A bliochdan nan treud, i/e poor of the 
/lock. — Stew. Zech. Truas do na bochdaibh, piti/ to the /wor. 

BÒCHDAN, ain, s. m. (IT. bwgan.) A hobgoblin ; a bugbear. 
Written also bhcnn. 

BociiDAX, ain, s. m. A covering; a cottage; a hook; a 
crook ; also a mushroom. 

Bf^,ciiDAN-BEAUUACH, -aich, .V. m. A mushroom. 

BocHDAN-BEUCACH, aich, s. m. A mushroom. 

BociiDAS, ais, s. m. Poverty ; indigence. Bochdas agns 
beartas, poxerty and riches. — Old Song. 

\ BocHDN'ADii, aidh, s. m. The sea, a narrow sea, a strait, 
the mouth of a river. 

BocnD-TiiONN, -thuinn, s.f. A surge or billow ; literally. 
a swelling wave. A', pi. bochd-thonnan. Written also 

BoniDuiNN, s.f. See Bociidainx. 

BocH-TiioNX, -thuinn, s. f A surge or billow; a swelling 
wave. Boch-lhuinn thonnach, a raging billow. — Macfar. 
N. jtl. boch-thonnan. 

Bocii-THONNAN, n. pi. of boch-thonu. 

Bocii-TiiuiNN, gen. sing, of boch-thonu. 

BocsA, s. m. Boxwood. 

BocsA, s. A box, a coffer; a trunk or little chest. — Slea. 
Mat. N. pi. bocsaicbean. Barradh bocsa, a rimmed 

BocsAiciiEAN, n. pi. of bocsa. Boxes, coffers, trunks, or 
little chests. 


B O I 

Bod, biiicl, s. m. (fr. bod.) Manbrum xirilc ; also a tail. 

^^ pi. buid. 
BoDACii, aich, s. m. An old man ; a rustic ; a sorry fellow; 

a churl ; a mutchkin, a Scotch liquid measure of four gills, 

somewhat less than an Eii^jlish pint. N. pi. bodaich, old 

men. Chuireadh tu bodaich 2;u beadradh, tlwu scf 

old mtn a fondling. — R. Bodach ruadh, a cod ; bodach 

nam briogan, a piubrachd, called Bieadalbane'.s March; 

trudar bodaich, an ugly fellon-. — Old Song. Sliob bodach 

is sgròbaidh e thu, buail bodach is thig e gu d' laimh, 

stroke a sorri/ felluu- and he uill scratch i/ou ; strike him, and 

he tcill come to your hand. — Cr. P. 
BoDACiiAiL, a. (bodach-amhuil.) Clownish, boorish, churlish; 

like an old man. 
BoDACiiAN, ain, s. m. {dim. of bodach.) A little old man; 

a squat voung fellow; in derision, iomad bodachan gnodh, 

Vianii a surli/ old man. — Old Song. 
BoDACii-RUADH, «. w. A codfish. JV. ^/. bodaich-ruadh. 
BoDAG, aig, s.f. {Ir. bodog.) Rage, anger; a short fit of 

passion ; a yearling calf, a heifer ; a bawd. —Shaw. N. pi. 

BoDAGACH,a. Apt to fly into a passion ; like a heifer; like 

a bawd ; wanton, 
t BoDAGACiiD, s. f. Rage, anger; rage for copulation; 

furor intcrinus ; also a heifer that wants bulling. — Shau: 
BoDAlUEACilD, s.f. (from bod.) Scortatio. 
BoDAN, ain, .s. 7». (rf/;n. of bod.) ]\Iemhrulum puerile. 
t BoDAii, a. Deaf See Bodiiar. 
BoD-ciiiiANN, -chrainn, s. /'. A kind of crupper. 
BoDiiAG, aig, s.f. The human body; the skin of the human 

bodv. Oigh is gloine bodhaiff, a >naid of the fairest skin. — 

BoDiiAiR, V. a. Deafen ; stun with noise. Pret. a. bhodhair, 

deafened ; fut. aff. a. bodhraidh, 'shall or zcill deafen. 
BODIIAR, air, s. jn. Murrain in cattle. 
Bodiiar, a. (Ir. bodhar. J^. bydhar. Corn, bothnr.) Deaf; 

also a deaf man. Co rinn am bodhar ? who made the deaf! 

— Sfev;. Exod. Com. and 6«;;. buidhre, more or most deaf. 
BoniiRACii, a. Infected with the murrain. Co bhodhrach, 

a diseased coK. 
BoDiiRADii, aidh, s. m. A deafening, a stunning with noise. 

Tha mi air mo bhodhradh leat, I am stunned u-ith the noise 

you make. 
Bo Dii RADII, (a), pr. part. Deafening, stunning with noise. 

Ag am bhodhradh, deafening me; 'g a bodhradh, deafening 

her ; 'g am bodhradh, deafening them. 
Bug, Buig, s. m. A marsh, a fen, swampy ground. — Blacd. 
Bog, a. (Ir. bog. Corn, and Arm. boucq.) Soft; penetrable; 

lender; damp, moist; mellow; sweet or soft sounding; 

timid, feminine, effeminate. A ciabh bhog, her soft hair. — 

Oss. Temo. Le ribheid bhuig, zcith his softli/-sounding reed. 

— Macfar. A Bhealtainn bhog, moist [shoxieri/] Mai/. — /(/. 

Fhir bhuig! thou effeminate man! — Alac I.ach. Gu bog 

blàth", snug and -warm; cridhe bog, a tender heart. Com. 

and sup. buige. Brisidh an teangaidh bhog an cneadh, 

the smooth tongue softens anger. — G. P. 
Bog, v. a. and n. Dip; steep; bob; wag. Pret. a. hhog, 
' dipped; Jut. aff. a. bogaidh, shall dip ; 1 sing. imp. sub. bho- 

gainn, / uoh/i/ dip. Bhogainn anns an allt e, i ■would dip 

him in the stream. — Old Song. 
BoGACH,aich, Ò-. m. A swamp, a quagmire. iV". ;)/. bogaichean. 
BoGACiiADii, aidh, s. m. The act of softening, making tender, 

or mellow or effeminate ; a softening into tears. 
BoGACHADii, (a), pr. part, of bogaich. Softening; making 

mellow ; making timid. 
BoGADACii, aich, Ò. m. Gesture; a bobbing gesture. 

BoGADAicH, s. f. A continued or frequent bobbing. Anns 

a bhogadaich, bobbing. 
BoGADAN, ain, s. m. A shaking, a bobbing, a wagging. — 

Macinf. A fellow who walks with a mincing pace or a 

foppish gait, in derision. 
BoGADAXAiCH, s. f. A continued shaking, a wagging or 

bobbing. 'Sa bhogadanaich, bobbing. 
BoGADH, aidh, s. m. The act of steeping or dipping ; a 

steeping, a dipping; a bobbing; softness, tenderness, 

Bog AICH, r. rt. and «. Soften; make mellow; make effemi- 
nate ; soften or melt into tears. Piet. a. bhogaich, softened ; 

fut. aff'. a. bogaichidh, shall siften ; fut. pass, bogaichear, 

shall be softened ; p. part, bogaichte, softened. 
Bogaichear, yu<. prtM. of bogaich. Shall be softened. 
Bogaichidh, fut. aff. a. of bogaich. Shall or will soften. 
Bogaichte, />. par/, of bogaichte. Softened. 
Bog.\n, ain, s. m. An egg in embryo; rarely, bacon. — Shaxv. 
Boganach, aich, *•. m. ( from bog.) A soft fellow; a bump- 
kin, a booby. iV. pi. boganaich. 
Bogaxaciid, i.y". Softness; the behaviour of a bumpkin. 
Bogbhuine, s. /I A bulrush. iV^. p/. bog-bhuinnean. 
Bogii, v. a. Bend, like a bow; bow. Pret. a. hhogh; fut. 

nff. a. boghaidh. 
BoGii, BoGHA, s.m. An archer's bow; a bow or bend ; a 

vault, an arch. Bogh-saighead, an archer's bow; bogh- 

catha, a battle-bow ; bogh-cogaidh, a battle-how; mar bhoglia 

air ghleus, like a how on the stretch ; bogh-fidhle, ajiddle- 

boxv ; fear-bogha, an archer; fir bhogha, archers. — Stexe.. 

Gen. Bogha air a gheug, a bend in the branch. — Macdon. 

Bogha-frois, a rainbow. 

IF.hwuand h\v, a bow. Swcd. hogd, bowed. Germ ho^en, 

a bow. Anglo-Sax. boga. Island, bog. Cr. /Bio;. Lot. barb, 

bauga. Scotch, boo. £ng. bow. Dan. bue, arch. Tonq. bo, 

Bogiiadair, s. m. (from bogha.) An archer, a bowman. 

Ir. boghadoir. 
Boghadaireachd, s.f Archery. 
BoGHAR, a. See Bodhar. 
BoGH-BRAOiN, s. m. A raiubow. Bogh-braoin a soillseadh, 

u rainbow shining. — Oss. Com. 
BoGH-CATH, «. m. A battle-bow. N. pi. boghan-cath. 
Boo H-coG AIDH, s. vi. A battlc-bow. 
BoGiiA-f ÌDHLE, «. A fiddle-bow. 
BoGH-FRAis, BoGH-FROis, s. m. A rainbow. A dhreach 

mar bhogh na frois, his form like a rainbow. — Oss. Gaul. 
BoG-GHiOGAN, ain, s. m. The plant called sowthistle. 
BoGHSDAiR, «. »!. A bolster. N^. p/. boghsdairean. 
BoGii-uisGE, s. m. A rainbow. 
BoGiiON, uin, s. m. (perhaps bo-dhàn.) An enclosure for 

cattle, intended as a security against cattle-lifters. 
BoGLACii, aich, s. m. A bog, a slough, a morass. N. pi, 

BoG-LUACHAiR, gen. bog-luachrach, s.f. A bulrush. 
BoGi.uiBH, s. m. The herb ox-tongue. N. pi. bogluibhean. 
BoG-Lus, s. m. The herb ox-tongue. Ir. boglus. K. pi. 

BoiCEANACH, aich, s. m. A boy fourteen years of age. — Shaw. 
BoiCEANN, inn, s. m. A hide; a skin; a goat's-skin. 

N. pi. boiceannan. 
BoicNEACHADH, aidh, s. m. A skinning, a belabouring, 

thumping, or beating a person ; a thrashing. Fhuair e a 

bhoicneachadh, he got his thrashing. 
BoiCNiCH, n. a. Skin, belabour, thump, thrash. Pre/. a. bhoic- 

nich, thrashed ; fut. aff. a. boicnichidh, shall or will thrash. 

B I 

B O I 

BÒID, BoiDE, s. f. A vow, an oatli, a solemn promise; also 
the surname Boyd ; llic Isle of Bute. N. pi. boidcan, 
rou'i. Bliòidich thu bold, thou a xo\i\ — Sttic. (Un. 
Naisg am bòidean, liind their onths. — Mac Lach. Bold a 
cliiaraig ris na fearaibh, is boid nam feara uile ri ciaraig, 
like the swarthi/ maid who the men, as s/ie hud been 
fures'iiorn by them. — G. P. 
BòiDEACii, a. Pertaining to avow; like avow; tolerable, 

well. — Shaw. Also one surnamed Boyd. 
BòiDEACiiAN, ainn, s. m. A bodkin. 
BÒIDEAN, of boid. 

t BoiDH, a. Neat, tidy, trim, spruce. — S/iaw. 
t BoiDUE, a. Yellow. Now written /»u»M(- ; which see. 
BÒIDHEAC1I, { from boidh. Asp. form, bhoidheach.) Pretty, 
beautiful, fair, iiandsome, comely. Is bòidheach ;un fas, 
btaiileoiis is their grouth.— Ull. Oiglieana bòidheach, slan 
leibh, i/e pntti/ maidens, farexieU. — Old Song. Cha dean 
a glilòir bhoidheach an t-amadan sàthach, A'ne words Jill 
not a fool's hellj/. — G. 1'. 
BoiDliicnn, s. /". Beauty, prettiness, comeliness, hand- 
someness. Mar AiUtheas na bhòidhiche, like Ailltheus in 
his beaut)/.— Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
BÒ1DI11CHE, com. and sup. of bòidheach. More or most 
pretty. Asp. form, bhoidhiche. Is i bu bhòidiche learn, 
/ deemed [her] it the prettiest. — DIaeint. 
BòiDHiciiEAD, eid, s. m. Beauty, increase in beauty. 
Bòidhichead mios Mhaigh, the beaiiti/ of the month of Mai/. 
— Macdon. A dol am bòidhichead, growing more and 
mure beautiful. 
BòiDiiu'iiEAs, eis, J. m. Beauty, comeliness. Cha 'n e 

'mheud a bhoidhicheas, bulk is not beauty. — G. P. 
BÒIDICII, r. Promise solemnly, vow, swear. Pret. a. bhò- 

idich, vowed; fut. aff. a. boidichidh, shall row. 
BoiGE, com. and .lup. of bog. More or most efTeminate. 

Written also buige. See Boo. 
BoiCE, s.f. Softness, efleminacy. 

+ BoiGii, s.f A teat or udder. — Ir. id. N. pi. boighcan. 
BÒ1GIIEAC1I, a. See Bòidiieacii. 
t BoiGKEAN, ein, s. m. A bulrush; also flummery; any thing 

BoioREANACii, a. Aboiuidlng in bulrushes ; like a bulrush ; 
also a place where bulrushes grow ; like flummery ; flabby. 
BoiLE, s.f. Issue, result, consequence, success. Written 

more frequently buile. 
BoiLE, s. f. Madness, rage, passion, fury. (7r. buile. 
Lat. bills.) Boile nan cath, the rage of battles. — Oss. Gaul. 
I'ear na boile, the passionate man. — Stew. Pro. ref Air 
blioile, mad. Buile chath, rage for battle; tha 'm boile 
ort, >iou arc mad. 
Boile, (air), «f/i-. Mad, raging, distracted. 
BoiLEACii, a. (/row boile.) Apt to fly into a rage, furious; 

also altogether, complete. 
BoiI.G, (oftrner builg), gen. sing, of bolg. 
BÒII.ICI1, s.f Idle talk; vain boasting, blustering. Is 
bcag orm do bhòilich, / heed not i/our idle talk. — Old Song. 
Cha mhailhinn duit do blioilich, / would not pardon thy 
blustering. — Id. 
t BoiLLUiNN, s. /'. A ring, a circle. — Ir. id. 
Boii.i.soE, «. A gleam ; a glare, flash, cftulgence, glitter. 
Boillsge faoin a mhàilc, the languid gleam of his helmet. — 
Oss. Com. Fo bhoillsge an lath, in the effulgence of day. 
— Oss. Tern. 
BoiLLSG, Boii.sG, r. Gleam, shine, flash, glitter. Pret. a. 

bhoillsg, shone. 
BoiLl.sGEAcii, a. Glitlori.ig, gleaming, shining. 
BoiLi.SGEAUii, (a), 7;r. /«;;-r. of boillsg. Shining, gleaming, 
glittering. A boillsgcadh air sliabh, shining on the mountain. 

— Oss. Fing. Mala nan scorr a boiUsgeadh, the brow of 
the rocks glittering. — Oss. Temo. 
t BoTLsGEAN, cin, s. m. The middle, midst; also a moun- 
tain. — Shaw. 
t BoiLSGEAN, r. a. Make round and bulging. — Shawi. 
BoiN, gen. of bo ; which see. 
t BoiNEADH, idh, 4-. m. A running issue, a scrofulous sore; 

a sprouting or budding. v 

BoiNF.ANTA, a. Mild, gentle; handsome. — Macint. Also 

stout, firm, of good bottom. 
BoiN r.ANTACiiD, s.f Milducss, gentleness; also stoutness, 

firmness ; handsomeness. 

BoiNEiD, s.f. {i.e. beann-eididh.) Ir. boneid. A bonnet. 

jV". pi. boineidean. Ni thu boineidcan, thou shall maht 

bonnets. — Stew. Exod. Boineid an losgainn, paddock-stool. 

BoiNF,iD-AN-i,osG AiNN', s. f. A paddock-stool ; brown 

BoiNNK, s. f. A drop of any liquid. Boinne fala, a drop of 

blood. — Mucfar. Boinne uisge, a drop of water. 
BoiNNEAG, eig, «./^ A cake. (/;■. boineog. Sio^cA, bannock.) 

N. pi. boinneagan, cakes. 
BoiNNEALACH, aicli, s. in. {from boinne.) A dropping of 

t BoiR, s. m. An elephant. 
BoiRBE. See Buirbe. 
BoiRBEACiiD, s.f. (Jrom borb.) Written also buirbeachd ; 

which see. 
BoHicnE, i.y". An elk; a buffalo. — Ir. id. 
t BoittCiiRiADH, s.f A kind of fat clay. — Ir. id. 
t Bo I RE, s.f. A hole. Scotch, boir. 
BoiREAL, eil, s. f. {from boir.) A small auger, a wimble. 

j\'. pi. boirealan. Toll boireil, aii auger-hole. 
BoiREANN, BoiRioxN, a. Female, feminine. Leomhan 
boirionn, a lioness. Cha 'n eil firioiin na boirionn ann, 
there is neither male nor female. — Stew. Gal. Urr firionn 
boirionn, an hermaphrodite. 
BoiuEANNAcii, BoiRioNNACii, aich, s. f. A female. 
Boirionnach eireachdail, u handsome female. Hence Gr. 
■!rt,iffor vaU, and Lat. purus. 
Bois, gen. sing, of bos. 

BoiscEAL, ill, «. ?«. A savage man or woman. 
BoiscEiL, a. Wild, savage, untamed. Thog thu oirnne 
gu bheil sinn boisceii, thou hast reported of vs that we art 
savage. — Old Poem. 
BoisEACiiD, s./. {from bos) Palmistry. 
BoisEAG, eig, s.f. A box or spank in the ear; a slap with 

the palm of the hand ; also a little palm. 
t BoisEiD, s.f. A belt, a girdle. N. pi. boiseidean. 
BdisG, V. n. Shine, gleam, flash, dart. Pret. a. bhoisg, 
shone; fut. aff. a. boisgidli, shall or will gleam. Air auam 
bhoisg platha, a rail shone on his soul. — Oss. Derm. 
B()is(iE, s.f. A beam of light, a gleam ; a flash, a flamf. 
Mar blioisge fuaimncach droighinn, like the noisy Jlamr of 
thorns. — .Sm. Boisge dealanaich, ajlaslt of lightning. 
BoisGEACii, a. {from boisge.) Gleaming; flashing, flaming; 

radiant, luminous. 
BoisoEALACiii), .v./. Radiance; a gleaming; a flashing. 
BoisoEANTA, a. {from boisge.) Shining, radiant, luminout; 

dazzling, flashing, brilliant. 
BoisoEiL, a. (boisg-amhuil.) Shining, luminous, radiant, 
dazzling, flashing. Co boisgcil ri or, shining like gold. — 
Oss. Croma. 
BÒIT, s.f. The Isle of Bute. 

BoiTEACii, a. Of Bute; also a native or an inhabitant of 
the Isle of Bute. 

B O L 

B O R 

BoiTEAL, eil, s. m. A wisp, or bundle of straw or hay ; 
rarely, arrogance, presumption. Boideal fodair, a bundle or 
bottle of straw. N. pi. of boitealan. 
t BoiTEALACH, fl. Arrogant, presumptuous. 
BoiTEAi.Aicii, v. a. Tie up, as straw, in bundles. Pret. a. 

BoiTEAN, ein, s. m. A wisp, or bundle of hay or straw. 
BoiTEANACii, rt. In bundles, as straw or hay. 
t BoL, s. m. A bard ; art, skill ; also a cow. — Shaw. 
BÒL, Boil, s. m. A bowl or cup. Corn, bolla, a drinking- 

cup. N. pi. bolan. 
BoLADii, aidh, s. m. A smell, a stink; savour. Boladli 
graineil, an abominable smell. — Stew. Exod. Boladh breun, 
a slinking savour. — SteK. Ecc. Ir. boladh. 
Bo-LANN, -lainn, s. m. A cow-house ; a fold. 
BoLANTA, fl. Exquisite; fine. Gu h?L\anta., exquisitely. 
BoLANTACiiD, s.f. Exquisiteness. 
BoLB, BuiLB, s. m. {Ir. id.) A species of caterpillar. — 

BoLG, r. Swell, puff, blow, blister. Pret. a. bholg ; fut. 

aff. a. bolgaidh. 
BoLG, s. m. One of the Belgec. — Oss. 

BoLG, BuiLG, s.f. A pair of bellows ; a budget, a wallet, 
a-bag, a sack, a pock ; a pimple, a blain, a blister; a belly, 
the womb ; the boss of a shield. N. pi. bolgan ; diit. pi. 
bolgaibh. A briseadh mach na bholgaibh, breaking out in 
blains. — Stew. Exod. O bholg na niaidne, /)'o;« the womb 
of'murn. — Sm. Do bholg mar dhiin cruilhneachd, thy belly 
like a heap of wheat. — Stew. Song. Sol. Sgiath nam bolg 
the bossy ihield. — Oss. Bolg saighead, a quixer ; bolg an 
t-soUair, a inagazine. 

Gr. JEol. /LJoXyoj. Lat. fbulga. Pelg. balg, a sack. 
Sax. beige. Eng. bilge. Hence too the Lat. Belgce, 
i. f. the quiver-bearing people, so named from their being 
always armed with bows and arrows. 
BoLGAcii,a. (from bolg.) Like abudget or wallet; blistering ; 
bellying, bilging, bagged ; bossy. Thar a sgeith bholgaich, 
01 fr his bossy shield. — Oss. 
BoLGAM, aim, i. m. A sip; a mouthful ; a gulp; a dram. 
BoLGAN, ain, s. m. (dim. of bolg.) A httle budget or bag; 

a little pimple ; a little blister ; a little boss ; a quiver. 
BoLGAN-BEiCEACii, ich, s. 7«. A fuzz-ball. 
BoLG-SAiGiiEAD, «. /'. A quivcr. Blia bholg-srighead ri 

thaobh, his quixer was at his side. — Oss. Cathluno. 
BoLG-SEiD, BoLG-SEiniDH, i.y. A pair of bellows. N. pi. 
builg-seid or builg-seididh. Sguiridh na builg-seididh, the 
bellows shall cease. — Macfar. Ir. id. 
t Boll, s. m. The boss of a bridle or gorget. 
BoLLADii, aidli, s. m. A boll, or sixteen pecks ; rarely, a 

bowl, a goblet. iV". pi. bollaicliean. 
BoLLADii, aidi), s. m. .4 bladder upon nets. Bolladh 

stiuraidh, a buoy. 
t BoLLAO, aig, s.f. A shell, a skull; top of the head; 

also htifer; hence bullock. 
BoLLSGAiR, s. m. {Ir. id.) An antiquary; a herald; a 
crier at court; a bawler ; a boaster. A', y;/. bollsgairean. 
BoLLSGAlii-BumD, s. in. {Ir. id.) A grand carver. — Shaw. 
BuLTADii, aidh, 4. m. A bolt or bar. 
BoLTAJjAs, ais, s. in. {from boladh.) Smell, perfume. 
BoLTRAcii, aid), s. m. A smell, odour, scent, perfume. 
Bhuir bollrach cubhraidh, your sweet odours.- — Stew. O. T. 
Oladh agiis boltracli, oil and perfume. — Stew. Pro. 
BoLTRAtiiAN, ain, 4-. ?n. A perfume; also a perfumer. Ni 

thii boltrachan, thou shalt make a perfume. — Stew. Exod. 
BoLTRACHAS, ais, s. m. {from bol.) I'erfumery. 

BoLTRAicH, BoLTRUicH, V. 11. Smell, scent, perfume. 

Pret. a. bholtruich, perfumed ; fut. aff. a. boltraichidh, shall 

perfume. Bholtruich e boladh, Ac ime/< a ì?hc//. — Stew. O. T. 

BoMANACii, fl. Boastings, vaunting, blustering; also a 

boasting or blustering fellow, 
t BojiANACHD, s. f. A habit of boasting, vaunting, 

Bona ID, s. f. A bonnet. {Arm. boned. Fr. bonnet. 
Teut. bonet.) Bonaid ghorni, a blue bonnet. — Macint. 
Bonaid bhallach, a tartan bonnet. — Macfar. Bonaid chath- 
dath, a tartan bonnet. N. pi. bonaidean ; d. pi. bonaidibh. 
Bonaid losgainn, a paddock stool ; written also boincid. 
BoxcAiT, s. m. A balk. — Macd. N. pi. boncaitean. 
t Bonn, a. Good. Lat. bonus. Ir. bonn. 
Bonn, BuiNN, «. m. {Ir. hon.) A heel ; a sole; a socket; 
a piece of money, a coin ; a base or bottom, pedestal. 
A cliu ri bhonn, his dog at his heels. — Oss. Cathluno. Fo 
bhonnaibh ur cos, under the soles of your feet. — Stew. Mai. 
Fichead bonn, twenty sockets. — Stew. Exod. Rothan aig bonn, wheels at excri/ base. — Stew. 1 K. Bonn h-ochd, 
a piece of eight : bonn leth-chruin, a half-crown piece. 
Air chuig bonnaibh airgid, /or fxe pieces of stlxer.— 
Stew. 2 A'. Thug e na buinn as, he took to his heels. 
Bonn ri bonn, heel to heel ; foot to foot. Tuiteam fo 'r 
bonn, filling under our feet. — Fingalian Poem. 
BoNNAcii, aich, s. m. A barley-scon; by the Scots called 
a bannock. Mar is miannaich brù bruichear bonnach, at 
the stomach craves, the scon is toasted. — G. P. 
BoNNAG, aig, s.f. (from bonn.) A leap, a spring; the sole 

of a shoe ; a new year's gift. N. pi. bonnagan. 
BoNNAGACii, a. Leaping, springing, bounding, 
t BoNNAN, ain, s. m. {from bonn.) A footman, a lacquey; 

also a bittern. — Shaw. 
BoNXANTA, a. {from bonn.) Well set; stout; having a 

good bottom or foundation. 
BoNN-ciiuMADAiR, s. m. A slioe-last. iV. ///. bonn- 

BoNN-ii-ociii>, s. m. A piece of eight. 
BoNNSACiiD, s.f. A leaping, a springing, a vaulting. 
BoNNSAicii, r. ;(. Bounce, dart, spring. Pret. a. bhonn- 

saich, bounced ; fut. aff. a. bonnsaichidh. 
BuNNSÈ, BoNNSiA, s. m. A halfpenny. 
BoNN-siiuiDiiEACHADH, aidh, s. m. An establishing or 

founding; a getting a firm footing. 
BoNN-siiuiDiiifii, X. a. Found, establish; get or give a 

firm bottom. Pret. a. bhonn-shuidhich. 
+ BoR, a. High, proud, noble. Germ. por. Ir. borr. 
BoUAisD, s. f. Borage. — Macd. 
t BoRE, BuiRB, s. m. A tyrant, an oppressor. 
BoRB, a. {Ir. id.) Fierce, cruel, barbarous, raging, haughty ; 
rude, ignorant. Tlia 'n t-amadan borb, the fool rages. — 
Stew. Pro. Namhaid borb, a fierce foe. — Oss. Lodin. 
Com. and sup. buirbe. 
BoRBACUD, S.f. {from borb.) Barbarity, fierceness. 
BoRBADii, aidh, s. m. {from boi;b.) Fierceness; pride, 

BoRiiARRA, a. Barbarous, wild, fierce, uncivilized, untamed, 
Buidhne borbarra,_/iV;-cf bands. — Old Poim. 

Lat. barbarus. /;•. barbaro. It. burbero. Swed. barbar. 
BoRB-BiiRiATHRACii, a. Speaking fiercely, boisterous in 

BoRBUAN, ain, s. m. A murmur; a low sound; the 
gurgling of a stream; a humming; any continued low 
sound; a grumbling. Is binn, a shruthain, do bhorbhan, 
sweet is thy murmur, O stream .'— Oss. 
BouBiiANAiCH, i.y. A murmuring, grumbling, muttering; 



gurgling. Ciod a bliorblianaich th'ort? vhat arc '/ou 

grumbling about ! 
Bone, I'. «. Spring;, sprout, bnd ; swell. Prcl. a. bhorc; 

fut. aff. a. borcaidh, shall spring. 
BÒUCACH, o. Swelling; budding, sprouting, springing ; tall. 
• Do luachar bhorcach, tlui springing rusiies. — Old Song. 
BoRCADii, aidh, s. m. A swelling; a springing or sprouting. 
BonCADii, (a), pr. part, of bore. Swelling; springing, 

sprouting. A borcadh siias mu d' choir, springing J'orlli 

near thee.- — I\Iacilun. 
BoiiD, bùird, s. m. (n. pi. buird.) A table ; a plank, a deal, 

a board ; also boarding. Da biiòrd, lixu tables. Ochd 

buird, eiglit tables. — Slew. Exoil. Air biiord, hoarded, as a 

boarder; air horà, on board ; bord beulaobh, the starboard 

!>ide of a ship; bord culaobh, the larboard side of a ship. 

Bord niòr, the board of green eloth ; cuir air bhord, board. 
Sued. bord. Goth, baurd. Ir. bord. Run. bord. 

Corn. bord. Eng. board. 
BoRD-BEULAOBii, s. in. The starboard side of a ship. 

Bold beulaobh 's bord culaobh, starboard and larboard. 
BoiiD-cuLAOBii, *. VI. The larboard of a ship. 
BoRD-LUiNG, s. m. The deck of a ship. 
BoRD-MÒR, s. m. The table of green cloth. — Shaw. 
BoRD-NA-cisE, s. m. The board of customs; the board of 

excise.— 57ca;. Matth. 
BOrd-ùirciirainn, s. m. The earth-board of a plough, 
t BoRG, s. m. A tower; a village; a house. Gr. irv^yof, 

a lower. It. borgo, a lillage. Sax. burg. Da/i. borg. 

See also Buro. 
BoRR, s. in. A knob. 
■+ Borr, I'. Swell, grow big, grow proud; bully; swagger; 

parch. — Shaw. 
t Borr, (7. Great, noble ; haughty ; splendid, 
t Borracii, aich.s. w. Ahaughty man; agreatman.— 67/ani. 
+ BoRRACiiAS, ais, s. m. Bravado. 

+ BoR radii, aidh, .s. m. A swelling; a bravading; parching. 
BoRRAiDii, s.f. Borrage. 
BoRRAL, a. Proud, swaggering, boastful. 
BoRRAN, ain, s. m. A haunch, a buttock. 
BoRRFiiUAiM, 4. m. A loud noise; a murmur. 
BuRU-snOiL, shùl, s./. A full round eye. 
BoRii-SHUiLEACU, a. Full-cyed, large-eyed. 
BouRUNN, uinn, .s. »;. 'J"he haunch, buttock. 
+ BoRSA, .s. A purse. 

Germ, bursa. fi'lg- beurs. fF. pwrs. barbar, 

bursa ; hence also Eng. burse, bursar, bursary. 
+ BÒUSA1R, s. m. A burser. N. pi. borsairean. 
Bos, Boise, s. (Ir. and Corn, bos.) The ])alm of the hand; 
the hand. A bois fa ceann, her palm under her head. — Osv. 
Dargo. Lcud boise, a hand-breadth. — Stew. Evod. and 
+ Bos, a. Abject, mean, low, vile ; of humble origin. — Shaw. 
. + BosAROAiNN, S.f. Destruction. 
Bos-itiiuAU., r. Extol, by clapping of hands; clap the 

Bo.s-HHUALAiDii, aidh, .V. in. A clapping of liands. 
Bòsn, V. n. Boast, vaunt. I'ret. a. bhòsd, boasted; ful. 

aff. a. bhsdaidh, r.hall boast. 
Bòsn, s. VI. {If. bòst.) A boast nr vavint, boasting language. 
I'lia chualas a bosd. — Old Song. Am bòsd gun f Ileum, 
tlic useless tioiist. — Mac Each. 
Bos DA 1 1., a. n>^sd-amliuil.) Inclined to boast, vaunting. 

Luclid bòsdail, bonslers. — Slew. Rom. rcf. 
BoBUAN, ain, i. m. A basket. 

Bos-GiiAiuF,, s. f. Appla\ise by clapping of hands. 
Bos-i.uADn, luaidh, *. in. Applause by clapping of hands. 

— //•. id. 
Bos-LUATii, «. Nimble-handed; ready-handed. 
BbsRAicii, s.f. A shouting, a roaring; a squall, a high 

wind. Mar bhosraich geamhraidh, like the loud xcinter gate. 

—Old Poem. 
BÒST, i. m. {jr. bost.) A boast, a vaunt. 
BÒSTA1L, a. (bost-amhuil.) Vaunting, boastful ; better bòs- 

Bos-UAiLi,, ;•. a. Extol by clapping of hands. — .Shaw. 
BÒT, BÒIT, s. (Corn, bottas. I'ortug. bota.) A boot. 

N. pi. bòtan, hoots. — Maeint. 
BÒTACII, a. Wearing boots, booted. Gu bòtach sporach, 

booted and spurred. 
BÒTAICII, r. (7. Boot. P/f^ (7. bhòtaich, booted ; Jut. a f. a. 

bòtaichidh, shall or will boot. 
BÒTAIR, .V. m. A bootmaker. A', p/. bòtairean. 
BoTAL, ail, s. in. A bottle. A', pi. botalan. Dotal fion, 

fl bottle of wine. 
BoTAL.'MCii, r. ff. Bottle. Pnt.a. bhotalaich ; /i/f. o/f. n. 

botalaichidh, shall bottle. 
BoT.\j.AicuTr., p. part, ofbotalaich. Bottled, 
t Both, s. A cottage, hut, tent, bower ; now written bulh. 
Teut. bod, house. Old Swed. according to Rudbeck, buda, 

a tillage. Goth, bouden, temple. Sued, boo, a dwelling. 

Thibet, bo, to hide. Carib. boa, a house. Old Sat. 

boed. Fjig. abode and booth. Span, bodega, cellar. 

/v. boutique, shop. Germ, budc, house. Pol. bauda ami 

budo, (/ house. Georgian, budo, a nest. 
BoTiiACii, aich, s.f. A marsh ; a quagmire. 
Botiiag, aig, (dim. of both.) A hut, booth, or tent. N. pt. 

bothagan; </«/./)/. bothagalbh, to tents. Ann am bothag- 

aibh, in tents. — Stew. Gen. ref. 
Both AN', ain, s. in. (dim. of both.) A hut, cottage, tent, 

booth, bower; a cottage. N. pi. bolhaiu. Bothan am 

fasgadh nam fuar bhcann, a hut in the shelter of the hleak 

mountains. — Oss. Cuthula. Rinn e bothain d'a spreidh, //« 

made booths for his cattle.— Stew. Gen. ref. 
Both Ail, air, s. in. A lane, a road, a street. 
BoTiiAR, a. Deaf. Com. and sup. builhre, deafer, diajest. 

Cum. bothur. 
BoTH-Tiiioii, s. in. An ox-stall; a cow-house. 
BoTRU.MAiD, s.f A slattern; a drab. A', pi. botnnn- 

BoTRi;M.\ir)F.Acn, a. Drabbish. Gu botrumaidcach, ilrai- 

BrA, s. in. A quern, a handmill. Muileanu bra, a handinill. 

Fr. moulin a bras. See Mt iLF.\NX-nu.\. 
+ Bra, .v. m. A brow. — Shaw. 
BRAiiiii) AUii, aidh, .V. in. Idle talk; bravado. 
Brakiiuair, v. VI. (Dan. biauter.) A noisy, talkative fellow; 

a swaggerer, a blusterer, a braggadocio, an idle talker. 
Brai!iii).mi;i'.achd, s.f'. Loud talk, blustering language: 

a habit of talking loudly ; a swaggering, a bravado. 
I Brac, Braic, .v. m. An arm. (//■. |3p;ti4». Lat. bra- 

I ISiiAC, V. «. Hnak down as earth with a harrow ; eiubracc. 

I'ret. a. bhrac. 
BRACACH.a. Greyish. 

Bracaille, *-.y. A bracelet; a sleeve. jV. /</. bracaille.m. 
Braian, ain, .v. m. Broth. — Ir. 
+ Bkacii, Brakii, s. m. A pimple. — Ir. id. 
Bràcii, (gu), a. Forever; a corrup;ion vf gu bràth. See 




Brachadair, s.m. {from braich.) A maltman. N. pi. 

Brachadh, aidh, s. m. A fermenting, a fermentation; 

malting; rotting. — Macint. Ath-bhrachaidh, a wm/^-ii/zi. 
Brachag, aig, s.f. A pimple, a stye; ophthalmia. — Ir. id. 
Brachagach, a. Pimply; ophthalmic. 
BRACHAN,ain,*. w. Anything fermented; leaven; fermented 

Brachd, s.f. Hatred; sap, juice; increase of wealth ; 

reaping, mowing. — Ir. id. 
Bra-cheò, i. (/?er/^ap« breith-cheo.) Bewilderment. Chaidh 
e na bra-cheò, /le has gone stupid, or Ms Judgment has dis- 
persed in mist. 
Bracii-shuileach, a. Blear-eyed. — Ir. 
Bradach, a. (from braid.) JF. bradawg, treacherous. 
Thievish ; stolen. Measar e mar ni bradach, it shall be 
counted stolen goods. Tha thu cho bhreugach 's a tha 'ii 
luch cho bhradach, you tie as the mouse pilfers. — G. P. 
Bradag, aig, {from braid.) A thievish female; a sly young 
girl. JV". pi. bradagan. Ceist bradaig air breugaig, ask 
the thief if I be a liar.—G. P. 
Bradaiciie, A thief, a robber. N. pi. bradaichean. 
Saoilidh bradaiche gur goidichean uile each, a thief sus- 
pects an honest man. — G. P. 
Bradalach, a. Haughty. Gu bradalach, haughtily. 
Bradalachd, s.f. Haughtiness. 

Bradan, ain, s. m. {Ir. id.) A salmon. Bradan an fhior 
uisge, the salmon of the running stream. — Old Song. 
N. pi. bradain. 
Bràdii, s.f. A quern, a handmill. — Macd. Muileann bràdh, 
a handmill. Fr. moulin a bras. Is feaird bràdh a breach- 
dadh, gun abriseadh, pick a quern, but break it not. — G. P. 
See Muileanx-bràdh. 
Bradh ADAIR, s. m. Kindling; fuel. 
Brag, i. ?h. A boast or brag. Thoir brag, give a brag. 
Beagàd, aid, *. /«. A brigade. — Macd. J^. />/. bragadan. 
Bragàdach, a. In brigades. 
Bragainn, «.y. A bragging, boasting, vaunting. Thòisich 

e air bragainn, he began to launt. 
Bragainn, D. 7(. Brag, boast. Pret. hhrdLgainn ; fut. ajf. a. 

bragainnidh, shall brag. 
Bragair, s. m. A braggadocio ; also the broad leaves that 

grow on the top of the alga marina. 
Bragaireaciid, s.f. A vaunting, a boasting. Ri brag- 

aireachd, vaunting. 
Braghad, aid, «. ?H. {Ir. id.) The neck, throat, windpipe ; 
a back. A Ijraghad gu seimh a soillseadh, her neck softly 
shining. — Oss. Derm. Ruisgidh bru braghad, the belly will 
strip the back. — G. P. Losg bhràghaid, the heartburn. 
Bragiiadach, n. (/>o/h braghad.) Jugular; of, or belong- 
ing to, a neck or throat ; having a long neck. 
Bragsaidii, s.f. A disease among sheep, which is found 
to arise from eating withered grass, and from want of 
t Braiceam, eim, s. m. A pack-saddle; also a horse-collar. 

Scotch, braicheam. 
t Braicii, s. m. A stag, a buffalo. 

Braich, gen. bracha, s.f. Malt ; literally, fermented grain. 
{Corn, and JF. brag. //-. braich.) Ath-bracha, a malt-kiln ; 
muileann bracha, a malt-mill. 

The C)1<1 Gauls, according to Pliny, prepared a sort of fine grain, 
of which they made beer ; and this grain they called brace. 
" Genus farris quod illi vocant braceni." 
t Braicne, s. a cat. — Ir. id. 

Braid,*./, (i. e. braghaid.) A horse-collar; an upper part. 
Braid chluaisein, homes, or the crooked piece of wood by 

■which a horse draws a cart; braid phaib, a horse-collar 
made of coarse flax. 
Braid, J./. Theft. Luchd braid, (^i'erM. Saor o bhraid 

's o antlachd,//-ee/ra»/i theft and discontent. — Macdon. 
Bràidean, ein, s. m. {dim. of braid.) A little horse-collar; 

a calf's-collar. Contr. for braghaidean. 
BrAidh. See Bràigh. 

Braigh, s. a hostage. N. pi. braighdean and braighde. 
Braigh, s.f. A loud report; a loud crack or clap; a 
heavy stroke ; a monosyllable. Leig an gunn braigh as, 
the gun made a loud report. 
BrAigii, i. m. The upper part of any thing or place; a 
neck, a throat; the top of a mountain ; an upland country; 
high lands, high grounds; the upper or higher part of any 
country; as, Braigh Raineach, the high grounds ofRannoch, 
the head of Rannoch. Braigh Bhealaich, the high grounds or 
braes of Taymouth in Perthshire. Do bhraigh ban, thi/ 
fair neck. — Oss. Fing. 

ir. brài, breast. Arm. breich. Lat. brachium, arm. 
Scotch, brae. W. bre, hill. 
Braighde, Braighdean, n. /)/. of braigh. {Ir. id.) Hos- 
tages, captives. ladham ur braighde, / will compass your 
captives. — Fingalian Poem. Braighdean gill, hostages. — 
Stew. 2 K. 
Braighdeanas, ais, s. m. Bondage, captivity. Am 
braighdeanas, in captivity. Bruid am braighdeanas, cap- 
tivity captive. — Stew. Eph. 
Braighe, gen. sing, of braigh. 
BrAigheach, a. Having a long neck ; having a handsome 

neck ; of, or belonging to, the neck ; also uplandish. 
BrAigheach, ff. Giving a loud report; explosive. 
BrAigheach, ich, s. m. A Highlander; the inhabitant of 

an upland country. 
Braigheachd, s. f Imprisonment, constraint, confine- 
Braighead, eid, i. A neck, throat, breast. Lann ro m' 

braighead, a sword through mi/ breast. — Oss. 
t Braile, s.f. Heavy rain. — Ir. id. 
Braileis, s.f. Wort, 
t BrAin, i.y. A qnern. —Ir. id. 
t Brain, Braineach, ich, s. m. A chief. 
Brainn, {for broinn.) An inflection of bra ; which see. 
Br ais, a. Rash; bold; impetuous; sudden; rarely, fabu- 
lous, inventive. Com. and sup. braise. 
BrAisd, s.f. A brooch, a bracelet. Written also bràist ; 

which see. 
Braise, s.f Rashness; boldness; impetuosity; sudden- 
ness ; a paroxysm ; wantonness. — Macd. 
Braise, com. and sup. of brais. More or most rash. 
Braisead, eid, s. m. Rashness, forwardness, impetuous- 
ness ; increase in rashness or forwardness. A dol am 
braisead, growing more and more rash. 
Brais-sgeul, sgeòil, s. A fabulous history, a romance. 
BrAist, s. f A brooch, a bracelet. ÌV. pi. bràistean. 
Thug iad leo bràistean, they took with them bracelets. — 
Stew. Exod. 
Braith-lin, s.f. A sheet; perhaps brat-lin. Ir. braithlin. 
Braji, s. a flatus. Mar bha gille mòr nam bram, cha 'n 
fhuirich e thall 's cha 'n f huirich e bhos, like the never-do- 
well, he will stay nowhere. — G. P. 

Corn. W. Arm. and //■. bram, aftatus. Gr. ^(ina, to make 

a noise ; and ^(Oj/.oi;, noise. 

BRAMACH,aich, J. w. A colt. — JV. p/. bramaiche, co/^j-. 

Bramair, s. m. One addicted to f — ting; a flatulent 

person ; an unpolished fellow ; a noisy fellow ; a boor, 

Ir. bramair, W. bramiwr. Span, bramador, a crier. 



Bkamak, ain, s. m. A crupper. 

Bramaxacu, aich, *. m. A noisy fellow; a boorish fellow. 

N. ])l. braraanaiche. 
Bra-manacud, «. /". Noisiness, boorislmess, sulkiiiess. 
Bramanta, a. Boorish, sulky, unpolished. 
Bramartaicii, .?./'. A frequent blowing of wind backwards; 

a habit of blowing wind backwards. 
Bramsag, aig, s.f. Flatulence. 

t Buax,o. Poor; black; a]sn,siih.stiinfiieli/, a r;iven, a rook. 
Sclav, bran, Lhick. Dainutt. gravran. Bulicm. hawran. 

Croat, chafran. 
Bràv, Bràix, 4. in. {cnnfr. for bràigh-an.) .4 mountain- 
stream ; the name of several streams in the Highlands 

of .Scotland. 
BrAx, Brain, i. ;n. Husks of corn, bran. AF. bran. 
Braxdaiu, s. m. A gridiron. — Macil. 

Bran D.vL, ail, «. ;n. A gridiron. — Mucd. A'". ^/. brandalan. 
Brangacii, a. Snarling. 
Brangas, ais, s. ill. An instrument once in the Highlands 

for the punishment of pilfering vagrants. 
t Brann, Brainn, s. III. A burning coal; a woman. 

Jr. branii. Eiig. brand. 
Braxnamii, aimh, *. m. A coat of mail. 
BuASKDAiDii, v. /". Brandy. (Jr. brandi.) Is meirg a dh' 

oladh branndaidh ! xiiut Jhlti/ it is to drink brandy! — Old 

t Brann' liACii, aich, s. in. 'I he border or boundaries of a 

t Braoi, s. pi. Eyebrows. — /;•. id. 
BRAOiLEAnii, eidh, .s. m. A great noise, a bounce. /;. 

Braoili'ag, eig, .!./. A whortle-berry. ffilltùleag nan con, 

a du^-bcrn/, a bcur-berri/. N. pi. braoileagan.^ 
BiiAoiLi' A(. ACII, (I. Abounding in whortle-berries. Do 

leacan braoi leagacli, tin/ rucks ubounding in whortle-berries. 

— Macint. 
Braoilkacan, n. ;;/. of braoileag. 
Braoimch, .v. /". A loud noise; arattling sound. Ri 

braoilich, making a iuiul rattling noi.-ic. A.sp. Jorin, braoilich. 

Ciod bhraoilich th'ort? iclii/ do i/ott make melt noise' 
Braoisg, s.f. A grin; a yawn ; a gaping; a distortion of 

the mouth. Chuir e braoisg air, lie began tu grin. 
Braoisgeacii, II. Grinning; gaping; having a distorted 

mouth. Fear braoisgeach, a man uith a distorted muut/i. 

A bhodaich bhraoisgich ! tlioii grinning old man ! Com. and 

sup. braoisgiche, more or most grinning. 
Braoisgean, ein, *. m. {from braoisg.) A person who 

grins; one with a distorted mouth. 
Braoisgea.n ACiip, s.f. The habit of grinning. 
Braon, braoiii, s. in. Dew; a drop; drizzle; rain; a 

shower. (//•. braon.) N. pt. braoin ; d. pi. braonaibh. 

Mar bhogha Lena nam braon mall, like the rainbou- o/' 

drizzling Lcna.—Oss. Braon nan sian, tlie drizzling of the 

blast. — Ovv. Fing. he. braonaibh na h-oidhche, Kith the 

drops of night. - S/ric. Song. Sol. 
Braonack, a. (from braon.) Showery, drizzly, rainy, 

dewy. Sa mhadainn bhraonach, in the dexoi/ morn. — Os.i. 
Braonacud, s.f. Continual drizzling; a continual drop- 
Braon AN, ain, s. m. An earthen nut; the bud of a brier. 

— Macint. Braonan bachlaig, an earthen nut. — Maed. 
Braon-diiealt, .«. Heavy dew. Braon-dhealt na madainn, 

the heavi/ dew of morn. — Oss. Cat hula. 
Braos, BKaois, s. Sec Braoisg. 
Braosacii, a. See Braoisgiìacii. 

Bras, a. {Ir. bras.) Rash, impetuous; bold, intrepid; 
sudden; active, brisk, lively. Bras le d' bheul, rash with 
thy mouth. — Ste-w. Eec. Mar steud-shruth bras, like an 
impetuous torrent. — Oss. Gaul. Ag radh ri mhic bhras, 
saying tolas intrepid sons. — Id. 
t BiiASAiLTE, S.f. A panegyric. 

t BuASAiR-Bi'iRi), s. m. A sycophant, one who subsists by 
flattering his patron. 

BRAS-BiiriXNE, s. f. A torrent; also a stormy sea. A 
seòladh air bras bhuinne, sailing on a stormy sea. — Oss. 

Bras-chomhrao, aig, «./. A tilt or tournament. 

Brasgalladh, aidh, s. m. A declamation. — Ir. id. 

BuASLUiDUE, s.f. Perjury. Luchd brasluidhe, pcijured 

BRAS-SGEUL,-sgeòil, s. A romance, a fable. — Ir. id. 

Brat, brait, s. m. Anglo-Sax. bratt. {Ir. brat, mantle. 
ÌV. brat, a rag. Scotch, brat, clothing. In Lincolnshire 
brat is an apron.) A mantle, a cloak, a coverinsr, a veil, 
coverlet, blanket, curtain. Brat na h-oidhche, the mantle 
of night. — Oss. Dargo. Crocliaidh tu am brat, thou shalt 
hang the veil. — Steu\ Exod. Brat-leapach, a corcrlet, a 
guilt ; brat-roinn, a parti/ion reil ; brat-speillidli, suaddling- 
cloth ; brat-urlair, a carpet ; brat-broin, mort-cloth ; brat- 
folaich, a cloak. 

t Brat, s. Judgment. 

Bratach, aich, s. f. [Ir. bratach.) N. pi. brataichean. 
Banners, flags, colours, an ensign. Bratach aluinn righ 
nam magh, the beauteous banner of the king of the plains. — 
Oss. Cathula. A bhratach dhaithte uaiue, his green- 
coloured JIag. — Oss. Dargo. 

Bratag, aig, i.y". A worm, a caterpillar; also a rag; an 
impudent girl ; a pilfering female. 

Brat-dròin, s. in. A mort-cloth. 

Bràt-ciiosach, a. Bow-legged. 

Brat-kolaicu, s. m. A cloak; a blind man. JIar bhrat- 
folaich do 'n dall, as a cloak for the blind. — Stexe. I'ct. 

Bratii, f. a. [Ir. brath.) Betray; spy; guess, suppose ; 
design; e[itertain an opinion. Viet. a. bhrath, bctrai/ed; 
fit. ajf. a. brathaidh, shall betray. F.san a bhrath e, he who 
betrayed him. — .Steu-. N. T. 

Bratii, s. Guess, opinion, idea, expectation, design, judg- 
ment ; a spying, an informing, treachery, betraying; a 
mass, a lump. Bheil brath agad? hare you any idea.' do 
you knoxe ■' Gun bhrath furtachd, uilhout expectation of 
relief. — Macint. Air bhrath, fouml. Cha blii am bard air 
a bhrath, the bard shall not be found. — Old Song. From 
brath very probably comes the Hindoo brachman ; literally, 
the man of judgment. 

BuAth, s. a conflagration; destruction. La bhrath, the 
last day, the day of the con/lagration. Gu la bhriith, never; 
gu brath, for ever. Gu la bhrath cha n' eirich Oscar, 
Oscar shall ncctr rise. — Oss. Teino. Cliù gacli linn gu 
bràlli, the praise ofexcry age for ever. — Old Sung. 

t Brathach, a. Continual, constant. 

Bratiiadair, s. in. (from brath.) An informer, a spy, a 
betrayer, a traitor ; also a kindling ; fuel. iV. pi. brath- 
adairean. /('. bradwr, a traitor. 

BiiATiiADii, aidh, .V. in. A betraying, a spying, an informing; 
treachery. Luchd brathaidh, sjiirs ; fiar brathaidh, ti spy 
or informer. Luchd brathaidh an siotlichainnt, spies in 
peace. — Stew. Ileb. 

Brathadii, (a), pr. part, of brath. 

Brathaidh, /«<. «//'. <;. of brath. Shall or will betray. 

BrAthair, gen. bràthar, s. m. {i. e. bru-ath-urr, a second 
person of the same womb.) A brother. Ardan do bhràthar, 
the proud anger of thy brother. — Oss. Lod. Bratbair màthar, 

B R E 

B R E 

■ an uncle bif the mothers side ; brathair-atliar, an uncle bi/ 
the father's side ; brathair sean-athair, a granduncle, a 
grandfather s brother; brathair sean-rahathair, a grand- 
mother's brother; brathair-ceile, a brother-in-law ; literally, 
a spouse's brother; brathair bochd, a friar ; brathair-mhort, 
fratricide. Is lag cualainn gun bhralhair,_/t( We is the arm 
of him uho has no brother. — G. P. 

Gr. Jl.oI. J>fa.Tùif and <pfaT>ip. Lat. frater. Jr. f frètre, now 
frère. Dan. broder. S-j.ed. broder and bror. 7*/. brodur, 
Angio-Sax. brather. Eng. brother. Germ, bruother. Beigic, 
braeder. Pol. brat. Lus. bradt. Russ. bràte. Sclav, brat. 
Bohem. brat and brodr. Teut. breeder and bruder. Ir. 
brathair. JF. brawd and brawdair. Corn, brawd, breur, 
and bredar. Jrm. breuzr (z silent). Ci/nb. brodir. Tar. 
briider. Pers. berader, burader, and braeder. Hindnst. 
brooder. Every language in Europe, and almost all the 
languages in Asia, have nearly the same term to express 
brother: hence we may conclude that the root is ante- 

Brathair-athar, «. m. An uncle, a father's brother. 
Brathair m' athar, my uncle. 

Bratiiaiu-bociid, s. m. A friar; a lay-capuchin; a poor 

Brathair-ceii.e, s. f. A brother-in-law; literalli/, the 
brother of a spouse. 

Bratiiaireaciias, ais, s. m. Brotherhood; partnership. 
Gum brisinu am brathaireachas, that I might break their 
brotherho'id. — Stev:. Zech. Cha bhi brathaireachas gu 
mnaoi na gu fearann, there is no partnership in Komen or 
land.-G. P. 

t Brathaireag, eig, s.f An aunt by the father's side. 

Brathaireax, n. pi. of brathair; which see. 

Brathaireil, a. (i.e. brathair-amhuil.) Brotherly; /(VtT«//v, 
brotherlike. Gradh brathaireil, brotkerli/ loie. — Slew. 

Brathaireileaciid, .«.y^ Brothcrllness ; unanimity. 

Brathair-matiiar, s. ot. An uncle by the mother's side. 
Brathair mo nihathair, wi/ uncle. 

Brathair-mhort, s. ni. Fratricide. Swed. broder-mort. 

Br.\t-leapach, .?. m. A bed-cover or quilt. 

Brat-lìn, .!. m. A linen cloth ; a sheet. 

Brat-spìillidh, s. m. Swaddling-cloth. Phaisg i e am 
brat-speillidh, she wrapped him in swaddling-clothes. 

Brat-urlair, s. a carpet. 

Breab, s. m. A kick ; a prance; a spurn. Thug e breab 
dha, he gave him a kick. 

Breab, v. a. Kick; prance; spurn; stamp with the foot. 
Pret. a. bhreab, kickid ; fut. off. a. breabaidh, shall kick. 

Breabach, a. (from breab.) Apt to kick or to prance. 
Each breabach brògach, a prancing stron_g-hoofed horse. 

Breabadair, s. in. (from breab.) A weaver; one who 
kicks. A', pi. breabadairean. 

Breabadaireachd, s. /". The business of a weaver ; the 
habit of kicking or of stamping. 

Breabadairean, of breabadair. 

Breabadii, aidh, s. m. A kicking; a prancing; a spurning; 
a stamping ; a kick ; a prance ; a stamp of the foot. 

Breabadii, (a), pr. part, of breab. Kicking; prancing; 
spurning ; stamping. 

Breabail, s.f A kicking; prancing; spurning; stamping; 
also a gurgling noise. Tha na sruthain ri breabail, the 
streamlets are gurgling. — Oss. Dargo. 

Breabain, gen. sing, of breaban. 

Breaeax, ain, s. m. A patch on the tip of a shoe. 

Breabaxaiciie, s. m. A shoemaker; a cobbler. — Macd. 

Breabartaich, s.f. (from breab.) A yerking, kicking, 
prancing, or spurning. 

Breac, brie, s. m. A trout, the sabno fario of Linnseus ; 
a salmon ; rarc/y, a wolf ; a brock or badger. N. pi. hue; 
d. pi. breacaibh. 

Breac, brie, s.f (If. brech. Ir. breac.) A pox; most 
commonly applied to the small-pox ; any spotted appear- 
ance. Breac-otraiche, f/iicAeH /io.r; breac-seunain, breachd- 
sheunain, //-fcA/ti; breac-fhranijach, the venereal; each 
breac, a piebald horse ; breac mhuilinn, that modification of 
cloud called cirro-cumulus. It is called bieac mhuilinn 
by the Gael, probably from the resemblance which a cirro- 
cumulus sky bears to a picked or punctured millstone. 

Breac, Breachd, a. (ÌV. and Arm. brech. Ir. breac.) 
Spotted, marked with the small-pox, speckled, parti- 
coloured, chequered, piebald. A blàiteachadh nan ubha 
breachd, hatching the spotted eggs. — Macfar. Gach spreidh 
tha breachd, all the cattle that is speckled. — Stew. Gen. 
Eich bhreac, speckled [ piebald^ horses. — Stew. Zech. Breac 
le feireagaibh, chequered with cloud-berries. — Macint. 

Breac, Breachd, r.a. Chequer, spot, speckle ; embroider; 
carve; mix; pick a millstone. Prf<. a. bhreac, chequered; 
fut. ajf. a. breacaidh, shall or will chequer. 

Breacadh, Breachdadii, aidh, *. m. A chequering, 
spotting ; embroidering ; picking a millstone. 

Breacag, Breachdag, aig, s.f. A cake, a scon; a pan- 
cake. N. pi. breacagan, cakes. Breacagan neo-ghoirtichte, 
unleavened cakes. — Stew. Lev. 

Breacaix, gen. sing, and n. pi. of breacan. 

Breacaich, Breachdaich, r. «. .Spot, chequer. Pret. a. 
bhreacaich, spotted ; fit. aff. a. breacaichidh, shall chequer. 

Breacaiciite, Breaciidaiciite, /), part, of breacaich or 
breachdaich, spotted, chequered. 

Breacair, J. m. A graving tool, a graver. iV. ;*/. breac- 

Breacaireachd, s.f. The employment of a graver; che- 
quering ; chequer-work. 

Breacan, ain, *■. m. (Ir. id. 11'. brychan, a tartan cover- 
ing.) A Highland plaid, a tartan. 

Particoloured habiliments were used by the Celts from the 
earliest times ; but the variety of colours in the breacan was 
greater or less accordini; to the rank of the wearer. The breacan 
of the Celtic king had seven drtferent colours; the Uruidicnl 
tunic had six ; and that of the nobles four. 

Breacanach, a. Tartan ; plaided. Aodach breacanach, 
tartan clothes. Na gaisgich bhreacanach bhuadhach, the 
plaided, victorious warriors. — Old Song. 

Bueac-an-t SÌL, *. TO. The bird called a wagtail ; the 
motacilla alba of Linneeus. 

Breac-beididh, s. m. A loach. — Macd. 

t Breachd, s.f. A doubt. — Ir. id. 

t Breachdan, ain, i. w(. (Ir. id.) Wheat ; custard ; fresh 
meat; a plaid: for this last sense, see Breacan. 

Breac-iteach, a. Having speckled feathers. Glacagan 
nan eun bhreac-iteach, f^e dells of the speckled birds. — R. 

Breac-iteag, -eig, s.f. A spotted or speckled feather. 

Breac-liath, a. Greyish. 

Breac-lion, lin, s. m. A trout-net; a drag-net ; a land- 
ing-net. Breac-lionntaicliean, drag-nets. 

Breacxachadii, aidh, s. m. A chequering, spotting ; em- 

Breacnaich, v. a. Chequer, make spotted or particoloured ; 
embroider. Fr. breacnuigh. Pret. a. bhreacnaich ; fut. 
ajf. a. breacnaichidh. 

Breacn aichte, p. part, of breacnaichte. Chequered, made 
spotted or particoloured ; embroidered. 

Breac-shoillsich, r. «. Glimmer as the twilight. Pret. a. 

B R E 

B R E 

bhreac-shoillsich, glimmered; fut. aff. a. breac-shoill- 

sichidh, shall glimmer. 
Breac-sholus,-s1io1uìs, *. m. Twilight. 
Brf.acta, Breacte, ;>. pa)7. of breac. Spotted, chequered ; 

embroidered ; carved. — Stew. 1 K. ref. 
Bread, Breid, s. m. A breach. 
Breadh, a. See Bheagh. 
Breadhachd, s.f. See Breagiiachd. 
Breag, Brìig, s.f. A lie. More frequently written breug ; 

which see. 
Breagacii, a. False. See Breugach. 
Breagair, i. jn. A liar. See Breugair. 
Breag H, a. {Arm. brao. Sentch, braw. /;-. breo and 

breagh. ÌV. briaw, digniti/.) Fine, well-dressed, splendid ; 

fair, specious, showy, pleasant. Cia breagh a snuadh ! 

how splendid her appearance ! — Sm. Nur labhras e gu 

breagh, uhen he speaks fair. — Stew. Pro. Is breagh an 

dealradh ni grian, splendid is the sun's shining. — Old Puem. 
Breaghaciid, s.f. {from breagh.) Finery, ornaments, 

showiness ; speciousness. A bhreaghachd, his ornaments. 
Breagiiad, aid, i. OT. Attire, ornament, finery, showiness. 

— Steu'. Is. 
Breaghas, ais, *.»!. (_/>0CT breagh.) Finery, ornaments. 
Breagiiaslacii, aich, s. m. A dream; a delirium. More 

commonly written breisleach. 
Breag UNA, s. The river Boyne in Ireland. 
Breall, breill, s. ni. An uncovering of the glans penis; 

a phymosis. 
Breallach, a. {from breall.) Having a phymosis; of, or 

relating to, a phymosis. 
Breamain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of brearaan; which see. 
Breaman, ain, s. m. A tail. Bàrr a breamain, the tip of 

her tail. — Macint. N. pi. breamain, tails. 
Breamanacii, a. (/;om breaman.) Tailed; like a tail ; of, 

or belonging to, a tail. 
Breamas, ais, s. m. Mischief; mishap, mischance; fatality. 

Ri breamas, at mischif. — Old Song. Tha 'm breamas ort, 

the devil is in you. 
Breamasach, a. Fatal; causing mischance; unlucky. 

Com. and sup. breamasaiche, more or most fatal. 
Breamasaciid, s.f. {from bieamas.) Fatality; a con- 
tinuation of mischances ; a liability to mischance. 
Brean, brein, s. m. A stink. .See Brf.un. 
Breanach, a. See Breunacii. 
Breanan, ain, s. m. A dunghill. More frequently written 

Breantag, aig, s.f. See Breuntag. 
Breantas, ais, s. in. {from brean.) See Breuntas. 
f Breas, *. m. A prince, a potentate ; a voice ; a sound. 
t BREAS-ciiATiiAiR.^ffH. brcas-chathrach. Athrone. — Maed. 

N. pi. breas-chathraichean. 
t Breas-ciiolbh, 4. w. A sceptre. — Jr. id. N. pi. hrcds- 

t Breasda, «. Principal; lively ; active. — Ir. id. 
■f BREAS-LANN,lainn,.s.7H. A place; a court of justice. — 
t Breas-oirciuste, s.f A royal treasure. — Ir. id. 
t Breath, a. Clean, pure, bright, innocent. 
Breatji, «.y. A row, a rank. A''. ;)/. breathan. Tri breathan, 

three ruics. — Steu: 1 K. Written also breith. 
Breath, Breitii, s.f. A judgment ; opinion; censure; 

confidence. Written also breith ; which sec. 
Breath Acn, rt. In ranks, in rows ; also judicial, critical. 
Breathal, ail, v. ?n. Confusion of mind ; terror; flurry. — 

Stew. Acts, ref. 

Breathalach, a. Causing confusion of mind, terror^ or 
flurry ; apt to be confused. 

Breathalaich, s.f. Confusion of mind, flurry. 

Breathamh, «. »1. A judge. See Breitiieamh. 

Breathamhnas, ais, s. m. Judgment, decision. See 

Breatiias, ais, *. ;n. Frenzy; extreme fury; flamingwrath. 
Tha e air bhreathas, he is frantic; thabreathas a chuthaich 
air, he is in a frenzy. 

Breathas is either breulh-theas, i. e. judgment on fire, or bràlh- 
Iheat, a flame of anger, like to a conflagration; broth signifying 
tlie last conflagration. 

Breathnach, aich, s. m. A Welchmau. N. pi. Breathnaich. 

Breathnaich, I. Perceive, judge, opine. P;<7. a. bhreath- 
naich, ju(/!ft'(/. 

t Breathnas, ais, s. m. A skewer, a clasp, a bodkin; the 
tongue of a buckle. — /;■. id. 

Breatunn, tuinn, s. m. Britain. 

Of all the attempts tliat have been made to decompose this 
word, the most ingenious and the most successful is that of 
Mr. Clarke, in his Caledonian Bards, mentioned hy Dr. Mac- 
Arthur in his Supplementary Observations on the Authenticity of 
Ossian's Poems. ìiràith-tniin, the top of the wave, is, according 
to him, the meaning of Brealunn. To perceive the force of this 
account, one has merely to imagine himself viewing Britain across 
the Channel from the north coast of France, from whence came 
our Celtic ancestors. Our island, from that quarter, seems a low 
dark line, lying along the surface of the deep; and no term 
could have been found more descriptive of that appearance than 
Bràilh-tonn or Bràith-tuinn, (pronounced J{rai<oo« or Braituinn,) 
the land on the top of the waves ? Others will have it that 
BrciUunn is a corruption of Hrelinn, a high island, compounded 
of the old Celtic term bret, high, and inn, island. 

Breatunnach, aich, s. m. A Briton. N. pi. Breatunnaich. 
Breice, s.f {from breac.) Spots, spottedness, maculation. 

An liopard a bhreic, the leopard his spots. — Steu: O. T. 
BuEiD, s.f. {Ir. id.) A kerchief, a napkin ; a sail ; a woman's 

head-dress, consisting of a square of fine linen, which is 

pinned neatly round the head, with part of it hanging 

down behind, not unlike the head-dress of the women in 

some parts of Normandy and Bretagne. Breid-uchd, a 

stomacher ; breid -bronn, an apron; breid -shoitheachan, 

a dish-clout. 
Brèideach, a. Like a kerchief ; like a woman's head-dress; 

white-spreading. Ar siùil bhrèideach, our white-spreading 

sails. — O.V.V. Manos. 
Brìideach, eich, s. f A married woman. Bha mi am 

bhreidich, mo ghruagaich 's mo bhantraich san aon am, 

/ was a married uonian, a virgin, and a widow at the same 

time. — Old Song. 
BRfcinuADii, idli, ,s. m. A dressing of the head; a clothing 

or attiring ; patching. 
Bkeidean, ein, s. m. {dim. of breid.) A coif; a little rag; 

a web of frieze. 
Breidean, «. pi. of breid; which see. 
Breid-gheal, n. White-sailed; with a white napkin, with 

a white head-dress. Boirrionnach breid-ghcal, a female 

with a uhitc head-dress ; luingeas breid-gheal crannach, 

a white-sailed high-masted ship. — U/l. 
t Breig, s. m. A rustic, a boor. — Ir. id. 
Br/-,io, v. a. Soothe, cajole, flatter. Written also breug; 

which see. 
Breig E, gen. sing, of breug. Of a lie. Beul na breige, 

a li/ing mouth. Sec Breug. 
BkI^;ige, s.f. A falsehood. 7r. breig. 
t Biu'iG-EHios, s. Enthusiasm. — Ir. id. 
i B)iAio-i-iiiosACH, a. Enthusiastic. — 
Breill, gen. sing, of breall. 

B R E 

B R E 

Breilleis, s. f. Delirium; raving. Tha e na bhreilleis, 
he is raving. 

Breilleiseach, a. Delirious ; causing delirium. 

Breilleiseachd, i./. Liableness to delirium; deliriousness. 

Breim, s. Ajiatus. Breira an diabhoil duibh, nigri diaboli 
Jiatus. — Macvurich. 

Corn. W. and Arm. bram. Ir. breim. Gr. fi^tiiv, to 
make a noise. Lat. fremo. 

Brìix, gen. sing, of breun. 

Breine, com. and sup. of breun. 

Breixe, s. f. A stink. Thig a bhreine nios, Us slink shall 
ascend. — Stezv. Job. 

Brìineag, eig, s.f. ( /ro/« breine.) A dirty young female, 
a slattern or drab. N. pi. brèineagan. 

Breinean-brotiiacii, s. The great daisy. 

Breinid, J./. Stink; a putrid smell. 

t Breis, s.f. A tear. 

Breis, v. a. Break. See Bris. 

Breisg, a. Brisk. See Brisg. 

Breisleach, ich, s. m. A dream, delirium, raving. Tha 
e na bhreisleach, he is rating. 

Breith, s. Judgment, sentence, decision ; a row or rank ; 
a layer; also birth, descent; a bearing, a carrying ; penance. 
Breith air a phobull bheir thu, thou shalt judge the people. — 
Smith. Na h-aingidh anns a bhreith, the -uicked in the 
judgment. — Smith. Their hrthh, judge ; breith-air-eiginn, 
rapine, deforcement. — Macd. Breith-buidheachais, thanks- 
giving ; breith-dhitidh, sentence of condemnation. 

Breith, v. a. Judge, sentence ; bear, bring forth, produce. 
Sguir i bhreith cloinne, she left otT hearing children. — Stew. 
Gen. I'ret. a. bhreith ; fit. af. a. breithidh. 

B r EiTH each, a. (yrom breith.) Judicial, critical, /^r.breitheach. 

Breitheal, eil, s. m. Confusion ; turmoil ; astonishment. 

Breitheamh, imh, s. m. A judge; an umpire ; judgment, 
decision, sentence. Ir. breitheamh. 

Breitheamhnas, eus, s. m. See Bueitiieakas. 

Breitheanas, ais, s. m. {from breith.) Ir. breitheamnas. 
A judgment; a decision; a sudden calamity. La bhreithe- 
anais, the day of judgment ; thainig breitheanas ort, a judg- 
ment came upon i/ou. 

Breitheanas is evidently a contraction o( breith a tiuas, a judg- 
ment t'rom above. It is well known that the sentences passed by 
the Druids on criminals were often rigorous in the extreme. When 
they found it expedient to doom a culprit to a severe punishment, 
or to an awtul death, they alleged that they acted by the compul- 
sion of Heaven, which directed all their judgments, and of course 
approved of all their decisions. Hence their sentence, from the 
word breith, meaning any ordinary decision, was called breit/ie- 
anuas, or breitheamhnuas, now contracted breitheanas ; meaning 
a judgment from God, or any rigorous decision. This word is still 
the term among the Gael to express the decision of a judge, or any 
sudden calamity. 

Breitii-air-eiginn, s. Deforcement, rapine. — Macd. 

Breith-buidheachais, s. m. Thanksgiving. Gu ma fearr 
leibh breith-buidheachais, may you rather thanksgiving. — 
Steu. Eph. 

Breitii-dhìtidh, s. Sentence of condemnation. 

Breitheadaireachd, s.f. Interpretation, as of dreams. 

Breitiieastach, a. Judicial ; judicious. — 57iaa'. 

Breitiixeach, a. Imaginative. 

Breithneachadh, aidh, s. m. An apprehension ; a way of 
thinking; a conceiving ; imagination. Uile bhreithneach- 
adh a smuaintean, all the imaginations of his thoughts. — 
Stew. Gen. A dh' aon bhreithneachadh, of one mind or way 
of thinking. — Stew. Phil. 

Breithnich, v. Conceive, imagine, apprehend. Fret. a. 

bhreithnich, imagined; fut. aff. a. breithnichidh, shall 

t Brenk, a. An ancient Celtic term, long gone into disuse 

among the Gael, but retained in the Armoric dialect. 

Hence Brennus, the name of the Gaulish king who took 

Rome, and of the prince who attempted to plunder the 

temple at Delphi. 
Breo, s. a fire, a flame. Breo-clach, ajtint ; breo-choire, 

a warming-pan ; breo-chual, a bonjire, a funeral pile. 
t Breocii, s. m. A brim, a brink. — /;-. id. 
Breo-chlach, -chloich, i.y. A flint. iV. ;;/. breo-chlachan. 
Breo-choire, s.f. A warming-pan. — Shaw. 
Breo-chual, -chuail, s.f. A funeral pile, a bonfire. — Shaw. 

N. pi. breo-chualan. 
Breo-dhruidheachd, s.f. Pyromancy. 
Breog, Breoig, s.f. A leveret. — Ir. id. 
tBREOG.a. Feeble; sickly. 
t Breogach, aich, s. m. A baker. — Ir. id. N, pi. breog- 

Breoillean', ein, s. in. A darnel. 

Breoilleax.^ch, a. Abounding in darnel; like darnel. 
Breòite, a. Infirm, frail, weak, sickly; slender; bruised; 

tender. Ged tha mi crionaidh breòite, withered and bruised 

though I be. — Old Song. 
Breòiteaciid, s.f. Infirmity, frailty ; weakness, sickliness ; 

t Breon, Breoin, s. m. A blemish, blur, or spot. — /;•. id. 
Breoth, r. ff. Bruise, crush, maim. P;e/. a. bhreoth, 6ri/i«e; 

fut. aff. a. breothaidh, shall or will bruise. 
Breothadii, aidh, s. m. A wounding, crushing, bruising; 

a maiming ; a decay or consumption ; a wound ; a crush 

or bruise. 
Breothadii, (a), pr. part, of breoth. Wounding, crushing, 

bruising, maiming, 
t Breotiiax, ain, s. m. Wheat. — Ir. id. 
t Bret, a. High. Hence, according to some, the name 

Breatunn ; which see. 
Bretii. See Breith. 
Breug, Breig, »■. /. A lie, a falsehood. A'^. ;;/. breugan ; 

gen. pi. breug ; d. pi. breugaibh. Bilean nam breug, lips 

of falsehood. — Stew. Pro. 
Breug, :■. a. Soothe; flatter; cajole; entice. Pret. a. bhreug, 

soothed ; fut. aff. a. breugaidh, shall soothe ; fut. sub. bhreu- 

gas. Mu bhreugas peacaich thu, ij' sinners entice thee. — 

Stew. Pro. 
Breugach, a. Lying, false, deceitful; flattering, cajoling, 

soothing; deceived. Diomhauasa breugach, lying vanities. 

— Stew. Jonah. Fianuis h\, false witness ; is breu- 
gach thu an diu, thou art deceived to-day. — Old Poem. Tha 

thu cho bhreugach "s a tha 'ii luch cho bhradach, you lie as 

much as the mouse pilfers. — G.P. Com. and sup. breugaiche, 

more or moit false. 
Breugadh, aidh, s. m. A cajoling, flattering, or soothing. 
Breugag, aig, s.f. A lying female. N. pi. breugagan. 

Ceist bradaigair breugaig, ask the thief if I be a liar. — G. P. 
Breug aich, v. a. (J'rom breug.) Belie, falsify, give the lie; 

disprove ; gainsay. Pret. a. bhreugaich, belied ; fut. aff. a. 

breugaichidh, shall or will belie; fut. pass, breugaichear. 

Ged dh' eignichear an scan fhocal cha bhreugaichear e, 

though the proverb be gainsaid, it cannot be disproved. — G. P. 
Breugaiche, s. m. A liar. Is feaird breu|aiche fianuis, 

a liar requires a voucher. — G. P. 
Breugair, s. m. A liar. Eisdidh am breugair, the liar shall 

listen.— Stew. Pro. N. pi. breugairean. 
Breugaireachd, «./. A habit of lying ; the vice of lying. 
Breugan, n. pi. of breug. Lies. 

B R I 

BREUG-cimABHACii, a. Hvpocrit'ical. 
BREUG-ciiRAniiADii, aidh, ,v. ill. Hypocrisy. 
Breuclachadii, aidh, s. m. A forswearing', perjuring ; 

gainsaying, falsifying. 
Breuglaicii, r. n. Forswear, perjure, belie, gainsay. 
Pref. a. bhreuglaich ; fiif. off. a. breuglaiciiidh, shall for- 
STCcar ; p. pari, breuglaiclite. 
Breuglaichte, p. part, of brenglaich. Forsworn; gainsaid. 
Breugmaciiadh, aidh, s. vi. A falsifying, belying, contra- 
dicting, gainsaying. 
BBruGNACiiAiu, i. w. A gainsaycr. JV. p/. breugnachairean. 
Breugnaicii, f. a. Belie, falsify, contradict. Prct. a. 
breugnaich, belied ; fitt. ajf'. a. breugnaichidh, shall or will 
belie; p. pari, breugnaichte, ya/iv/ie'/; Jut. pass, breiig- 
Breugnaichidh, fiit. af. a. Shall or will falsify. 
Breugnaichte, p. part, of brengnaich. Belied, falsified, 

Breug-riociid, s.f. A disguise. 

Breun, a. Stinking, putrid, loathsome, nasty; clumsy; 
also a stink, a smell. O'n otrach bhreun, from the putrid 
dunghill. — Smith. Tha e breun, it is loathsome. — Stew. Job. 
Boladh breun, a stinking savour. — Stexv. Ecc. 

rr. braen. ^chi. bren. Te«/. bren anrf bern. /r. breun. 
Bkeunach, a. Stinking; nasty; surly. Com. and sup. 

Breunag, aig, s. f. A dirty female, a slattern or drab. 

N. pi. breunagan. 
Breunan, ain, s. tn. A dunghill ; any stinking thing. 
Breunan-brotiiach, aich, *. m. The great daisy. 
Breun-ladhrach, a. Rotten-toed. 
Breuntag, aig, s.f. A filthy drab. N. pi. breuntagan. 
Breu.stas, ais, s. m. {Ir. breantas.) A putrid smell, any 

loathsome smell, 
t Bri, s.f. Anger; a word; a rising ground; an effort; 

essence. For the last sense, see Brìgh. 
t Bria, s. m. A town. 

This vocable has gone into disuse among the Scottish and Irish 
Celts, but is preserved by their brethren of Bretagne. Kria meant 
a town, in the ancient Thracian language ; and it is found in the 
names of many towns iu France, Spain, and Hritain. Ancient 
geographers, as Strabo, Ptoluiiiy, and I'liny, write this word re- 
spectively hrigu, brica, and briva ; not because the nieaning was 
dift'erent, for it was the same, but because bria was pronounced 
differently by dilTerent nations. 
t Buiagii, s. a wound, a mortal wound. 
Briagii, a. (y/rwi. brao. Scotch, 7r. breo a/irf breagli. 
W. briaw, dignify. Swed. braf, good.) Fine ; well-dressed ; 
showy ; elegant ; well. La briagh, u Awe </".'/ ; boirionnach 
bhriagh, a shuwj/ female ; tha mi gu briagh, / am quite xccll. 
Briagiiaciid, s.f. Finery; showiness ; gaudiness. 
Briagh AS, ais, Ò-. 7». Finery; showiness; gaudiness. 
t Brian, Bhein, s. m. A word; composition; a warrant ; 

an author. — //■. id. 
■f Brianach, a. (from brian.) Full of fair speeches; spe- 
cious ; prosing, 
t Briar,.*. Briar; a thorn ; a pin ; a prickle. 
Bui'ak, a. Sec Brighmiior. 
Briarach, a. Thorny, prickly. 

BniATiiAR, s. (Ir. id.) A word ; a saying; an assertion ; 
an oath ; a verb ; ranlj/ a victory or conquest. Air mo 
bhriathar, upon mi/ word. 
Bri ATMARAcn, BiiiATHRACii, a. Wordy ; verbal; verbose; 
talkative. Ni thu 'm fear tosdach briathrach, thou viakest 
the .■tilent man talhutixe. — R. 
Briathakachas, Briathraciias, ais, s. m. Eloquence; 
elocution ; verbosity. 

B R I 

Briatiiraicii, r. a. Affirm, assert, dictate, sw«ar to; 
Fret. a. briathraich, affirmed; fut. af. a. briathraichidh, 
shall or will affirm. 
Briathrail, a. (briathar-amhuil.) Verbal. Eadar-thean- 

gachadh briathrail, a xerbal translation. 
Brib, Bribe, s.f. A bribe. N. pi. bribeachean. 
Brig, «. 7)/. of breac. Trouts. 

Brice, com. and sup. of breac. More or most spotted. 
Brice, «./. (/;-o»i breac.) Spottedness. 
Brice, s.f. A brick. — Macd. 
Bricean, ein, 4. »H. A sprat; a small trout. 
Buic-siioiRN, s.f. A brick-kiln. 

t Brìd, gfH. bride, .s./'. A bridle. Gr. B^vtyi^. iV. bride. 
Bride, s.f A pimple. Written more frequently fride. 
Brideacii, ich, s. m. and y! (//•. id.) A dwarf ; a bride, 
a virgin. iS"^. ;;/. bridichean. Cha bhrideach air an f hàich e, 
he is not a dwarf in ihejield of buttle. — Old Song. 
Brideaciiail, a. (brideach-amhuil.) Dwarfish; like a 

virgin, like a bride ; bridal. 
Brideag, cig, s.f. Part of the jaw. — Shaw.. 
Buigax. See Briogan. 

Brìgh, 4. /. (Scotch, htee.) Sap, juice ; essence; elixir; 
relish ; vigour, pith, strength ; capacity ; substance, wealth; 
meaning, interpretation; virtue, valour; effect, avail, bene- 
fit ; price ; rareh/, a tomb, a miracle. Craobh gun bhrigh, 
a sapless tree ; briathran gun bhrigh, words without pith, 
or without meaning; innis da ar brigh, tell him of our 
strength. — Oss. Carth. Gcd gheibliinn brigh Eirinn, though 
I were to get the wealth of Ireland. — Fingalian I'oem. B'i 
so bu bhrigh d' an dan, this was the substance of their song. 
— Smith. Is deacair brigh do sgcoil, sad is the substance 
[subject] of thy tale. — Oss. Derm. Ullin na brigh, valiant 
Ullin. — Oss. Carth. Caithidh cumha gun bhrigh, weeping 
consumes without avail. — Oss. Cronia. 
Brigh'ar, a. See Brigh.mhor. 
t Brighide, s. c. a hostage. — Shaw. 
Brighmiioire, a.; com. and sup. of brighmhoire. 
Brighmhuireaciid, s.f. Substantialness ; juiciness ; vi- 

Brigiimhor, a. Substantial ; juicy ; vigorous; effectual. 

Com. and sup. brioghmhoire. 
Brigh'ou, a. See Brigiimhor. 
Brigis, *. /)/. Breeches. See Briogais. 
Brillean, ein, s. m. The clitoris. 
Brilleanach, a. Lewd. 
t Brin, s.f. A dream, a reverie. 
t Brin-dealan, ain, s. m. A frontlet. — Shaw. 
BiiiNNEACH, ich, «.y. An old woman ; a hag; a mother. 
BiiiNNiciiTE, a. (Ir. id.) Hag-ridden. — Shaw. 
t Briochd, s.f. (Ir. id.) A wound; an art, a trade; a 

beauty. — Shaw. 
BuioDAL, ail, s. VI. Chit-chat; flattery; caressing. Do 
bhriodal ctiil, the secret Jiatterij. — Mac Lach. Written 
also briotal. 
Briodal, v. a. Caress, cajole, flatter, tattle; small talk. 

Pret. a. bhriodal, caressed. 
Briodalach, a. Flattering; inclined to flatter or cajole; 
tattling. Is tu am fear briodalach, a flattering fellow thou 
art. — R, Com. and sup. briodalaiche, more or most 
Briodalachd, i.y". Tattling; a propensity to flatter. 
Briodaladh, aidh, s. m. A caressing, a cajoling, a flatter- 
ing, a tattling. 
BRiODALAnii, (a), pr. part, of briodal. Caressing, cajoling, 
flattering, tattling. Ag am briodaladh, caressing them. — 

B R I 

B R I 

Briodalaiche, *. m. A flatterer, a cajoler, a tattler; also 
the com. and sup. of briodalach. 

t BuioG, s.f. Confinement, restraint. 

Briogaid, s. f. An elderly woman; a morose old female. 
Esan a phò.sas briogaid, /ic nho marries a morose old ■aomari. 
—Old Song. 

Beiogais, s. pi. Breeches ; trowsers. Briogais anairt, 
linen_ hreecAes. — Steii:. Ler. 

Lat. braccffi, a name given by the Romans to the cover- 
ing for the thighs used by the Persians, Scythians, and 
Gauls. The word braccie is used by Diodorus the Sicilian, 
St. Jerome, and Lucan ; but the luxtc braccie of the last 
seem to be the loose hose once used bv mariners. 

Sued, bracka. Tent, bracca. .Irm. Ijrag. Bels;- broeck. 
Gerni. brechen. If. braga. Si/r. brace, i'ulgtir Gr. iS^axi. 
Corn, brycean. Sclav, bregesche. In old French writers 
we find bragues and bragis, which were once pronounced 
as they spell. In Languedoc and in Gascony they still 
say brogues. 

Briogax, ain, s. m. Breeches; trowsers. Gerw. brechen. 
Corn, brycean. X. pi. briogain. 

Briogaxach, a. (from briogan.) Having breeches or 

Briogii, .s. See BrIgii. 

Briogiiach, a. (/;om briogh.) Juicy, substantial; efficacious. 

Briollag, aig, s. f. An illusion. /;•. brioUog. 

Brioli-agach, a. Illusory; deceitful. 

Briollair, s. m. A whoremonger; a lecherous fellow; one 
who is afflicted with incontinence of urine. , 

Briollax, ain, s. m. A chamber-pot; a urinal; an ignorant 
spiritless fellow. 

Briollanach, a. Stupid; boorish; ignorant. 

Briollaxachd, s. f. Stupidity; boorishness ; ignorance. 

t Briox, s. m. A fiction, a lie ; a drop. 

t Brioxach, aich, «. w. A liar. 

Brioxglaid, i.y. Confusion; a dream ; a reverie. 

Brioxglaideach, (7. Causing confusion ; dreaming. 

Brionxach, a. Pretty; fair; comely.— -l/ac!;?/. Also flat- 
tering, lying. 

Brio.sxachd, «./. Prettiness; comeliness; falsehood. 

Brkixxal, ail, s. m. Flattery; fawning, sycophancy; a 
caressing, a toying, flirting, jvfi e brionnal, he will Jlatter. 
— Sni. Ri brionnal, ^iW(«D-. 

Brioxxalach, a. Flattering, fawning, sycophantic; toy- 
ing, flirting. Com. and stip. brionnalaiche, more or most. 

Brioxxalachd, s. f. A habit of flattering or fawning; 

Brioxxdal, ail, s. m. See Bhioxxal. 

Brioxxdalach, o. See Brioxxalach. 

Briosaid, i./. A belt, a girdle. jV. ;>/. briosaidean. 

Briosaideach, a. Belted, girdled ; like a belt or girdle. 

Briosg, s.f. A start, a sudden movement through fear or joy ; 
a very short space of time, an instant; a brisk movement. 

Briosg, V. Start; move suddenly. Pref. a. hhnosg, started ; 
flit. ajf'. a. briosgaidh, shall or uill start. Briosgadh fiadh 
airCromla, let the deer start axcay fromCromla. — Oss. Fin". 

Briosgadh, (a), pr.part. of briosg. 

Briosgadh, aidh, s. m. A starting, a sudden motion, a 
springing ; briskness. Gun bhriosgadh, without briskness. 
— Mucint. 

Briosoaid, «./. A biscuit. jNT. jo/. briosgaidean. 

t Briot, a. Speckled, spotted, piebald. 

Briot, s.f. Chit-chat, tattle, small-talk, flattery. 

Briotacii, a. Chattering; prone to tattle ; prattling. 

Briotachax, ain, i. m. A prater; a tattling fellow, 

Briotal, ail, s. m. Chit-chat, tattle, small-talk, flattery, 
caressing. Briotal a bheir gàir air gruagaichean, chit-chat 
that makes maidens laugh.— Macfar. See also B r i o D a B . 

Bris, r. a. Break, fracture, splinter, burst; break forth, 
exclaim ; become insolvent. Prtt. a. bhris ; fuf. af. a. 
brisidh, shall or will break. Bhris faire air monadli nan 
smth. daun broke on the mountain of streams. — Oss. Bliris 
e a shieagh, he broke his spear.— Oss. Fing. Gu? am bris 
an la, fill break of dawn. — Stew. O. T. "Bhris le guth a 

graidh an oigh, the maid exclaimed with her voice qfìoxe. 

Oss. Bhris e, he failed; brisidh an aimsir, the weather will 
draw to rain. 

Lat. t briso. Eng. bruise. Swed. brista. Old Sax. brysan, 
break. Teuf. brusan. 

Brisdeach, a. Breaking, splintering; brittle. Written also 
brisleach . 

Brisdeadh, idh, s. m. A breaking, a splintering, abursting; 
a breach ; a fissure. Luchd-bristidh mhionn, the breaker 
of oaths. — Mac Lach. Written also bristeadh. 

Briseadh, 3 sing, and pi. imperat. of bris. Briseadh e, let 
him break ; briseadh iad, let them break. 

Briseadh, idh, s. m. (/;•. id.) A breaking, a bursting, a 
splintering; a breach, a break, a failure or insolvency. 
Gu briseadh na fàire, till dai/brcak. — Stew. Gen. Am bris- 
eadh so, this breach. — Id. Briseadh air bhriseadh, breach 
upon breach. — Stew. Job. Briseadh air son brisidh, breach 
for breach. — Stew. Lev. Briseadh -crid he, heart -brealc; 
briseadh-ceille, derangement ; briseadh-mach, an out-break- 
ing oj anij kind, an eruption on the skin. 

Briseadh, (a), pr.part. of bris; which see. 

Briseadh-ceille, s. in. Derangement of mind.— Ois. Tern. 

Briseadh-cridhe, s. m. A heart-breaking; dejection of 
mind ; discouragement. — Stew. Job. 

Briseadh-mach, s. m. An eruption, an out-breaking of 
any kind. 

Brisg, a. Brittle ; quick in motion, lively, active, hasty. 
W. brysg, brittle. Arm. bresg. Ir. briosg. Fr. brusque, 

Brisg, f. n. See Briosg. 

Buisg-ehuille, s. m. A smart blow, a sudden blow, a jerk. 

Bkisgeax, ein, s. m. A giistle or cartilage; also wild 
skerret. Brisgean mills, the sweet-bread of any creature. 

Tlie brisgean, or wild skerret, is a succulent root not unfre- 
quently used by the poorer people in some parts of the Highlands 
tor bread or potatoes. 

BRibGEAXACH,aich,i./. Crackling, or the rind ofroastedpork. 

Brisgeaxacii, a. Abounding in gristle, gristly ; like gristle. 

BuisG-GHEAL, a. Limpid, clear. 

Brisg-ghlòir, i./. Loquacity; prattle. 

Bris-ghloireach, a. Loquacious, prating. 

Brisleach, ich, s.f. A breach ; the dispersement or derout 
of an array. 

Brisleax, ein, s. m. White tansy. 

Brisleaxach, a. Like white tansy; abounding in white 
tansy ; of, or belonging to, white tansy. 

Briste', yòr bristeadh; which see. 

Briste, p. part, of bns. Broken, bruised, wounded; splint- 
ered ; insolvent. A ghairdean air clarsaich bhriste, leaning 
on a broken harp. — Oss. Duthona. Tha mo chridhe briste, 
mi/ heart is broken. — Stew. Jer. Spiorad briste, a bruised 
spirit. — Stew. Pro. Fear briste, a bankrupt. 

Bristeach, a. (from bris.) Brittle; inarticulate; broken, 
glimmering ; splintering. Solus bristeach nan reultan, the 
broken light of the stars. — Ull. Fhuaim bhristeach d'ainme, 
the inarticulate sound of thy name. — Oss. Gaul. 

Bristeadh, idh, *. in. A breaking, a buisting; a fissure, 
a crack, an opening; a break, a breach. Ro bhristeadh 

B R O 

nan neul, through the opening of the clouds. — Oss, Cathula. 

Mar bhristeadh builgein, like the bursting of bubbles. — Oss. 
Bris-throisci, *./. A breakfast, 
t Bro, a. Old, antique. — //•. id. Shaw. 
t Bro, a. Cliampion ; a p-inding-stone ; a quern or hand-mill, 
t Broc, a. Grey, dark-grey- 
Broc, bruic, s. ?«. A badger, a brock. N. pi. bruic. 

Croicinne bhroc, badgers' skins. — Stew. Exud. Arm. and 

Corn, broch. Ir. broc. 
Brocach, a. Greyish; like a badger; speckled on the face, 

freckled, spotted. 
Brocair, s. m. {from broc.) A badger-hunter ; a fox- 
hunter. N. pi. brocairean. 
Brocaireachd, *. /'. Badger-hunting, fox-hunting. 
Brocanta, a. Shy, like a badger. 
Brochaill, s.f. The name of the banner of Gaul, the son 

of Morni. 
Brochan, ain, i. HI. (/r. brocan. JF. brwchan.) Porridge, 

pottage. Brochan do ghall-pheasair, pottage of lenliles. — 

Steiv. Gen. A phoit bhrochain, the pottage (porridge J pot. 

—Stew. 1 K. 
Brochd, s. m. {Corn, broch.) A badger. See Broc. 
Broch DACii, a. Variegated, greyish, spotted; coloured like 

a badger. 
Broclacii, aich, ^.y. A warren. JV. /j/. broclaich. 
Bkoc-lann, -luinn, s. m. A badger's den; a cavern, the 

hole or hiding-place of any wild beast. Ceum an sealgair 

'n caradh a bhroc-luinn, thi: huntsman steps towards his 

den. — Oss. Conn. 
Broc-luidii, s. in. A badger's den ; a den or cavern, the 

hole or hiding-place of any wild beast. Broc-luidh aig na 

sionnaich, foxes have holes. — Stew. Mark, ref. 
BROD,broid, s. (7r. brod. Dan. hrod. &o/c//, brod.) A goad, 

a prickle, a sting. N. pi. brodan. 
Brod, broid, s. {Scotch, brod.) A lid ; a small board; the 

best of grain, or of any other substance. 
Brod, v. a. Stimulate, goad. Pret. a. bhròd, stimulated j 

flit. off. a. bròdaidh, shall stimulate. 
Brod, broid, s. m. A crowd, a swarm; pride, arrogance; 

chastisement. Fein speis agus brod, self-conceit and arro- 
gance. — Old Song. 
t Brod, broid, s. m. A blemish, a spot. It. broda, dirt. 
Bròdacii, a. In crowds, in swarms ; arrogant. 
Brodacii, a. Goading, stimulative, prickling; stirring up. 
Brodadh, aidh, s.m. A goading or spurring; avfinnowing; 

a stirring up. 
Brouail, a. Proud, arrogant. 

Brod-ghaineamh, imh, *./. Gravel. — Macd. and Shaw. 
t Brodh, s. m. A straw, a stem. — Shaw. 
Brod-iaso, -eisg, s. m. A needle-fish. 
Bròo, Bròig, *. y. Sorrow; a house, a village. Brog,in 

the last two senses, is also written borg and burg ; which 
see. Bhuail an t-earrach bròg orm, the spring has smitten 
mc with grief. — Macfar. 
Bròg, Bkòio, s.f {Ir. brog. Scotch, brogue.) A sandal, 
a shoe ; bi/ a figure of speech, a foot. N. pl.hrbga. and 
brògan. Cuir dhiot do bhròga, put of thy shoes. — Stew. 
E.nd. O mhullach gu bròig, from head to foot. — Macint. 
Brog na cuthaig, bultcruurl. 
The Ilii;lilan(l hrbg was iiiiuie of n piece of raw hide, with the 

hair turned inwards, nnd tied before and behind with a thong. 
BROG,r. a. {Scotch, hrog.) Spur, stimulate, goad. Pret. 

bhrog, spurred ; fut. a/f. brogaidh, shall spur. 
Brogach, a. Sturdy; also lewd, filthy, nasty. 
Brooach, aich, J. m, A sturdy little fellow. N . pi. h^ogaich. 


Brooacji, a. Spurring, goading, stimulating. 
Brògacii, a. (yrom brog.) Shod; having large shoes ; like 
a shoe; of, or belonging to, a shoe: also strong-hoofed, 
in which sense it is applied to one of CuchuUin's horses. — 
0*4'. Fing. Bi curraiceach brogach brochanach, be ye well- 
hooded, well-shod, and well-fed.— G. P. 
Brogaidh, s. A name given to a cow that puts with her 

horns ; a squat sturdy fellow, in derision. 
Brogail, fl. Sturdy, Uvely, active ; hale. Bodach brogail, 

a lively old man. 
Brog AIR, s. m. {from brog.) A shoemaker, a cobbler. 

2V. pi. brogairean. 
Brògaireaciid, s. f. Shoemaking, cobbling. 
Brogalachd, s.f. Sturdiness, activity. 
Broganach, aich, s. m. A lively, sturdy fellow. JV. pi. 

Broganach, a. Lively, sturdy, jocose. Bodach broganach, 

a sturdy old man. 
Broganta, a. Lively, sturdy, active. Bodach broganta, 

a sturdy old man ; cailleach bhroganta, a lively old woman. 
t Brogh, *. m. Filthiness, dirt. — /;■. id. Shaw. 
t Broghach, a. Filthy, dirty ; also excessive, superfluous. 

Ir. broghdha. 
t Broghain, s.f. Excess, superfluity. — Shaw. 
Brog-na-cuthaig, s.f. The flower called buttenvort. 
Broice, s.f. A mole, a freckle. 

Broicean, ein, s. m. {Ir. broicne.) A freckle, a mole. 
Broicneach, a. {from broicean.) Freckled. Aghaidh 

bhroicneach, a freckled face. 
t Broidinneal, eil,i. m. A richly-embroidered garb. — 
Broid-inealta, a. Embroidered. 
Broigheal, il, s. m. A cormorant, a sea-raven. 
Broigiileag, eig, s. f. A whortle-berry, vitis Idtea of 

naturalists. Written also braoilcug. 
Broighleagach, a. Abounding in whortle-berries, 
Braoileach, u. Bustling, noisy, tumultuous. 
Broileadii, idh, s. OT. Bustle, confusion, turmoil ; loud noise. 
Broilich, s.f Noise, bawling, confusion, tumult; conti- 
nued noise. Written braoilich. 
Broilleach, ich, s. f. A breast, a bosom. A broilloach 

mar chobhar nan stuadh, her breast like the foam of the 

waves. — Oss. Carthon. 'Na bhroilleach, in his bosom. — 

Stew. Exod. Written also brollach. 
+ Broimeis, i.y. Anger; boldness. — Shaw. 
Bròin, gen. sing, of bròn. 
Bròin, v. a. Mourn, lament, deplore. Pret. a. bhròin, 

mourned; fut. aff. a. bròinidh, shall or will mourn. 
t Broin, *. f A height ; a large company, — Ir. id. Shaw. 
Bròineag, eig, s.f. {frombibn.) A disconsolate female ; 

a querulous female. 
Broineag, eig, s./. A little rag. JV. /;/. broineagan, rngi ; 

asp. form, bhroineagan. Seann bhroineagan, old rags. — 

S^ew. Jer. 
BiioiNEAGACH, «. Ragged; full of rags. 
Buoinean, ein, s. m. {from bròn.) A sickly person; a 

querulous, complaining person. 
Broinn, gtn. sing, ofbrù. /;■. broinne. See Brù. 
Bkoinn-deaug, -deirg, *. tn. The robin-redbreast. 
BiioisDE, f. /. A brooch. 
Broisg, r. a. Excite, incite, stir up, provoke. Pret. a. 

bhroisg; fut. aff. a. broisgidh, shall provoke. 
+ Broisnean, ein, s. m. A small faggot, 
t Broith, *. Carnation colour.— Jr. id. 
Brolasgach, a. Talkative, 

B R O 

B R U 

Crolasc.adh, aidh, ,?. m. Loquacity. 

Brollacii, aich, s. m. (/;■. id.) A breast, a bosom; brisket; 

a preface. A bhrollach leònta, /lis wounded breast. — 

Dargo. Am brollach a bliàis, in the bosom of death. — 

Oss. Tern. Written also broilleaeh. 
t Brollaciian, aiu, s. m. A ragged person, 
t Bromach, s. m. A colt. — 7c. id. Shan: K. pi. broraaiche. 
Broman, ain, *. m. A rustic ; a rude person, a booby. — Ir. id. 
Bromanach, a. Rustic, rude, boorish. — Ir. id. 
t Bron, a. Perpetual. Shaiv. 
Bròn, broin, i. OT. (ff. brwyn. /r. bron.) Grief; sorrow; 

mourning; wailing, weeping. Fa mo bhròin, <^e cause of 

my tnoiirning. — Oss. Taiira. Eiridh bròin, the rising of 

grief — Oss. Conn. Ainnir ri bron na h-aonar, a maiden 

■wailing in solitude. — Oss. Mo bhròn ! alas! woe's me ! 
Bron ACH, fl. (/'row bron.) Jr. id. Sorrowful; sad; mourn- 
ful ; mourning. Le cumlia brònach, with sad lumtnlatiun. — 

Stew. Mic. Guth nan oighean bronacb, the voice of the 

mourning maidens. — Orran. Com. and sup. bronaiche. 
t Brovadh, aidh, s. m. Destruction. 
Brònadii, (a), ;). part, of bròin. Deploring. Fioim 'g ad 

bhrònadh, Fingal deploring thcc. — Death of Carril. 
Bròn-biirat, -bhrait, s. m. A mortcloth or pall. 
Bròn-ciiuimiine, s. f. A sad remembrance. Bhur bròn- 

chuimhne, the sad remembrance of you. — Oss. Tauia. 
t Bronn, v. a. Distribute, divide. 
Bronn, gen. sing, of brii. Of a belly. /;■. brun and bronn. 

Jr7n. brun. 
t BiiON.v,broinn, s.f. A breast; a favour; a track, a mark. 

Ir. id. 
Bkonnach, (7. Swag-bellied, gluttonous ; bagged, bellied ; 

well-fed. Caoraich bhronnach, well-fed sheep. — Macfur. 
Bronnach, aich, s. m. A girth or belly-band. 
t Bronnadii, aidh, s. in. A distributing, a bestowing ; 

generosity. — /;-. id. Shaw. 
Bronnag, aig, .s.y. A gudgeon ; a little bulky female. — 

K. pi. bronnagan. 
Bronn-ghabii, r. Conceive, as a female. 
Bronn-giiabhaii., *. /; (Ir. id.) A conception ; the act of 

conceiving, as a female does. 
Bronn-sgaoileadii, idh, *. m. A flux or dysentery. 
Bronn-sgaoilteach, a. Causing a flux or dysentery, 
t BuoNNTA, a. Bestowed ; given away, distributed. — //■. id. 

t BuoNNTAS, ais, s. m. A gift; a favour; a track. — Ir. id. 
Bronnthacii, aich, .?. m. A girth; a belt, a belly-band. 

Written also bronnach. 
Brosduich, v. a. See Brosnuich. 
Brosgadh, aidh, s. m. An exhortation; an incitement. 
Brosgul, nil, s. m. Flattery; lively talk. 
Brosglach, a. (for brosgulach.) Livily; active, brisk, 

prompt, clever ; flattering, loquacious. Com. and sup. bros- 

gnlaiche, more or must flattering. 
Brosglaciiadii, Brosgluciiadh, aidh, s. w. The act of 

flattering; a cheering up, briskening. 
Brosglach ADH, (a\ pr. part, of brosglaich. 
Brosglaicii, Brosgluich, v. a. Cheer up ; flatter. Pret. 

a. bhrosglaich ; fut. aff. a. brosglaichidh, shall cheer up. 

Bhrosglaich e ri faicinn an righ, he cheered up on seeing the 

king. — Uss. Conn, 
t Brosna, ai, s. m. A faggot. — //-. id. 
Brosnaciiadii, Brosnuciiadii, aidh, s. m. An incitement, 

a provocation, a spurring on. /r. brosdachadh. Mar anns 

a bhrosnuchadh, as in the provocation. — Stew. Heb. Bros- 

uuchadh cath, a battle song, an incitement to battle. 

Brosnachadii, Brosnuchadh, (a), pr. part, of brosnaich 
or brosnuich ; which see. 

Brosnachail, a. Instigating. 

Brosnaich, Brosnuich, v. a. Provoke, incite, spur on ; 
actuate. Pret. a. bhrosnaich, provoked ; fut. aff. a. bros- 
naichidh, shall provoke. Bhrosnaich thu mi, thou hast 
provoked me. — Stew. 0. T. 

Brosnaiciite, Brosnuichte, part. Provoked, incited, 

Brosnuchadh, aidh, .?. m. see Brosnachadh. 

Brot, .5. 777. Broth. It. broda. /;•. broth. 

Brotachadh, aidh, s. m. Improving; improving in personal 
appearance ; thriving ; fattening. 

Brotachadh, (a), pr. part, of brotaich. 

Brotaich, r. a. & «. Improve in appearance; improve iu 
bodily appearance ; fatten, grow fat. Pret. a. bhrotaich, 
grew fat ; fut. aff. a. brotaichidh, shall or will grow fat. 

f Broth, s. Ai. A mole, a ditch ; a straw ; flesh, fire. — //•. id. 

Broth, s. m. A cutaneous eruption ; a bruise. In this last 
sense the orthography is more frequently bruth and bruth- 
adh ; which see. 

Brothach, a. Scabbed, mangy. Cu brothach, a mangy dog; 
caor bhrothach, a scabbed sheep. 

Brothag, aig, *.y. Abosom; a little ditch ; a little hollow. 
K. pi. brothagau. 

Broth AIR, s. m. A bruiser; also a butcher; a caldron. 

Brothaireachd, s. f. Bruising, mauling, maiming ; 

Buothas, ais, i. m. Farrago, brewis. 

Buothlach, aich, s. m. A place for dressing meat. 

Buothlain, *. m. A part of the internals of a sheep called 
the king's-hood. 

Brothluinn, s. f. Agitation, confusion, struggle; the 
struggle betwixt wind and tide. 

Broth-luinneach, a. Agitative, causing commotion ; dis- 

Broth-thigh, «. ?7i. A slaughter-house, shambles. N. pi. 

Bru, gen. broinn or bronn, s. f. (W. and Corn, bru a«f/ bry. 
Ir. bru. Arm. brun, bellj/.) A belly, a womb. A bru 
torrach, her womb pregnant.— Stew. Jer. Torradh na bronn, 
the fruit of the womb. — Stew. Gen. Air do bhroinn, on thy 
belli/. — Id. Bru-ghoirt, a belly-ache; lan-bronn, a belly- 
ful; cha lion beannachd bru, blessi?igs do not Jill a belly. 
— G. P. Is mo do shuilean na do bhrù, your eyes arc 
bigger than your belly. — Id. 

■\ Bru, s. f. A hind ; a country, a bank. — S/(au'. 

BRUACH,bruaiche, i.y. (7^ bracca. 7r. bruach. 5'co^t^, brae.) 
A bank ; a steep, a precipice ; an edge, brim, brink, bor- 
der ; a short ascent. N. pi. bruachan ; dat. pi. bruachaibh. 
A direadh na bruaiche thall, climbing the further bank. 
— Oss. Conn. Mar chrith reo air bruachaibh na Leig, like a 
hoar-frost on the banks of Lego.— Oss. Mar bhruaiche san 
duibhre, like a precipice in the dark. — Oss. Comala. Mu 
bhruaichaibh do leapach, about thy bed-sides. — Old Song. 

Bruachag, aig, s. f. (dim. of bruach.) A little bank; a 
little precipice. N. pi. bruachagan. — Macint. A shobh- 
rach nam bruachag, thou primrose of the banks. — Macdon. 

Bruachair, «. 7«. (y)o7?7 bruach.) A lounger; a hoverer. 

Bruachaireachd, s.f. Hovering about, lounging. 

Bruachan, ain, s. m. A short ascent, a little bank; rarely 
a fawn. 

t Bruachdach, a. Magnificent. 

Bru ADAIR, gen. sing, of bruadar. Of a dream. 

Bruadair, v. a. Dream. Pret. a. bhruadair, dreamed; 

B R U 

B R U 

Jut. aff. a. bruadairidh, shall or will dream. Bhvuadair mi 

bniadar, I dreamed a dream. — Slew. 0. T. 
Bru ADAR, air, i. w. {Ir. id.) A dream, a reverie. N. pi. 

bruadaran. Tra dh' aomas bniadar mar chcò, when a dream 

descends like a mist. — Oss. Derm. 
Bruadauadh, aidh, «. ni. A dreaming; the act of dreaming. 
Bruadakadii, (a), pr. part, of briiadair. Dreaming. 
Bbuadauaiche, s. m. A dreamer. 

t Bruaidh, s. m. A peasant. iV. pi. bruaidliean. — ?/■. id. 
BnuAiDLEAN, ein, s. m. Grief, melancholy. A cheann fo 

bhruaidlein, his head dropping under grief. — Oss. Gaul. 
Bruaidleaneacii, a. Grieved, vexed; causing grief or 

vexation ; disturbed. Is bruaidleanach m' aigne, m;/ thoughts 

are disturbed. — Old Song. 
BRtXAiDLEANEACiiD,^./. Grief; melancholy; the state of 

being grieved or vexed ; disturbance. 
Bruaillean, ein, i. OT. Murmur, confusion ; stir; tumult; 

noise; annoyance; trouble. Loch gun bhruaillein, a (/««< 

lake. — Oss. Fing. Chuir mi bruaillean air an oigh, / have 

troubled the maid. — Oss. 
BauAX, v. a. Break in bits; crumble, pound, pulverize; 

smash. Pret. a. bhruan, stnashed ; fut. ajf. a. bruauaidh, 

shall or will smash. 
Bruan, bfuain, s. m. A morsel ; a fragment, a bit, a splinter ; 

a crumb. Chaidh iad nam bruan, they went to splinters. — 

Brcan ACir, a. Causing to crumble, pound, or break ; crum- 
bled, pounded. 
Bruanaciid, s./. Continued or frequent smashing; the 

state of being in smashes or crumbled. 
Bruanadh, aidh, s. m. A breaking, a crumbling, a smash- 
ing; a crashing noise. Bruanabh o na cnocaibli, crashing 

from the hills. — Stew. Zcph. 
Bruanadh, (a), pr. part, of bruan. 
Bkuanag, aig, s. f. {dim. of bruan.) A morsel, a crumb, 

a piece. N. pi. bruanagan. 
Bruanagach, a. Full of crumbs ; apt to fall into crumbs. 
Bruaxan, ain, s.m. {dim. of bruan.) A morsel, a crumb, 

a piece, a fragment. iV. pi. bruanain. Corn, breuyonen 

and bruenen. jirm. bruhunen and bryenen. 
Bruansgail, s.f. A deep crashing noise, a grating noise, 

a clashing noise. Mar eith na Leig a bruansgail, decpli/ 

crashing like the ice of Lego. — Oss. Duthona. Written also 

Bruasgail, s.f. A deep crashing noise, a grating noise; 

a clashing. Feadh bhruasgail lann is chrann is chnamhan, 

amid the crashing of .iwiirds and .spears and bones.— Oss. 

Dargu. Written also bruansgail. 
Bruansi'Ealt, v. a. Sphnter, smash; hack down, hew. 

Vret. a. bhruanspeait, splintered ; fut. ajf. a. bruanspealt- 

aidh, shall splinter. 
Broanspealtach, a. Splintering, smashing, crashing. 
Bruanspealtadii, aidh, s.m. A splintering, a crashing, 

a smashing; a hewing down. 
Bruanspealtadii, (a), pr. part, of bruanspealt. Splinter- 
ing, crashing, hewing down, smashing. A bruanspealtadii 

chraobh, hewing down trees. — Mac Lack. 
Brucacii, a. Spotted, especially in the face; freckled, 

speckled, pimpled. Caitean brucach, spotted shag.—Macdon. 
Brucainxeacii, a. Spotted, freckled, speckled, pimpled. 

Eudaii brucainncach, a pimpled face. — Macint. 
BRurAiNNEACiiD, .?./. Spottedness; frcckledness. 
Bruciiag, aig, s.f. A chink ; an eyelet; a leaky vessel, 

a leaky boat. Cha bu bhruchag air raeirgi, she was not a 

leaky vessel. — Old Song. 
Brt>chd,ì./«. Abelcii.anft; abilge; asally; arnsiiing forth. 

Brùchd,!!. fi. Belch, rift; bilge; sally ; rush out ; burst; pour. 

Pret. a. bhrùchd, rushed out ; fut. aff. a. brilchdaidh, shall 

or will rush out. Bhrùchd iad gu 'r còghnadh, they rushed 

fo our aid. — Ull. Brilchdaidh a dheoir, his tears shall burst 
forth. — Oss. Trathal. Bhrùchd an tuil o'n aonach, the 

flood poured from the hill. — Oss. Fin. and Lurm. 
Brùchdach, a. Causing a rift, or belch, or sally; of, or 

pertaining to, a rift, belch, or sally. 
Brùciidadh, aidh, s.m. A sallying, belching; a rushing 

out ; a pouring. 
Bruciidail, f.y. Arifting; arushing; abilging; abelching. 
Bruchlas, ais, s. m. The fluttering of fowls going to rest or 

to roost, 
t Brudan, ain, s. m. A simmering noise; also a salmon. 

In the latter sense it is almost always written bradan. 
Brudhainn, s.f. Warmth, sultriness. 
Brudiiaixneach, a. Warm, sultry. 

BuuDHAixNEACiiD,*.y". A Continuance of warmth ; sultriness. 
BauDHAiTEACn, ich, .V. m. A threadbare coat. 
Bru-dhearg, -dheirg, s. m. A robin-redbreast, 
t BuuG, Brugh, «. { A large house; a village ; a 

hillock, the residence of fairies ; a tower ; a fortified town. 
Germ, bruiga. Franc, briga. Span, braga. Eug. burgh. 

Hence the Latin termination in briga of the names of 

certain places, as Latobriga, Samobriga, and the Greek 

termination in brio, as Mesambria. Hence also the name 

Phryges, a people who were formerly called Bryges, or 

Bruges, according to Strabo, lib. xvii. 

Brug seems to be but another form of borg or burg; 

which see. 
Brughach, aich, s. m. A steep ascent, an acclivity. Writ- 
ten also bruthuch ; which sec. N. pi. brughaichean. 
Bhughaiche, .5. ?». A burgher ; a farmer. — 67«m'. 
Bruicii, v. a. Boil, seethe, simmer. Pret. a. bhruich, boiled; 

fut. aff. a. bruichidli, shall or will boil. Cha bliruich e 

nioann, he shall nut seethe a kid. — Stew. Exod. 2 pi. imperat. 

bruichibh, boil ye. Bruichibh an f heòil, boil the Jlesh. 

Bruichuadh e, let him boil. — Id. Written also bruith. 
Bruicii, a. (Jr. bruithe.) Boiled; seethed; sultry, ylsp. 

form., bhruich. La bruich, a sultry day; feòil bhruich, 

boiled Jlesh. 
Bruiciieadh, 3 siiig. and pi. imperat. of bruich; which see. 
Bruicheadii, idl), s. m. A boiling; a decoction; a seething. 
Bruiciieadh, (a), /jr. ;)(/;•/. of Bruich. Boiling, seething. 
Bruicheil, rt. (bruich-amhuil.) Sultry; somewhat sultry. 
Bruichidii, fut. aff. a. of bruich. Siiall or will boil. 
Bruichte, p. part, of bruich. Boiled, seethed. 
Bruii), X. a. Torture, oppress, enslave. Pret. a. bhruid ; 

fut. aff. bruididh. — Sha\i. 
BiiuiD, v.y; (//•. bruid.) Captivity; a stab, a thrust. Bheir 

mi air a h-ais am bruid, / will cause their captivity to return. 

— Stew. Jer. 
Bri>id, s.m. A brute, a beast; a brutal person. A'^. pi. 

bri'iidean, brutes. Lat. brut-us. 
Brùidean, n. pi. of bruid. 

Brùideil, a. (y)offj bruid.) Brutal, beastly, /r. bruidamhail. 
BiiOiRiii LEACH d, s. f (bruid -amhuileachd.) Brutality, 

beastliness. /;■. bruidamhlacht. 
t Bruiuhe, s. f. A farm. — Ir. id. Written also bruighe. 
BuuiDiiiiACUD, s.f A colony. — //■. id. 
BuuiDiiEANN, inn, s.f. Written also bruidhinn ; which see. 
BiiuiDiiiNN, bruidhne, s.f Talk, speech, conversation; a 

quarrel ; a report. Tha e ri bruidhinn, he is talking. — 

Stew. 1 K. ref. Fear na mòr bhruidhne, the talkative man. 

— Stew. Job. 
Bruidhneach, a.{cuntr.Jor bruidhcannach.) Talkative; 

B R U 

querulous, loud. Tlia i bruidhneach, s/ie is [loud] talkative. 

— Steu: Pro. re/. 
Bruidleachadh, aidh, s. m. A stirring up of the surface, 

a dig-ging. 
BiiuinLEACMADH, (a), pr. part, of bruidlicli. Digging, 

stirring up of the surface. 
Bruidlicii, I', a. Stir up, dig. Pret. a. bhruidlich, stirred 

vp ; flit. aff. a. bruidlichidh, shall or ivill stir up. 
Bruigheann, inn, s. m. A palace, 
t Bruim-fheur, -fheòir, s. Switch-grass. — Shaxo. 
Bruin, j.y. A caldron; a kettle ; a belly. 
Brìjin, v. n. Make a rattling noise. Pret. a. bhrùin; fut. 

(iff. a. brùinidh. 
Bruine, Bruinne, «./! A waist; a chest. Bruinne seang, 

a slender xcaist. — Old Song. 
Bruinard, n. Having a high breast or chest; high-bosomed. 

An aiimir bhruinard, t/ie high-bosomed maid. — Old Poem. 

Anacreon makes mention of deep-bosomed maids. 
Brùinidh, s.m. A spectral being called broxvnie. See Uruisg. 
t Bruinneach, s. c. a nurse; a mother; a glutton. 
Bruinneadacii, aich, s. m. An apron. — Shaxc. 
Bruin NEAN, ein, *. m. The knap of cloth. 
Bruinneanach, a. {from bruinnean.) Knappy, as cloth. 
Brùis, s. pi. Shivers, splinters, fragments. 
Bruis, «.y. A brush. iV^. ;;/. bruisean a/(rf bruiseachan. 
Bruisinn, s.f A brushing. Asp. form, bhruisinn. 
Bruisinn, v. a. Brush. Pret. a. bhruisinn, brushed, fut. aff. a. 

bruisinnidh, shall brush. 
Brùite, p. ;)ar^ of brùth. (Da/!, brudt.) Bruised, broken, 

crushed, oppressed. Daoine brùite truagh, poor oppressed 

men. — Smith. Tha m' anam brùite, mi/ soul is bruised. — Id. 

Osnadh bhrùite a' d' chliabh, a broken sigh within thi/ breast. 

— Old Poem. Fùil bhrùite, extravasated blood. — Old Poem. 
Bruitii, r. a. Boil, seethe, simmer. Pret. a. bhruith ; 

fut. aff. a. bruithidh, shall boil. 
Bruitiieadh, idh, s. in. A boiling, seething, or simmering. 
Bruitheadu, (a), pr. part, of bruith. 
Bruitiieadh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of bruilh. 
t Bruithneacii, a. Glowing; red hot. Com. and sup. 

Brùliontach, a. Satiating, cloying. 
Brulionta, a. Satiated, cloyed. Jr. bruidiilionta. 
Brumair, .s. ?«. A pedant. — Shaxe. i\^ ;)/. brumairean. 
Brumaireaciid, i. y. Pedantry, 
t Brun, bruin, s. A firebrand. 
Brus, II. n. Browse. Pret. a. bhrus; fut. aff. a. brusaidli, 

shall browse. 
t Bruscar, air, .?. m. Broken ware; baggage. 
Beutii, s.f. {Ir. id.) A cave; the dwelling of fairies ; 

dew ; a bruise ; rarebi the hair of the head ; heat ; any 

thing red hot. Am mairiche ag eisdeachd o bhruth, the 

mariner listening from his care. — Utl. 
Brutii, i'. «. (/r. bruth. JDn/i.brud. Sucf/. brod. .4r?n. bruvo.) 

Bruise; pound ; crush, squeeze, compress. Pret. a. bhruth, 

bruised; fut. (iff. a. bruthaidh. 
Brutiiacii, aich, s. m. and /". An ascent; a steep; a hill 

side; a precipice. Ri bruthach, upwards, hillwards ; le 

bruthach, downwards. Fo chraig na brulhaicli, under the 

rock of the steep. — Oss. Tern. Ruithidh an taigeis fein ri 

bruthach, the haggis itself will run doxvn hill. — G. P. 
Brutiiadair, «.?)?. (from bruth.) A pestle; a pounder; a 

bruiser. A^/i/. bruthadairean. Lebruthadair, uv'M a pestle. 
Brutiiadaireachd, s.f. (Jrom bruth.) A pounding, a 

bruising, a crushing ; pugilism. 
Bruthadh, aidh, 4. m. A bruising ; a pounding, as with a 

B U A 

pestle; a crushing; a bruise, a crush. Germ, bruch, a 

Bruthadh, (a), pr. part, of bruth. Bruising; pounding; 

crushing ; squeezing. 
Bruthaidh, 3 sing, and pi. of bruth. Shall or will bruise. 
Bruthaidh, fut. aff. a. of bruth. Shall or will bruise. 
Buuthainneach, a. Hot, sultry. Aimsir bhruthainneach, 

sultri/ weather. 
Bruthaiste, s.f. {Anglo-Sax. brlwas.) A mess composed 

of oatmeal on which boihng water has been poured, and which 

is then stirred about ; by the Lowland .Scots called brose. 

Bruthaiste is mairt-f iieoil, iruse o«rf 6cf/". — /17acrf. 
Bu ! A sound to e.\cite terror. 
Bu, preterite of the def. xerb Is. {W. bu. Ir. bu.) Was, vvert, 

were. Bu dorcha a mhala, dark was his broxc. — Oss. Lod. 

Taibhse bu ghlaise snuadh, a spectre of the palest visage. — Id. 
Bu, before a vowel oryaspirated, is written b' ; as, b'aille 

leam, I would like ; b' fhearr learn, I had rather. 
Buabhall, aill, s. m. A cornet, a trumpet; an unicorn, a 

buffalo. See Buabhull. 
Buabhallach, a. Like a trumpet, unicorn, or buffalo ; of, 

or pertaining to, a trumpet, unicorn, or buffalo. 
BuAEHALLAiCHE, s. m. A trumpeter. 
Buabhall-chorn, s. {IF. bual-gorn.) A bugle-horn. 
Buabhull, uill, s.m. A cornet; a trumpet; an unicorn, 

a bufl'alo. Fuaim abhuabhuill, the sound of the cornet. — 

Stew. 0. T. Oadhaircibh nam buabhull, from the horns of 

the unicorn.^Smith. 

Corn, buaval, a trumpet. Ir. buabhal. Arm. bual, a 


In buabhull we may see the Gr. /3ot^a^oc. Lat. bubulus. 

Fr. bufle. 
Buabiiullaiche, s. m. A trumpeter. 
Buabiiull-choun, i. {W. bual-gorn.) A bugle-horn, 
t Buacachan, ain, s. m. A bleacher. 
\ Buacais, s.f. The wick of a candle, 
t BuACH, buaich, i. (Ir. id.) Buck-yarn, cloth ; bleaching ; 

the brow of a hill ; a vault ; a cap. — Shaxv. 
t BuACHACii, a. Fine, beauish. 

BuACHAiLL, s.m, A cowherd; a shepherd, a herd; pro- 
tector; also a youth. — Mucd. N. pi. buachaillean. Is 

buachaiUean na daoine, the men are shepherds.- — Stew. Gen. 

Am buachail! da 'n coir, tiie herd near them. — Macdon. 
Arm. bugall, a hoy. iV. bygel, a cowherd. Corn, begel 

and bugel. Ir. buachail. Box. Lex. bugiul. Gr. ^ofxoAo;. 
BuACHAiLLEACii, u. Pastoral ; of, or belonging to, a 

shepherd or cowherd. 
BuAciiAiLLEACHD, «.y. The occupation of herding. Ris 

a bhuachailleachd, herding ; ri buachailleachd, herding. 
BuACH.viLL-sEOJiAiR, s. m. A valct-de-chambrc. 
BuACHAR, air, s. m. Cow's dung; the dung of cattle in 

general; a dunghill; a stall. Buachar bhò, cow-dung. — 

Slew. Ezek. Dubh-chail a bhuachair, a dunghill trollop. — 

Old Song. Heb. bakar, ox or cow. Chald. bakar. 
BuADH, buaidh, s. m. and f. Sustenance ; food ; also gen. 

pi. of buaidh ; which see. 
BuADHACH, «. {fromh\.\a.A\\.) /r. buadha. Victorious; also 

having virtues. Connal buadhach, victorious Cvnnal. — 

Oss. Cathula. 
BuADHACH, aich, s. m. {from buaidh.) A champion; u 

conqueror; a tribute. Gheibh am buadhach, the conqueror 

shall receive, — Mac Lach. 
BuADHACHADH, aidh, .s. 7w. The act of couquenng ; aeon- 
BuADHACHADii, (a), pr.part. of buadhaich. Conquering. 
BuADiiAiCH,r. Conquer, overthrow; prevail, subject. Pret. a. 

bhuadhaich, conquered; fut, aff, a. buadhaichidh, shall 

B U A 

B U A 

conquer. Bhuadhaich fheaclid, his armi/ conquered. — Oss. 
Duthona. Bhuadhaich tonn is gaoth, tiie east winds and 
its waics prevailed. — Curt /ion. 

BuADiiAiR, s. m. A conqueror; a champion. N.p/. buadh- 

t BuADHAL, a. Victorious. — Ir. id. 

BuADiiALACHD, s. f. Prosperity; conquest; a flourishing 
condition. Am buadiialachd, in prospcritij. — Macint. 

Bl'adiiar, ff. See BuADiiMiiou. 

BuADiiAS, ais, s. ;/(. Victory, conquest; a succession of 

BuADiiDiiAftG, airg, s. m. A victorious champion. — .S'/h/hj. 

BuADii-GiiALLAN, ain, ,« m. Rag-wecd. 

BuADii-GHUTu, s. »1. A triumphant shouting ; clamour. 

BuADiiLAX-BriDiiE, s. in. Ragwort. — Macd. 

BuADiiMHOiRE, Com. and sup. of buadhmhor. 

BuADii-Muon, a. (^r. buadh-mhar.) Victorious, triumphant. 
Breatunnaich nan arm buadh-mhor, Britons of rictorious 
arms. — Death ofCarril. Cum. and sup. buadhmhoire. 

+ BuAF, s. m. A toad ; any ugly venomous creature. — Ir. id. 

t BuAFACii, a. Venomous. — Ir. id. 

t BuAFAiR, s. VI. An adder. — Shaw. 

BuAG, buaig, s. m. A spigot, a plug. iV. pi. buagan. 

BuAGAiR, *. m. A faucet, or pipe inserted into a vessel to 
give vent to the liquor, and stopped up by a peg or spigot. 
— Shaxv. 

t BuAGAiR, V. a. Tap, as a hogshead. — Shaw. 

BuAGiiAR, air, .». ?«. {Lat. boarius, relating to oxen.) A 
herd ; a shepherd ; a cow-herd. Thachair orra buaghar 
bhò, a cow-herd met them. — Fingalian Legend. 

BuAGiiARRA, a. Grieved, vexed ; also vexatious, oppressive. 
Mios bhuagharra, an oppressive month. — ISIacfar. 

BuAic, BuAiciiD, ,?./. (/r. buaic.) The wick of a candle, 
lamp, or torch ; rareli/ a wave. 

BuAicEACii, a. Giddy, light-headed, thoughtless; of, or 
belonging to, a wick ; having a wick. 

BuAicEAN, 71. ;)/. ofBuAic. 

BuiCEAN, ein, s. m. A veil ; a lappet; a little wick. 

BuAiCEis, s.f. A small wick. — Shaw. 

BuAiDii, I'. Conquer; overcome. This verb takes after it 
the preposition air, simple or compounded ; as, buaidh 
orra, conquer them ; bhuaidh e orm, he conquered me. 

BVAIOU, s.f. (7r. buaidh. Corn, hudh.) JV. ;;/. buaidhean, 
and sometimes buadhannan. Victory, conquest, success, 
palm ; qualification, accomplishment mental or bodily ; 
virtue, excellence, attribute ; gem. Buaidh sa chomhstri, 
viclori/ in the si rife. — Oss. Cumala. Buaidh leat, success to 
you ; beannachd is buaidh leat, blessing and success go with 
you. Malmh'in nam buadli, virtuous or accomplished Mal- 
vinu. — Oss. Carricth. Thoir buaidh, conquer; thug coigrich 
buaidh, strangers conquered. Deadh bhuadhannan naduir, 
excellent natural accomplishments. — Old Song. 
BuAiDii-cjiAiTHREAM, cim, s. m. A triumphant shout, 
a song of triumph, a triumph. A deanamh buaidh-chaith- 
reim, t riumphing. — Stew. Col. 
BuAinii-criAiTiiREAMACii, «. Triumphant; uttering a 

triumphant shout, 
f BuAiDiiEART, eirt, s. m. A tumult, confusion. 
BuAiDH-FiiEAR, -fhir, s. m. A conqueror. N. pi. buaidh- 

fhir ; voc. pi. a bhuaidh-f heara, i/e conquerors. 
BuAiDii-FiioCAL, ail, s. m. An adjective; a qualifying term ; 

an epithet. 
BuAiDii-GiiAiR, s. f. A shout of victory, a shout of 

BuAiDii-GUAiREACii, o. Like a shout of triumph; tri- 

BuAiDii-GiiATnEACiiDAicn, s. f. A Continued shout of 

BuAiDii-GHUTir, *. m. A shout of triumph ; the voice of 

BuAiDH-LARACH, aich, s.m. A decisive victory; victory, 
conquest. — Macint. Buaidh-larach 's gach stri, victory in 
every battle. — Old Song. 
\ BuAiFEACii, a. Angry, fretting. — Shaw. 
t BuAiFiG, *-. /'. An antidote. 

BuAii,, v.a. Strike, smite, beat, thrash ; thrust; touch or land 
at ; strike up as a tune : used also to describe rapid motion, 
rush, move, proceed. Pret. a. bhuail ; J)it. aft', a. buailidh, 
shall or will strike ; fut. pass, buailear, shall be struch. 
Bhuail mi beuni, / struck a blow. — Fingalian Poem. Buail 
as, thrash of. — Stew. Ruth. Bhuail chuige Dearg, Dargu 
moved [rushed'\ towards him. — Oss. Dargo. Ciod am beal- 
ach am buail sinn ? through what puss shall we strike our 
way? — Fingalian Legend. Bhuail sinne comhrag, we sounded 
the signal of battle, we engaged in battle. — Oss. Tern. 
Bhuail e chruaidh na taobh, he thrust his steel into her side. 
— Oss. Fing. Buailibh clarsach, strike up the harp. — Oss. 
Com. A cheud fhear a bhuail an tir, the first man who 
landed. — Oss. Tcm. 
t Buail, s.f. A step, a degree. — Ir. id. 
BuAiLE, s.f. {Gr. j3oau?iioi'. Fat. bovile. Ir. buaile.) A fold 
for sheep or for black cattle ; a stall ; a dairy ; also cattle, 
herds. iV. pi. buailtean, /òW.v. Buailtean spreidhe, herds of 
cattle. — Stew. Joel. buailtibh. Buar air na buailtibh, 
a herd in the fold. — Stew. Ilab. A bhò is miosa tha sa 
bhuaile 's i is aird geum, the sorry cow has the loudest low. 
— G. P. 
BuAiLEACii, ich, i. ra. An ox-stall ; a stall ; a fold. N. pi. 

BrAILEAIt,/i;^ pass, of buail. Shall be struck. Buailear is 
also used as an impersonal verb; as, buailear suas leam, 
/ struck or proceeded upwards. 
BuAiLiDii, s. f. A dairy or milk-house; a stall; a fold. 

Steach do 'n bhuailidh, into the milking-house. — Macfar. 
BuAiLSA, BuAiLSE, (for buail thusa.) Strike thou, 
t BuAiLT, s.y. A locker ; a niche. — Shaw. 
BuA I LTE, ;). par<. of buail. Struck, beaten, thrashed. Cha 
bhi bail air fodar buailte, I h rushed corn is not spared. — 
G. P. 
BuAiLTEACii, a. Liable, subject; obnoxious ; apt to strike 
or to thrash. Buailteach do chis, liable to tax. Gun bhi 
buailteach, without being giien to strike. — Stew. Tim. 
Com. and sup. buailtiche, more or most liable. 
t BuAiLTEACiiAN, ain, s. m. A flying camp. 
Buailtean, w. /)/. of buaile. Sheep-folds; cattle-houses. 
Biiailtean, ein, s. m. (from buail.) A flail, that part of a 

flail which thrashes the sheaf. //■. buailtean. 
Buailteau, ir, s. m. A thrasher. 
\ BuAiN, s. f. Equality ; deprivation. — //■. id. 
BuAiN,.«./'. (//■. buain.) A reaping ; a cutting down as of 
corn. Buain lorna, barley harvest. — Stew. Ruth. Am fear 
nach dean cur ri la fuar, cha dean e buain ri la teth, he 
who will not sow on a cold day shall not reap on a warm. 
- G. P. 
Buain, r. a. Reap, cut down, shear; tear by the root; 
cngap. Pret. a. bhuain, reaped ; fut. ajf. a. buainidh, shall 
reap. A buain na h-araich, cutting down the [files of] 
battle. — Oss, Cathula. Craobh bhuain a ghaotli, a tree 
torn up bi/ the wind. — Oss. Carricth. Buainidh sinn, ive 
shall reap. — Slew. Gal. 
BuAiNE, s.f Perpetuity, duration; hardiness, durable- 

ness. — Ir. id. 
BuAiNE, com. and sup. of buan. {Ir. id.) More or most 

B U A 


lasting or hardy. Darraig is buaine dreach, an oak of the 
haulest form. — Oss. Is buaine na gacb ni an nàire, more 
lasting is shame than any thing else. — G. P. 
BuAiNEAD, eid, .s. m. Hardiness, durableness. 
BuAiNEADH, eidh, i-. m. A reaping, cutting down; enjoying, 
as tlie fruits of one's labour. Muinntir a bhuainidh, the 
reapers. — Sfexe. Jam. 
BuAiNEADH, 3 sing. anA pi. impcrat. o( hiiaia, Buaineadh 

e, iet him reap; buaineadh iad, let them reap. 
Bu xiyEADii, {a), pr. part, ofbuain; which see. 
BuAiNEAR,/«f. pass, ofbuain. Shall or will be shorn. 
BuAiNiciiE, i. m. and/". A shearer or reaper. JV. and gen. 
pi. buainichean, shearers. Ri taobh nam buainichean, 
beside the reapers. — Stcu. Ruth. 
BuAiNTE, p. part, ofbuain. Reaped, shorn ; torn up by the 

root; hewn down. 
BuAiNTEAR, ir, .s'. w. (from huaiti.) A reaper, shearer, or 

mower. N. pi. buaintcaran. 
BuAin, V. a. Tempt; vex, disturb, annoy, distract, madden. 
Pret. a. bhuair, templed ; fit. aff. a. buairidh. Cha bhuair 
thu, thou shall not tempt. — Sten-. Mat. Air a bhuaireadh, 
tempted.— Stew. Mat. Air a bhuaireadh, troubled. — Ste-d\ 
Dan. Fear air bhuaireadh, a man distracted. Chum a 
buaireadh, to rex her. — Stew. G. B. 
Buaire', contracted ioT buaireadh: which see. 
BuAiREADAin, s. iu. A tempter; a disturber; one who 
vexes or troubles. A^^/. buaireadairean. Air teachd don 
bhuaireadair, irhen the tempter came. — Slew. Mat. 
Buaireadh, idh, .?. m. Temptation; trouble; disturbance, 
annoyance ; severe trial ; a tempting ; a maddening ; dis- 
traction. Bha a spiorad air a bhuaireadh, his tpirii was 
troubled. — Stew. Gen. Buaireadh, a severe trial. — Stew. 
Cor. ref. Tuinn gun bhuaireadh, untroubled waxes. — Oss. 
Derm. Afeartan buairidh, her tempting qualities. — Mac Lach. 
BuAiREAS, eis, s. m. Confusion, trouble, ferment, tumult. 
Buaireas mòr, a great tumuli. — Stew. Zech. Fo bhuaireas, 
troubled. — Stew. 1 K. 
BuAiREASACii, 0. Turbulent, raging, stormy, tumultuous. 
Geamhradh buaireasach, a stormy winter. — Macfar. Is 
buaireasach deoch laidir, strong drink is raging. — Stew. Pro. 
BuAiREASACiiD, s.f Turbulcncc, storminess, tumultuous- 

BuAiREASAiciiE, com. and sup. of buaireasach. 
BuAiRTE, ;>. ;)ar/. of buair. Distracted, enraged ; tempted; 
stormy. Asp. form, bhuairte. Slth air a mhuir bhuairte, 
peace on the storm;/ sea. — Oss. Duthona. 
BuAiT, buaite, s.y! A lantern. JV^. ;j/. buaitean. 
t BuAL, buail, s. m. Remedy ; physic ; water. — Ir. id. 
BuAL, buail, s. m. {contr. for buabhall.) A buffalo; any 
wild horned creature. Perhaps the bual of the Gael and 
of the Armoric Celts is bu-ull, a wild ox. 
BuALACHD, «. /". A drove of cattle. Jr. buallachd. 
t BuALADH, aidh, «. m. A remedy; physic. — Shaw. 
BuALADii, aidh, s. ?n. A striking; a thrashing; a battle. 
Bhur bualadh, i/our threshing. — Stew. Lei. Bualadh 
arbhair, thrashing of corn. — Stew. Jud. Bualadh nan laoch, 
the battle of heroes. — Oss. Tern. 
BuAL-CHRANNACii, aich, s. m. A float, a raft. — Shaw. 
BuALGHAS, ais, s. m. A mill-pond. 
BuALTRACH, aich, s. m. Cow-dung. 
BuAMSDAiR, J. m. One who talks boisterously; a vain 

boaster ; a dolt, a looby. N. pi. buamsdairean. 
BuAMSDAiREACiiD, «. /. Boisterous talking ; vain boasting. 

Ri buamsdaireachd, talking boisterously. 
t BuAN, a. Good; harmonious. Lat. bonus. Fr. bon. 
Ir. buan. 

t BuAN, buain, s.f. A nurse. — Shaw. 

Buan, a. {Ir. buan.) Lasting, durable; long, tedious; 
hardy, tough. Cead buan, a long farewell. — Old Song. 
Ge buan an t-slighe, though tedious be the way. — Macint. 
Bodach buan, a tough or hardy old man. 

BuAXACHADii, aidh, s.m. A continuing, persevering, ob- 
taining ; continuance, perseverance. 

BuANACiiADH, (a), ;j/-. por^. of buanaich ; which see. 

BuANACHD, s. f. {Ir. id.) Continuance, tediousness, dura- 
tion ; durableness, hardiness; acquirement, gain, profit; 
an oppressive quartering of soldiers. Buanachd na slighe, 
the tediousness of the way. Ni gun bhuanachd, a profitless 
thing. — Stew. Hos. Ciod a bhuanachd dhuinn ? what 
profit hare we .'—Stetv. Mai. 

Buan AICH, r. a.&n. Last, abide; persevere; obtain, win, or 
acquire. Pret. a. hhuannxch, lasted ; fit. a f. a. buanaichidh, 
shall last. Bhuanaich iad cliù, they won renown. — Old 

BuAXAiciiE, s. m. and/'. A shearer, a reaper; one who 
enjoys ; a winner. N. pi. buanaichean. Written also 

Buanaichidh, /l/^ aff. a. of buanaich. Shall last. See 


BuANAiCHTE, p. par^ of buanaich. Acquired, obtained, won. 
BuANAS, ais, s. m. Perpetuity, durability. 
BuAN-CHUiMHNE, S.f A memorial, a chronicle ; a reten- 
tive memory. 
BuAN-CHUiMHNEACHAiL, a. Having a retentive memory. 
BuAN-MHAiR, f. n. Last long, endure. 
BuAN-MHAiREACHDUixN, S.f. Perscvcrance, continuance, * 

BuAN-MHAiREANNAcn, a. Evcrlasting, durable, perpetual, 

BuAN-MHAiREANNACHD, .?./. Perpetuity, eternity, 
t BuANNA, s. m. A billetted soldier.^S/mu'. 
BuANNACHAiL, a. Profitable, useful, emolumentary. 
BuANNACHD, i. /. Profit, gaiu ; also a billetting or quarter- 
ing of soldiers. — Shaw. Sanntach air buannachd, greedy 

of gain. — Stew. Pro. 
BuAN-sHEASAMHACH, rt. Firmly footed ; lasting, perennial, 

perpetual, stable. 
BuAN-SHEASAMHACHD, S.f. Continuance; firmness, sta- 
bility, durability. 
BuAR, buair, s. m. {Ir. buar. JV. buarth, a cow-yard.) 

Cattle; a herd of cattle ; oxen. Buar air na buailtibh, a 

herd in the stalls.— Stew. Hab. Ard bhitirich bhuar, the 

loud lowing of cattle. — Macdon. 
BuARACH, aich, s. 7n. A cow-spaniel; a milking-fetter. — • 

Macint. Buarach na lairah, a milking-fetter in her hand. — 

Old Poem. 
BuARAcn-NA-BAÒiDH, i. m. A lamprey, 
t BuAS, buais, «. m. {Ir. id. It. hnzzo, the belly.) A belly; 

a breach; a rout; a trade, art. — Shaw. 
BuATH, buaith, s.f Rage, madness, frenzy, fury; a mad 

frolic. Ghlac e le buath, he seized in a rage. — il/ac Lach. 

Tha buath air, he is in a rage ; tha buath chuthaich air, he 

is raging mad. 
BuATHACn, a. {from buath.) Subject to fits of madness ; 

apt to fly into a rage. 
Buath ADH, aidh, s. m. A mad fit, a wild ramble; a mad 

BÙB, t . «. Bellow, roar. Pret. a. bhùb ; fut. aff. a. bub- 

BÙB, biiba, s. m. A roar, a bellow, a yell. Leig e bub as, 

he uttered a roar. 
BÙBAIL, S.f. A bellow, a roar; a continued bellowing, 

a loud lament. Bilbail tairbh, the roaring of a bull ; ri 

B U I 

B U I 

bùbail, rnarins or bellowing ; ciod a bhùbail th'ort? u:kat 

are you bclloiving for .' 
BuBAN, am, s. m. A coxcomb. 
BuBAXACii, a. Like a coxcomb; of, or belonging to, a 

BuBANACHD, s. f. The behaviour of a coxcomb. 
Bvc,s.m. Size, bulk; the cover of a book. Hence perhaps 

the EiigiUh book; Scotch, beuk. 
BuCAiD, .5. /. A pimple; a bucket.— 3/«c(/. (/r. boicoid.) 

N. pi. bucaidean. 
BucAiDEACH, a. {from bucaid.) Pimply, full of pimples, 

causing pimples; like a bucket. 
BwcAiL, a. (buc-amhuil.) Bulky, sizeable. 
BucAiLL, gen. sing, and n. pi. of bucall. 
BuCALL, aill, s. in. {Arm. bucel. Fr. boucle. Span, boucle. 

Lat. bucula.) A buckle. A', pi. bucaill and biicallan, 

buckles. Bucaill aira;id, siher biichlts. — Old Suiiu;. Bu- 

callan, buckles. — DIacint. 
BuCALLACii, a. Buckled. Brògan bucallach, buckled shoes ; 

gu bucallach brogach, icith buckled shoes. 
BuciiuiNN, BuciiTuuiNX, a. Melodious, warbliug. Eoin 

bhuchuin'.i, melodious birds. — JSlacdon. 
BucLAicH, f. a. Buckle. Pret. a. bhuclaich, buckled ; fut. 

aff. a. buclaichidh, shiillbucklc. Buclaich ort d' airr.i, buckle 

on your armour. 
'Qvcx.AiCHT^, p. part, of buclaich. Buckled. 
+ BuDH,«. »j. The world ; a breach; a rout. — Shaxc. 
BuGAK, ain, s. m. An unlaid egg. 
''BvGii, s. m. Fear; a leek.— .S7(flji). 
Bt'GSA, s. m. The box-tree ; a box. Written also bocsa. 
Buic, gen. sing, and of boc, s. ; which see. 
i BuicEAD, eid, ,v. )ii. A moutliful. 
BuicEAN, ein, s. m. {illm. of boc.) A young roe, a little roe; 

also a pimple. N. pi. buicein, young rocs. Buiccin bin- 

neacli, the high-headed young rocs. — Macdon. 
BuiCEAXACH, a. Like a young roe; of, or belonging to, a 

young roe; pimply, 
t Bt;icn, *./. A breach.— S/iaa. 
t Butciiiù, s. m. A young roe. Thionnadh am buichiù, 

the young roe turned. — Old Song. 
BuiD, gen. sing, and n. pi. of bod. 
BuiDEAL, eil, s. m. (Fr. boutcille, lot lie. Tr. buidcal. 

Sued, buteli, to bottle. It. bottiglia.) A bottle ; anker. 

Clàr buideil, a bottle-rack. — Miicdon. N. pi. buidealaii. 
BuiDEALAiR, s.m. {from buideal.) A butler. Buidealair 

an righ, the king's butler.— Stew. Gen. JV. pi. buideal- 

BuiDKALAiUEACiiD, s.f. (from buidealair.) The business 

of a butler, butlership. //.v/). /òjot, bhuidloarachd. Chum 

a bhuidealaireachd, to his butlership. — Stev:. Gen. 
f BuiDH, s. pi. Thanks. — Shaw. Hence huidheuch and 

BuiDiiE, r/. Yellow, like gold. Grian bhuidht, the golden 

■fun. — Oss. Ten. Fait buidhc, yellow hair. Buidlie nan 

ningcan, spurge. — Shaw. 
BuiDiiEACH, ich, s.f. The jaundice. A bhuidhcach, the 

BuiDiiEACii, a. {from t buidli.) Thankful, pleased, satisfied ; 

sated, content. — Ir. id. Buidhcacli Ijidh, satisfied 'with meat ; 

tha mi buidheach air son sin, / umpleasedat that. Is buidh- 

eacli Dia do 'n f iilrinn, the truth ispleasing to God. — G. P. 
BuiniiKACiiAs, ais, V. ?H. (from tbiiidh.) Ir. id. Thanks, 

thanksgiving. Gulh buidheachais, the mite nfthanksgixing ; 

thoir buidhe:icli;is, give thanks; l)n'ith buidheachais, 

thanksgixing ; buidheachas do Dliia, tliank God; taing is 

buidheachas, many thanks. 

BuiDHEAD, eid, s. TB. Yellowness; increase in yellowness 
A fas am buidhead, growing more and more yellow. 

BuiniiF.AG, eig, s.f. (from buidhe.) A goldfinch ; any little 
yellow bird; a daisy; a lily; any yellow flower; also a 
cow of a yellowish colour. Gheibh sinn a bhuidheag san 
loin, we shall find the daisy in the meadow. — Old Song. 
N. pi. buidheagan. 

BuiDiiEAGAN, ain, s. m. {froyn buidhe.) The yolk of an 
egg. — Ir. id. 

BuiDiiEAGAN, of buidheag. Daisies, lilies. 

BuiDHEAG-BHEALUiDH, S.f. A yellow-hammcr. A bhu- 
idheag bhealuidh, the yellow-hammer. — Macd. Nead iia 
buidheig-bhealuidh, the yellow-hammer's nest. 

BuiDiiEAG-BHUciiAiR, S.f. A yellow-hammer. — Shaw. 

BuiDHEANN, buidhne, s. m. A company, a troop, a band; 
rulers. Bheir buidheann buaidh air, troops shall conquer 
him. — Stew. 0. T. Tha mi a faicinn buidhne, / see a com- 
pany. — Stew. 2 K. buidhnean. 

BuiDiiixN, s.f. Gain, profit. Is beag do bhuidhinn deth, 
your profit of it is little. 

BuiDiiiNN, V. a. Gain, profit, win, acquire. Pret. a. bhuidhinn, 
won ; fut. aff. a. buidlinidh, shall win ; imp. sub. bhuidhneadh, 
would win, Bhuidhneadh tu gach vèis, thuu wouldst gain 
every race. — Macint. Buidhnibh saorsa, gain liberty. — 
Old Poem. 

BuiDH-MHios, .5. »i. The month of July. //-. boidh-mhios. 

Viv Wins E, gen. sing, of buidheann; which see. 

BuiDHNEACH, a. Victorious; in bands or companies ; suc- 
cessful; acquiring, gainful, profitable. Laoich buidhneach, 
victorious heroes. — Macint. 

Buidhneach, ich, s.f. A band, acompany; a troop. JV./;/. 
buidhnicheare, bands. 'Uile bhuidhnichean, all his bands. 
— Slew. Ezek. 

BuiDiiNEACHD, i.y. VictOHOUsncss, successfulncss. 

BuiDiiNiCH, V. a. (from buidheann.) Arrange into com- 
panies. Pret. a. bhuidnich. 

BuiDiixiCHTE, p. part, of buidhnich. Arranged or drawn 
in companies. 

BuiDiiUE, s.f. Deafness. 

BuiDiiRE, (0»). and sup. of bodhar. More or most deaf. 
Cliiinnidh tu air a chluais is buidhre e, you will hear it in 
the deafest ear. — G. P. 

BuiDiiE-uuADH, «. Of a bay colour ; auburn. Fait buidhe 
ruadh, auburn hair. 

BuinsEACii, ich, .s.y. Awitch, JV. p/. buidsichean. 

BumsEACiiD, s. f. Witchcraft, sorcery. Tha buidscachd 
ort, you are bewitched. 

BuiGE, com. and sup. of bog. Softer, softest; smoother, 
smoothest. Asp. form, biiuige. Bu bhuigc a bhriatiiran, 
his words were softer. — .SVi.;;;. Ps. 

BuiGE, s. f. Softness, eilominacy. 

Bi'iGEACiiAS, ais, «. m. Tendcrnoss, softness, pity> com- 
passionateness. Gun ath-thruas gun bhuigeachas, without 
compassion or pity. — Old Song. 

BuiGEAN, cin, .V. m. A soft unmanly fellow. 

Bi'iG-BiiuiNNE, s.f. A bulrush. 

BuiGLEACii, ich, s.f. A soft placc ; a bog, u quagmire. 
N. pi. buiglich. 

BuiGLEAG, eig, S.f. A bog or quagmire. — Mad. 

BuiGNEACii, ich, s.f. A bog, a quagmire ; also bulnishes. 

Bun., s.f. Completion, perfection; issue; consequence, 
effect; success. A thoirt gu buil fhocail, to complete his 
words. — Stew. Joel. Buil gach aon taisbein, the effect of 
even/ vision. — Stew. Ezek. Bheir thu a bhuil, you willrcap 
the consequence ; bithidh sin air biuiil, that will come to pass. 

Buii.EACii, «. Complete, whole. This word is most com- 
monly used adverbially ; as, gu builcach, completely, wholly, 
utterly, altogether. Na treig mi gu buileach, do not forsake 

B U I 

B U I 

me utterly. — Sm. Cha bhuain thu gu buileacli, thou shalt 
not Tv/iollj/ reap. — Stew. Lev. Gu bileach buileacli, pick 
and crumb. 
BuiLEACiiADH, aidh, s. ?». A bestowing, giving ; improving. 
BuiLEACHADH, (a), pr. part, of builich. Bestowing; im- 
BuiLEANN, inn, s. m. A loaf. Written also builionn; 

which see. 
BuiLG, gev. sing, of bolg. 

BuiLG, «./)/. of bolg. Bellows; also seeds of herbs. 
BuiLG, s.y. A distemper among cattle, proceeding from 

want of water or from heat. 
BuiLGEANN, s. m. (dim. of bolg.) Sax. biligan, a b/adder. 
A blister; pimple; bubble or bell; bellows ; a little bag, 
a bladder. Mar bhristeadh builgein, like the breaking of a 
bubble. — Macfar. 

BuiLGEASACH, a. Spotted. — Shaw. 

Builich, r. a. Grant, bestow, present ; improve. Fret. a. 
bhuilich, granted ; fiit. aff. a. builichidh, shall or will grant. 

Builionn, inn, s. m. A loaf. N. pi. builinnean, loaves. 
Aon bhuilionn, one loaf. — Stew. Exod. 

BuiLL-BiiEijiT, *. »!. ;>/. Tackling; instruments. 

BuiLLE, s. m. A blow, a stroke, a stripe. {Germ. beul. 
Gr. SoXn, a throw.) N. pi. buillean, and sometimes buille- 
annan, blows. Buille air son buille, blow for blow, stripe 
for stripe. — Stew. Exod. Fead am builleannan, the noise 
of their blows. — Macdon. 

BuiLLEACH, a. {from buille.) That gives blows. 

BuiLLEACHAS, ais, s. m. A striking, a boxing, a bruising. 

BuiLLEANACH, a. Striking, giving blows. Sathach buil- 
leanach, giving thrusts and blows. — Old Song. 

BuiLLSGEAN, BuiLSGEAN, ein, s. m. The middle, the 
centre. Builsgean amhuinn, the centre of a furnace. — 
Stexc. Dan, 

t BuiME, s.f A nurse; a mother. — Ir. id. 

BuiN, r. Belong ; touch, meddle ; deal or treat ; take away. 
Pret. a. bhuin, belonged ; fut. ajf. a. buinidh, shall belong. 
Is ann da bhuineas slainnte, to him belongs health. — Stew. 
Jon. Buinibh gu caoineil ri mo ghaol, deal kindlt/ with my 
beloved. — Oss. Buin uanl m' anam, take mi/ life from me. — 
Sfew. Jon. Cha bhuiunte bho gaol i, she could not be 
taken from her love. — Oss. Fut . sub.hhuinec.s. Co dha 'bhui- 
neas so? whotn dues this belong to.' An rud nach buin duit 
na buin da, what belongs not to you ineddlc not with. — G. F. 

Buinidh, /}/;. af. a. of buin. Shall belong. 

BuiNiG, V. a. Conquer, obtain by conquest. Fret, a 
bhuiuig ; fut. pass, buinigear. Buiuigcar buaidh le foigh- 
idinn, victory is got by patience. — G . F. 

BuiNiG, s.f. Superiority. 

BuiNNE, s.f. A stream; a torrent; a spout or cataract; 
a billow; a spigot; rarely a sprout or twig; an ulcer. 
Air buinne reidh, on a smooth stream.— Macint. K. pi. 
buiunean arda, lofty billows. — Old Poem. 

BuiNNEACH, ich, i. »(. A diarrhoea; flux. //■. buinneach. 

BuiNNEAG, eig, s.f. A twig; a germ; a lovely young 
maid; the sole of a shoe. A bhuinneag Mhoiùra! thou 
lovely maid Moiura ! — Oss. Conn. Cha chuir e buinneag 
air a bhrògan, it will not sole his shoe. — G. P. N. pi. bu- 

BuiNNEAMH, imh, s. m. An effusion. — Shaw. 

BuiNNEAN-LEANA, S. m. A bittern. — S//OU'. 

BuiNNiR, s. ??;. A footman. Written also io«Hai;-. 
BuiNNE-siiiiuTH, S.f. A precipitous stream; a cascade. 

IVIar bhuin ne-shruth reamhairt, like a spring-tide stream. — 

Old Song. 
BiiNNTEACH, a. Causing looseness of the bowels. 

BuiNNTEACn, icil, s. m. One troubled with a flux; one who 

is habitually loose in his bowels. 
BuiNNTEACHD, S.f. A flux ; a dyscntcry ; habitual loose- 
ness of the bowels. 
BuiNTEAR, ir, *. »i. A dunce. iV. /;/. buintirean. 
Bum, r. ?«. Roar, bellow. P/cV. a. bhùir ;/«<.«/■.«. bùiridh, 

shall roar. 
BuiUBE, s.f. Fierceness, savageness, boisterousness, wrath, 

rage ; cruelty. Gun gheilt no buirbe, without fear or wrath. 

— Sm. Mharbh sibh iad le buirbe, you killed them in a 

rage. — Stew. Chron. 
BuiiiBE, com. and sup. of borb. (7r. boirbe and buirbe.) 

More or most fierce. 
BuiuBEACHD, s.f. Barbarity, fierceness. 
BuiRDEASACii, aich, .s. ;». A citizen, an inhabitant, a bur- 
gess. N. pi. bùìrdeasaich, citizens. Bùirdeasaich 

sgiathach nan speur, the winged inhabitants of heaven. — 

BÙIRE, BÙIREADH, s. m. {Ir. bùireadh.) Wailing, loud 

weeping; a burst of grief; roaring, bellowing; a rutting. 

Bhrist uaith bùire, he broke into a loud hurst of grief . — 

Oss. Duthona. Mo bhùireadh, my roaring. — Stew. Job. 

Poll-bùiridh, the rutting-place of a dicr. 
t BuiREADii, idh, s. m. Gore, pus. -Ir. id. Shaw. 
BuiREADH, 3 sing, and pi. imperat. of bilir. Na buireadh 

am boc, let nut the roe bellow. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
BuiREAN, ein, s. m. A roar, a bellow as of a deer; a loud 

noise. An fhairg a teachd le bùirean, the sea coming with 

a noise. — Macfar. 
BÙIREAN.4CII, a. Roaring, bellowing, noisy. 
BÙIRICH, V. a. {from ùir.) Dig, delve. Fret. a. bhùirich 

dug ; fut. aff. a. bùirichidh, shall or will dig; fut. pass. 

buirichear; p. part, bùirichte, dug. 
BùiRicii, V. n. Howl, roar; make a loud lament. Pret. a. 

bhùirich, roared ; fut. aff. bùirichidh, shall roar. 
BùiRicii, s. f. A loud lament, a burst of grief; a low 

murmur ; a bellowing, a hollow roar as of a bull ; a 

BÙIRIC11E, s. m. A mattock ; a hoe, a little spade ; a dibble ; 

also one who digs or delves. 
BùiRiciiiDH,/!i/. aff. a. of biiirich. Shall or will dig. 
BùiRiDii, gen. sing, of buireadh. 
BuiuLijrG, j.y. See BioRLiNN. 
BùiRTE, s.f. A gibe, a taunt, a sarcasm; a repartee, a 

t BuiscEAN, ein, .?.?«. A thigh, a haunch; thigh armour. 

Hence perhaps buskin. 
BuisDREACH, ich, s. w. A witch, a wizzard, a sorcerer. 
BuisDREACHD, S.f. W^itchcraft, sorcery. 
BÙISTE, s.y. A pouch or pocket, a scrip. — Shaw. N. pi. 

bùistean and buisteachan. 
BuiTE, s.f. A firebrand. 

t BuiTEALACii, aich, s. m. A great fire. — Ir. id. 
BuiTSE, Ò./. An icicle. — Macd. 
BuiTSEACH, ich, «. m. andy. A witch, a wizzard. N. pi. 

buitsichean, witches. Written also buidseach. 
BuiTSEACHAS, ais, s. in. Witchcraft, sorcery. — Stew. Gal. 

ref. Written also buidseachas. 
BuiTSEACiiD, s. y. Witchcraft, sorcery, enchantment. Writ- 
ten also bùidseachd. 
BuiTSEAR,ir,i. 7«. A butcher; also the butcher's bird. — Macd. 
BuiTSEARACiiD, S.f The business of a butcher; a butchery. 
Ag ionnsachadh na buitsearachd, learning the business of a 
Bv nuviK, com. and sup. of hothar. Deafer, deafest. Written, 
also buidhre, from bodhar. 



BuiTHRE, a.f. Deafness. Written also luidhrc, from hudhtir. 
+ BuL, s. m. A manner, mode, fashion. 
BuLAisTEAR, ir, s. m. Ir. id. A buUace, a sloe. — Shau\ 
BÙLAS, ais, i. HI. A pot-hook; a prune. J\^ p/. bùlasan. 
BuLG, buil^, s. m. A belly; any thing that is prominent or 
bellying; a bubble; a lump, a knob, a mass. Written 
also bolg ; which see. 
BoLGACH, a. (from bolg.) Bellying, prominent; knobby, 
massy. Ceud srian bulgach, a hundred mnssi/ bridles. — 
Oss. Taura. 
Bulla, ai, «. m. A bowl; a biill; a bubble. Ir. bulla. 

Lat. bulla, a bubble. Hence also bullire, to boil. 
BuLLACii, a. Globular; like a bowl, ball, or bubble ; also 

the fish called connor. — S/iau\ 
Bun, buin, 4. rn. {I'ers. hun, bottom, /r. bun. Dff«. bund.) 
Bottom, base, foundation; foot; a root, a stump; stock; 
origin ; a squat little person ; trust, confidence. Bun a 
mhonaidh, the bottom or foot of the hill ; bun an uchdain, 
the bottom of the UH-enf. Bun an earbuill, the rump. — 
SleK. E.vod. Bun na h-altarach, the foot of the altar. — 
Sfexv. L(i . Cha n' fhàg e bun no bàrr, he u-ill leave neither 
root nor branch. — Steic. Mai. Bun craoibh, the stump of 
a tree. — Steic. Is. As a bhun, from the root. Bun os- 
cionn, upside doun. — Steu\ Job. Asadsa rinn ar sinnsir bun, 
in thee our fathers trusted. — Sm. Bun na ciob, the root <;/" 
the mountain-grass. — Macint. Bun balaoicli, a stump of a 
fellow, a stout squat fellow. 
Biinabiias, ais, s, in. An element. 
BuNABiiASACn, a. Elemental. 
BuNAcii, aich, i. TO. Coarse tow ; the tare of flax ; a sturdy 

little person. 
BuNACH,a. Squat; short, stumpish ; sturdy; clumsy. 
BuNACiiADii, aidh, s. m. A founding, establishing ; a taking 

BuNACiiAR, air, s. m. A foundation, base, bottom; radix; 
etymology. O bliunachar luaisgidh an talamh, the eurlh 
shall quake from its foundation. — Sm. Perhaps the proper 
orthography is bunachur. 
BuNACHAS, ais, «. w. Jr. bunadhas. Etymology; authen- 
ticity ; authority. 
BuNACiiASACii, a. {from bunachas.) Authentic ; well- 
founded ; etymological ; radical. 
BuNADAs, ais, s. m. Origin, stock, root, foundation. 
BuNAicii, V. a. Found, establish, make firm, take root. 

Pret. a. bhunaich, /«<. ajl'. bunaichidh. 
BuNAiLT, s.y. Steadiness; constancy; a sure foundation; 

BuNAiLTEACii, fl. (from bunailt.) Steady, firm, constant, 
stable, fixed ; authentic; firmly seated or founded. Bha d' 
innlinn bunailteach, thi/ mind was constant. — Macint. 
BuNAiLTKACiii), s.f. Steadiness; firmness; constancy; 

firmness of foundation. 
BuNAlT, s. m. ( i. e. bun-ait.) Ir. bunait. A', pi. bunaitcan. 
A foundation. Bunaitcan an domhain, tlic foundation'; of 
the earth. — Sttw. Gat. 
BuNAiTEALii, «. [frotit bunait.) Steady, grounded, fixed, 
stable, stcdfast, immoveable. Bunaiteach agus daingeann, 
grounded and settled. — Stew. Col. 
BuNAiTEACiiADii, aidli, s. 1)1. (from bunait.) A founding, 

an establishing. 
BuNAiTEAC'iiD, S.f. Written also bunailteuchd ; wiiich see. 
BuNAiTicii, r. a. Found, establish ; inherit, possess. 
BuNAMAS, ais, .V. m. Deep discernment ; (juickness of com- 
BuNANTA, a. Firm, well built, well set, sturdy; having a 

good bottom or foundation. 
BuNANTACnD, S.f. Firmiicss, sturdiness, 

BuN-BHEAN, -mhna, s. f. A female of discreet years. bun-mnathan. 
BuN-CHiALL, -chèill, s.f. A moral; having a concealed 

BuN-cniALLACii, fl. Containing a moral, as a fable. 
BuN-ciiis, «.y. A pension ; chief rent. 
BuNDUNACH, a. Ungainly. — Shaw. 
BuN-GLAS, ais, i. m. Purple melie-grass. — Macd. 
BuN-LuciiD, 4. p/. Aborigines. 
Bux-MnÀs, nihais, s.f. A buttock. 
BuN-MiiÀSACii, a. Having large buttocks ; of, or belonging 

to, the buttocks. 
BuNNAN, ain, s. m. A bittern. — Shaw. 
BuN-NÒs, -nòis, 4'. m. An old custom. — Shaw. 
BuNSACH, aich, i. (/)'. bunnsach.) A rod ; an osier ; a place 

where osiers grow. N. pi. bunsaichean, twigs. 
BuNSAG, aig, s.f. A twig, a soft osier. — Macd. Ir. bun- 

BuNSAiDii, a. (from bun.) Firm, solid, strong; having a 

good bottom. Perhaps bunsuidh. 
BuN-TAGHTA, s. in. A potato ; literalli/, a cltoice root. 

For this iiifieiiious rendering (if the word potato, the Gaelic 

language is indebted to the late Sir John Wac Gregur Murray, 

BuNTAis, s. pi. (fromhum.) Perquisites.— S/iaa-. 
BuNTAMAS, ais, s. m. See Bunamas. 
BuN-TÀT, àit, «. m. A potato. jV. />/. buntàit. See Bun- 


BuNTUiXK, (a), pr. pan", of buin. Belonging to ; meddling, 

treating, touching, taking away. A buntuinn gu nainihdeil, 
persecuting. — Stew. N. T. 
Bt)R, biiir, 4. m. A boor, a clown ; a boorish person, 
t BuRACH, aich, s. m. An exploit; a file of soldiers; a 

swelling, an imposthume. 
BÙRACIIADI1, aidh, s. m. A digging, a delving. 
BijRACHADii, (a), pr. part, of bùraich. Digging, delving. 

Ag a bùrachadh le rildan, digging it with his knuckles. — 

Bi/RAicii, r. ri. Dig, delve. Fret. a. bhuraich, r/i/n^ ; fut. 

ajf. u. buraichidh, shall dig. Written also biiirich. 
BÙUA1CIIE, .V. m. A pickaxe; a delver ; one who digs. 
BÙRA1CHTE, p. i>art. of bùraich. Dug, delved. 
BuRAiDil, s. in. (from bur.) A clown, a boor, a foolish 

fellow, a blockhead, a looby, i^- p/. buraidheau. A bhur- 

aidh tha thu ann ! fool that thou art! Spun, burro, 

Bun-BiiUACiiAiLL, V. »J. The bird called northern diver. 

The colymbus glacialis of Linnaus, and the speckled diver 

of Pennant. Of this bird it is remarked, that it makes a 

great noise previous to a storm. 
Bt)RDAN, ain, 4-. m. A gibe ; a sing-song. — ^lacd. Also 

the surname Burdon. 
BuRDANACii, o. Gibing; also one of the name Burdon. 
t Burg, s. m. A town; a tower; a fortress; a village. 
Or. irvfyoi;, a tower. Vers. Burj, « town. Arab, borg and 

borch. Si/r. bor, a village. Chald. borgan, a town. Isl. 

borg and biorg, a village. Swed. f berga and borga. Arm. 

bourch and burg. Germ, berg, burg, and purg. Dan. borg. 

Du. burg. Sa.r. burug, burgh, and beorg. Run. borg. 

Bclg. borg, borcht, oHrfburcht. Kng. burgh. Bisc. burgua. 
BuRGAiR, s. m. A burgess, a citizen. N. pi. burgairean, 

BuRMAiD, s.y; Wormwood. Mar a bhurmaid, «4- ^//c itorm- 

wood. — Stew. Pro. 
BùiiN', biiirn, 4. m. (Scotch, burn.) Water; fresh water. 

Sail is burn, lalt water and fresh. — Macd. Cho saor ri 

burn, as cheap as water. Asp. form, bhùrn. Chitheam am 

fuil do bhùrn, / see thy water in blood. — Oss. Com. 



Ni burn salach lamhan glan, foul water will make clean 

hands. — G. P. 
BÙRXACH, a. {from burn.) Watery, 
t BuRH, a. Great. Written also borr. 
BuRRAis, s. vi. A caterpillar. Written also biirrnis. 
BuuRAL, ail, s. m. A howl, a burst of grief; clamorous 

grief; weeping. Chual le glinn a bhurral, t/ie glens heard 

Ais liouL — Oss. 3Ianos. 
BuRR.vLACii, a. Crying; sulky; apt to howl; howling. 
BuRRALAicii, s.y. Loud lamentation; a howling. Thòisich 

8 air burralaich, lie bega?i to hovl. 
BuRRUis, s. m. A caterpillar. Ma bhios burruis ann, so 

there be caterpillars. — StcxiK 1 K. 
BuRURus,uis,i. }!i. A warbling ; a purling noise; a gurgling. 

Ri bururus seirah, warbling softli/. — Macdon. 
Bus, buis, s. 7H. A mouth ; lip; snout; a ludicrous term for 

the human mouth ; a kiss ; a cat. 

/r. bus. I!', hus, lip. Eng. hnss. Span.huz, a hiss. Germ. 

buss. I'ers.hnz, lip. Lat.has-ium,akiss. Fr.hkseT,to kiss. 
BusACii, fl. (from bus.) Snouty; having a large mouth; 

blubber-lipped ; pouting. Co>n. and sup. busaiche. 
BusAG, aig, s.f. A young girl with thick lips. 
BusAiDH. A word by which a cat is called. 
Bus-DUBii, s. m. A name for a dog and a democrat. 
BusG, r. a. Dress, adorn ; hinder. Prct. a. bhusg, dressed. 

fat. aff. busgaidh, shall dress. 
BusGAPH, aidh, «. OT. A dressing, an adorning. A coiffure, 

a head-dress. 
BusoAiNN, s.f. A dressing, adorning. Busgainn dubhain, 

the dressing of afshing-houk. 

Busgainn, r. (7. Dress, decorate; dress a hook. Pret.a. 

bhusgainn, dressed; ftit. nff. busgainnidh, shall dress. 
BusiALL, eill, s.f. A muzzle. 

BuTAG, aig, s.f. An oar-pin. More properly pu^ao-. 
BuTAGOCHD, «. m. A snipe. Gob a bhutagochd, f^e AtV/ o/ 

the snipe. 
BuTH, bùtha, s. A shop; a tent; pavilion ; a booth; a cot. 

N. pi. bùthan ; d. pi. bùthaibh ; asp. form, bhiithaibh. 

Shuidhich e a bhùth, he pitched his tent. — Stew. Gen. Do 

d' bhuthaibh, to i/our tents. — Stew. I K. Sròl o'n bhùth, a 

riband from the shop. — Old Sung. 

Turk, and Arab, belt and beith, a house. Chald. betha 

and bith. Si/r. baitho and bitho. Phen. bith and beth. 

Pers. bat and abad. Ethiop. beti, a house. Mogul Tartars, 

po, a house. Germ, buen, bude, and bau. Eng. booth. 

Piilon. budo. Span, buhyo, cot. Swed. bod and bu. 

Eng. abode. Darien, bo and bu. W. buth, both, and 

bot, house. Dan. boe, to dwell. isl. bua and byad, 

house. Bohem. obit, a house. Bisc. bit. Arm. bod. Corn. 

buyth, a house. Du. boede. Teut. boed. Old Sax. boede 

and bode. Serv. and Lus. buda, house. Scotch, byde, wait. 
BÙTHAL, ail, s. m. A pot-hook. Bùthal raimh, the fulcrum 

of an oar. 
BÙTHAN, ain, s. m. (dim. of buth.) Germ. buen. A little 

booth ; a bothy ; a pavilion ; a tent. 
BiyxHAN, n. pi. of buth. Booths; pavilions; cots; tents. 

See Buth. 
BÙTiiLAS, ais, i. m. A poot-hook. A'^. pi. bùthlasan ; 

d. pi. buthlasaibh. 
BuTiiLASAN, n. pi. ofbùthlas. Pot-hooks. 

C, (coll, ha-.el^ The third letter of the Gaelic alphabet. 
When the names of letters began with suitable initials, the 
Gael named them after natural objects, as trees. C, when 
not aspirated, sounds broad, like c in cub, as cii, a dog, 
crath, shake ; or small, like c in cane, as faic, see ; trie, 
often. When aspirated, it sounds like the Greek x i" X'f^"' 
as 7noch, early ; or small, like pjEiftii', as chi, shall see. 

t Ca, s. tn. A house. — Ir. id. 

Ca, adv. (c'àite.) Where. Ca nis am bheil do ghath ! where 
now is till/ sting ! — Sm. 

Cab, v. a. Indent, notch as the edge of a bladed weapon; 
break land. Pret. a. chab, notched; fut. aff. a. cabaidh, 
shall notch. 

Cab, caib, s. m. A mouth, a mouth ill set with teeth ; 
a head ; a gap ; also a Hebrew measure equal to nearly 
three English pints and a half, or two Scotch pints. — 
Stew. K. 

Gr. xa/Sii, food. Ir. cab, mouth. Lat. cap-ut, head. 
Heb. cabah, hat. Pol. kapua, head. Boh. kape, head. 
Germ, kappen, hat. Sclav, kappa, cowl. Eng. cap. 
It. capo, head. Corn, kappa, hat. Bisc. cab, head. 
Span, cab, head. Hottentot, cabba, hat. Hence also 
Fr. capitaine, and Eng. captain; i. e. cap-fden, headman. 
Pers. t caf, a hill. 

CaTìacìi, a. (from cah.) /;-. cabach. Long-toothed; ugly- 
mouthed; notched, indented; full of gaps; toothless; 
babbling; garrulous. Co?«. and i«;). cabaiche. 

Cabaciiadii, aidh, «.m. An indenting, a notching; a grow- 
ing indented or notched ; indentation. 

Cabaciiadh, (a), pr. part, ofcabaich; which see. 

t Cabad, aid, s. m. (from f cab.) A head. Lat. caput. 

See Cab. 
Cabadh, aidh, s. m. A notching, an indenting ; a breaking 

of land. 
Cabadii, (a), pr. part, of cab ; which see. 
Cabag, aig, s.f A cheese. (Ir. cabag. Scotch, kebbuck.) 

JV. pi. cabagan. 
Cabag, aig, s. f. (from cab.) A toothless female; a loqua- 
cious female ; rarely, a strumpet. N. pi. cabagan. /;-. 

Cabaich, v. a. (from cab.) Notch, indent, make blunt. 

Pret. a. chabaich, notched; fut. aff. a. cabaichidh, shall 

t Cabaig, s.f. A pillory. — Ir. id. 
Cabail, s.f. A fleet, a navy. — Ir. id. 
C.iBAiR, gen. sing, and n. pi. of cabar. 
Cabaire, s. m. (from cab.) A tattler, a gabbler; a toothless 

fellow. N. pi. cabairean. 
Cabaireachd, s.f. The habit of tattling or prating. 
Cabais, Cabaiseachd, s.f. Tattling, prating. 
Cabaisd, s.f. Cabbage. Càl agus cabaisd, colewort and 

cabbage. — Old Song. 
Cabaisdeacii, a. Abounding in cabbage; like cabbage; 

of, or belonging to, cabbage. — Macdon. 
t Cabal, ail, s. m. A cable. Du. cabel. Tevt. kabel. 

Ir. cabla. 
Caball, aill, s.f. A mare; of old, a horse; also a young 

dromedary. ÌS^ pi. cabaill. 

Gr. xaèa^^Ju, a work-house. Lat. cavallus, according to 

Isodorus and Papias. It. cavallo. Span, caballo. Fr. ca- 



vale, a mare. Pol. kobela. Boh. kobyla. Hung, kabalalo. 

The Old Celtic for horse is all ; and cab is mouth; so caball 

means a horse broken to the bridle. See also Capull. 
Cabain, gen. .sing, and n. pi. of caban. 
t Cabax, ain, s. m. {dim. of cab.) A cottage, a tent, a booth ; 

also a cottager. 

Ptn. kabah, a cot. Sam. cab, lent. Bisc. cabia, cage. 

It. gabbia. Jrab. kaban, tait. Turk, ciobani. Gr. xaflatri. 

Span, cabana. Lat. caupona, an inn. Fr. cabane. Corn. 

Arm. W. and Eng. cabin. 
CÀBAN, ain, s. m. {Lat. capo.) A capon. 
Cabau, air, s. m. {Arm. ceibr, rafter. Corn, keber.) A 

deer's horn, an antler; a deer; a stake; a rung; lath; 

rarely, a joint, a confederacy. Cabar feidh, a deer. t antler. 

Mu chabar bha dealan, lightning was about his horns. — 

Oss. Com. 
Cabarach, a. (from cabar.) Branchy, branching; having 

branching horns or antlers ; like a rung or stake ; full of 

rungs. Gu cabarach, with antlers. — Macint. Com. and 

svp. cabaraiche. 
Cabarach, aich s. A deer; a thicket, a copse. An deigh 

chabrach, in pursuit of deer. — Oss. Fing. Mar astar dall 

an cabarach, as a blind man's progress through a thicket. — 

G. P. 
t Cabasdan, ain, s. m. A sort of curb; a bit, a bridle. 

Written also; which see. 
C.iBHAG, aig, s.f. Hurry, haste, dispatch, speed. Dean 

cabhag, jnake haste. — Stew. Gen. Cabhag ghaoth agus 

chuan, the speed of winds and waves. — Fingalian Poem. 

Tha thu ad chabhaig, you are in a hurry. 
Cabhac.acii, «. {from cabhag.) Hasty, impatient, abrupt, 

hurrying ; causing haste or hurry ; requiring haste. Gach 

neach cabhagach, every hasty [impatient] person. — Stew. 

Pro. Gnothach cabhagach, business requiring haste. — 

Stew. Sam. 
Cabiiaig, gc7i. sing, of cabhag. 
Cabhair, s.f. Help, assistance, relief, deliverance. {Ir. 

cabhair.) Asp. form, chabhair. Mo chabhair, ?;;(/ help. — 

Stew. Job. Dean cabhair, help. Is fad cabhair o Chruachan, 

help is far from Cruachan ; an old adage expressive of the 

remoteness and inaccessible situation of that mountain. 

Written also cubhair. 
Cabhair,!'. Assist, help, relieve, deliver, i'/i^ ar/. chab- 
hair, assisted; fut. aff. a. cabhairidh. Cabhair orm, help 

me. — Stew. Sam. Written also cobhair. 
Cabhaikeach, a. Ready to help; auxiliatory, helpful. 
-f- Cabhan, ain, s. m. A field, a plain. — /;•. id. 
Cabhanach, aich, s. m. Dawn. See CAmiianach. 
t Cabhar, air, s. m. Any aged bird. 
Cabiilach, aich, s.f. {Ir. id.) A fleet. Na chabhiach 

dorcha, in his dark Jleet. — Oss. Cathulii. N. pi. cabh- 

Cabiilachan, ain, s. m. A mariner. 
Cabhlaciidacii, a. Of, or pertaining to, a fleet; having a 

large fleet. 
Cabiilaicii, gen. of cabhlach. 
Cabhruich, v.y. (cdth-bhruich.) Flummery; a mess made 

of the boiled filtered juice of corn seeds, and called by the 

Lowland Scots sowens. 
Cabhsair, s.f. A causeway, a pavement. N. pi. cabh- 

Cabiisaireach, a. Having a causeway or pavement; 

causewayed, paved. 
Cabiisaireaciiu, s.f. The business of paving; pavier's 

Cabhsaiuiciie, «./. A pavier. JV. />/. cabhsairichean. 

Cabhsanta, a. Dry; snug. — Shaw. 
Cabracu, a. Contracted (or cabarach ; which see. 
Cabrach, aich, s. m. A deer; a copse, a thicket; timber- 
moss ; also the parish of Cabrach in Banff, where timber- 
moss abounds. 
Cabstar, air, s. in. A curb ; the bit of a bridle. Cruaidh 

chabstar shoilleir, hard polished bits. — Oss. Carricth. 

N. pi. cabstaran. 
Cabstarach, a. Having a curb; having a bit; like a curb 

or bit. 
Cac, s. m. Excrement, dung, dirt, mire, filth. A.sp. form, chac. 
If^. and Arm. each. Du. kak. Ir. cac. Span, and 

Port. caca. Lat. caco. Aristophanes, in his comedy of 

the Clouds, has xaxxn. 
Cac, v. n. Go to stool ; shite. Fret. a. chac ; fut. aff. a. 

C.ic, a. Dirty, filthy, besmeared with dirt, nasty. Blast cae, 

a nasty beast. 
Cacacii, a. {from cac.) Filthy, dirty, miry, nasty, besmeared 

with dirt, excrementitious. 
Cacadh, aidh, s. m. A voiding of excrement. 
CACADit, (a), pr. part, of cac. 
Cacaidh, fut. aff. a. of cac. 
CAcii,7»;w!. { The rest. Ard rO chàch, high above 

the rest. — Oss. Durgo. Aiv ihus chk\ch, in front <f the rest. 

— Mac Lach. 
t Caciian, ain, s. m. Profit, use ; also a gate. — Ir. id. 
t Cachd, i. A maid-servant; also a confinement; afasting; 

Cachliadh, s.f. A rustic gate; a temporary breach made 

in a park wall as a thoroughfare for carts or cattle. 
Cac-radh, s. in. Cacophony. 

t Cad, caid, s. m. A friend ; also high ; holy. — Ir. id. 
t C.vDACii, aich, s. m. Friendship. — /;■. id. 
Cadachas, ais, s. m. Atonement. — Shtfiv. 
f Cadad, aid, s. m. An eclipse. — Ir. id. 
Cadail, gen. sing, of cadal. 
Cadail, T'. v. Sleep, slumber; delay. Prel. a. chadail, 

slept ; fut. aff. a. cadailidh, shall sleep. Na cadail ach 

eutroni, let thy sleep be light. — Old Song. 
Cadal, ail, s. m. Sleep, slumber; delay. Cha robh cadal 

nui 'n righ, the king was sleepless. — Oss. Carricth. Dean 

cadal, sleep ; drub chadail, a wink of sleep ; tha e na 

chadal, he is asleep; tha i na cadal, she is asleep. Written 

also codal. 
Cadalacii, a. Sleepy, drowsy, lethargic; causing sleep; 

narcotic ; dilatory. Galar cadalach, lethargy. 
t Cadam, aim, s. m. {Lat. cado, to fall.) A fall, ruin, de- 
t Cadamacii, a. Ruinous, destructive. — /;•. iil. 
Cadan, ain, s. m. Cotton; a ])ledget. — 
Cadas, ais, 4. ni. A pledget; caddice ; cotton; rarely, 

friendship. Ir. cadas. IF. cadas, a kind of stuff. 
Cadatii,.v. Tartan plaid. Eididh chadath, a tartan dress. 

Cadath is probably cath duth, i. e. battle-colour 
Cadhac, aig, s.f. {Ir. cag.) A jackdaw; the conns 

tnonedula of Linnaeus. N. pi. cadhagan. 
Ca DUAL, ail, i'. »i. A bason; a hide, a skin. 
t Cadhal, a. (Gr. xaAoj.) Fair, handsome, beautiful. — 

Ir. id. 
CAdhal, ail, s. m. Colcwort; kail; also broth of which 

colewort or kail is an ingredient. See CAl. 
Cadhan, ain, *. in. A wild goose; a barnacle. — Shaw. 
Cauhas, ais, f. 7n. { Friendship; honour. — Shaw. 

C A I 

C A I 

t Cadhasach, a. {Jr. id.) Respectful, friendly, honourable. 

— Shaw. 
t Cadhasacud, s.f. Respectfulness, friendliness, honour- 

t Cadhla, ai, s. ni. A goat. — Ir. id. Share. 
t Cadhlach, aich, s. m. A goatherd. K. pi. cadhlaichean. 
Cad-luibii, s.f. Cudwort. 
Cadluieiieach, a. Abounding in cudwort ; like cudwort; 

of cudwort. 
Cadran, ain, s. m. Contention, broil, quarrel, 
t Cadranta, a. Contentious, obstinate, stubborn. Bisc. 

cadarn, brave. I'lirk. kadyr. Arab, kadar. 
+ Caec, a. Blind. — Ir. id. Lat. coecus. Corn. caic. 
t Cagaidh, s.f. Strangeness. — Ir. id. 
Cagail, v. a. {Ir. id.) Spare, save, economize. Pret. a. 

chagail, spared. Written also coigit ; which see. 
Cagailt,*./! a hearth ; also parsimony, frugality, economy. 

Corra-chagailt, the sulphureous hue seen in hot embers on a 

frostij night. 
Cagainn, r. a. {Ir. id.) Chew, gnaw, champ. Pret. a. cha- 

gainn, chewed j fut. aff. a. cagnaidh, shall chew or champ. 

Cha chagainninn cùl mo chompanaich, I would not backbite 

my comrade. — G. P. 
Cagair, v. n. Whisper; listen to awhisper. Pret. a. cha- 

gair, whispered. Cagair rium, whisper to me. 
Cagall, aill, s. m. The herb-cockle. Written also cogall. 

Ir. cagal. 
Cagallach,^. Parsimonious; miserly, sparing; economical; 

also, substantively, a penurious person ; an economical 

Cagallaciid, s./l Parsimoniousness ; penury. 
Cagar, air, s. A whisper; a buzzing sound; a hum; a 

secret. Dean cagar, whisper. Cagar beach na bruaich, 

the hum of the mountain-bee. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. Written 

also cogar ; which see. 
Cagaraicii, Cagarsaicii, s.f. A whispering, a continued 

whispering. Tha thu ri cagarsaich, thou art whispering. 

Asp, form, chagarsaich. Ciod a chagarsaich th'ort? what 

are you whispering at ì 
Cagnadh, aidh, s. m. A chewing, a gnawing, a champing, 

Cagnadh, (a), pr. part, of cagainn. 'G a chagnadh na 'm 

beul, chewing it in their mouths. — Sm. 
C.\GìiAiDH, fut. (iff. a. Shall chew, champ, or gnaw. 
Cagthavl, fut. pass, of cagainn. Shall be chewed, 
t Cai, *./. A road; a house ; a titling. — Ir. id. 
Caib, caibe, s. m. {U'. caib.) A spade, a mattock. A 

gheurachadh a chaibe, to sharpen his spade. — Stew. Sam. 

N. pi. caibeachan. lasad a chailje gun a chur fuidh thalamh, 

the loan of a spade that is not put in the ground. — G. P. 
Caibeal, eil, s. m. A chapel; a family burying-place. 

N. pi caibealan. 
Caibeineachd, s.f. Gabbling, prating. 
Caibhne, s.f. Friendship. — Shaw. 
Caibideal, eil, s.f. A chapter. Ir. caibidil. Corn, cabydul, 

a chapter. Lat. capitellum, a little head. 
t Caibne, s.f The mouth, 
t Caideal, eil, «. m. A pump. iC. ^/. caidealan. 
t Caidii, a. Chaste, immaculate ; aiso, substantively, order, 

manner, method. 
t Caidhe, s.f. Dirt, blemish. — Shaw. 
t Caidheach, a. Dirty, blemished, polluted. 
+ Caidheachd, s.f. Chastity. — Shaw. 
Caidiiean, ein, s. m. The leader of a flock of goats; a 

turtle dove. — Shaw. 

t Caidheil, a. (caidh-amhuil.) Chaste, decent. 

Caidil, t. n. Sleep, slumber, repose. Pret. a. chaidil, 
slept ; fut. aff. a. caidilidh, shall sleep. Written also cadail. 

Caidir, t. a. Permit, connive at; also converse; fondle. 
Pret. a. chaidir; fut. aff. a. caidiridh, shall permit. 01c ni 
'n caidir thu, thou shall not permit wickedness. — Sm. 

Caidreacii, a. Friendly, kind, familiar, conversant, fond ; 
also an acquaintance ; a partner. 

Caidreamh, eimh, s. (perhaps comh-aitreamh.) Fellowship, 
partnership, familiarity, acquaintance; discourse; com- 
merce ; assemblage. — Macint. Ir. caidreadh. iV. caidreav, 
a joint dwelling. 

Caidreamiiach, aich, s. m. (comh-aitreamhach.) An ac- 
quaintance, a companion ; a room-companion, a fellow- 
lodger. Ldimh ri treudaibh do chaidre^nhach, near the 
flocks of thy cornpanion. — Stew. Song. Sol. ref. 

Caidreamiiach, fl. (/ro;n caidreamh.) Familiar, conversant, 
fond, social, companionable. Gu caidreamhach, /'ona'&r/y. 
Com. and sup. caidreamhaiche. 

Caidreamiias, ais, x. m. (jr. cyddras.) Consanguinity; 
familiarity, intimacy, fondness. 

Caigeann, a. Couple together, link together. Pret. a. 
chaigeann ; fut. aff. a. caigeannaidh, shall couple. 

Caigeann, inn, s. m. Two linked or coupled together. 

Caigne, s.f A fan to winnow with. — Shaw. 

CÀIL, càile, s.f. {Ir. cail.) Disposition, temper; quality, 
condition ; life ; strength ; sense ; constitution ; voice ; ap- 
petite ; look or appearance. Gum fainich naimhde a cail, 
that enemies may feel its temper. — Oss. San tigh chaol gun 
chàil, in the narrow house without life. — Oss. Derm. Mo 
chad a treigsinn, my strength failing. — Id. Chaill iad cail 
an claisteachd, they lost their sense of hearing. — Macdon. 

f Cail, caile, s.f. A spear; a shield. — Shaw. 

t Cailbhe, s.f. A mouth, an orifice. — Ir. id. 

Cailbiieach, a. Wide-mouthed; yawning. 

t Cailbheachd, s.f. Continued or frequent yawning. 

t Caile, s.f. A shield, a buckler. — Shaw. 

Cailc, cailce, .s./. (Cor«. caleh.) Chalk. D' aodainn mar 
chailc, the face like chalk. — Old Song. 

Cailceach, a. Chalky, like chalk. 

Cailceanta, a. Hard. — Ir. id. 

Cailceil, a. (cailc-amhuil.) Chalky, like chalk. 

Caile, s.f. Jr. id. {Arm. calch.) A girl; a vulgar girl, 
a hussy ; a quean ; a strumpet. N. pi. cailean, girls. 
Caile-bhalaoch, a romp. 

Caile-biialaoch, s.f. A romp. 

CAileach, a. {from cail.) Of, or belonging to, disposition; 
having a good disposition or quality ; tempered. 

CAiLEACiiD, s.f. {Ir. càilidheachd.) Natural endowments, 
accomplishments, genius ; constitution, temper, nature. 
Aois a leaghadh do chàileachd, age dissolving thy constitu- 
tion. — Old Song. Gun chron càileachd, without blemish oj 
temper. — Old Song. 

Caileaciidach, a. Having natural endowments; accom- 
plished ; having genius. 

CAileaciidan, n. pi. ofcàileachd. Accomplishments, dis- 
positions, passions or affections of the mind. 

Caileadair, s. m. A calendar. — Macd. X. pi. cailead- 

Caileag, eig, s./. A girl, a young girl. N. pi. calhagan. 

Caileagait, n. pi. of caileag. Girls. 

CAiLEANACH, aich, i. m. A breeze. 

Caileanta, a. {from caile.) Girlish; also fond of girls. 

Caileas, eis,s. m. Lethargy. — Shaw, 

Cail-eigin, a, and ac/r. Some, somewhat, a little, some- 

C A I 

C A I 

thing, in some de^ee, in some measure. Labhram cail- 
eigin, I uitl speak something. 
t Cailg, cailge, «. /". A sting; resentment.— SAobj. 
t Cailg, v. n. Sting, pTÌcl<, pierce. I'ret. a. chailg. 
t Cailidear, eir, s. m. Rheum, phlegm, snot. 
Cailinn, s.f. (Ir. caiUn.) A girl, a damsel, a maiden; 
a company of young women. Asp. form, chailinn. Bha 
chailinn ro mhaiseach, t/te maiden was xery fair. — Stew. 
0. T. Chum beathachaidh do chailinn, /o;- theinaintenance 
of thy maidens. — Stew. Pro. 
Caill, v. a. Lose, win not, suffer loss. Pref. a. chaill, lost ; 
flit. aff. a. caillidh. Mun caill iad an treòir, ere they lose their 
strength. — Ardar. 
t Caill, s. m. {Arm. caill.) A testicle. Hence caillteanach, 

an eunuch. , 
Caille, s.f. A veil, a hood. (Ir. caille. Eng. cowl.) 
Hence cailleach, an old woman. 
^,.. Cailleach, ich, s. f'.(from caille.) An old woman, an old wife; 

<^*tVv» t«rffW.s7o«, a coward. iV\ ;>/. cailleachan. Ma 's cailleach 

Ci«^ gun bhrigh thu, if thou bcest a sapless old woman. — Old Sung. 

^ Cailleach-chosach, a ehcslip ; cailleach cheann-dubh, a 

titmouse ; cailleach oidhche, an owl. 
Cailleach, «. Husks of corn. 
Cailleachag, eig, s.f. {dim. of cailleach.) A little old 

woman. N. pi. cailleachagan. 
Cailleaciiail, a. (cailleach-amhuil.) Like an old woman ; 

also cowardly. 
Cailleaciianta, a. Cowardly; soft; unmanly. 
Cailleachas, ais, s. m. The conduct of an old woman; 

dotage ; cowardice. 
CAiLLEACiicitEANX-DUBii, S.f. A titmouse ; a colemouse; 

the purus atcr of Linnseus. 
Cailleach-cuòsach, aich, *./. Acheslip; a millepcd. — 


Cailleacii-diiubii, s.f. A nun. Cailleaohan dubh, nuns. 

Cailleach-oidiiciie, s.f An owl; the stri.v uhila of 

Linueeus. Cumha na caillich-oidhche, the owl's liiment. — 

Ste'c. Mic. Written more correctly eoitcach-oidhche. 

Cailleach-oidhche gheal, « white owl ; the strixjlammea of 


+ Caili.eadii, idh, s. 7n. (from caille.) The process of 

castration ; castration. 

Cailleag, eig, s.f. A loss; a detriment. cailleagan. 

Caillean, ein, s. m. {from càlh.) A seed; a husk of 

grain. Caillean ann am fhiacaill, a seed between my teeth. 

— Maefar. N. pi. càilleanan. Ni caillean am fiacail 

inntinn loisiiich, a seed in the gums disturbs the mind. — G. P. 

Caillean ACII, a. Full of seeds or husks of grain. 

Cailleanach, aich, s. ?n. {from call.) One who loses, one 

who is apt to lose or drop any thing, one who suffers a loss. 

t Caili.easg, eisg, i. 7rt. A horse or mare. — -Shaw. X. pi. 

Caillte, p. part, of caill. {Arm. collet.) Lost, ruined, 
damned. Caillte is fadheoidh air sgeul, lo^t and found 
again. — Sm. An ni nach caillte ghcibhear e, what is not 
lost will be found. — O. B. 
Caillte.ach, n. Ruinous, causing loss; losing, apt to lose. 

Bril chaillteach, a miscarrying womb. — Stew. IIos. 
Caillteanach, aich, s. m. (/;•()/«+ caille.) An eunuch. — 

Stevj. G. R. N. pi. caillteanaich. 
Cailteahnacii, aich, .v. m. A shrubby place, a shrubbery. 
Caim, s.f. A stain, a blot, a fault.— /r. id. 
Caime, «./. Crookedness. 

Caime, com. and .lup. of cam. More or most crooked. 
CaimEan, ein, s. m. A mote. — Stew. Mat. nf \ little 

blot, a little stain. 
Caimeanach, a. Full of motes; like a mote. 

Caimiidean, ein, s. m. A multitude. 

Cai Mil EACH, ich, s. m. A protector. — Shaw. 

t Caimis, caimse, s.f A shirt; a shift. — Ir. id. It. ca- 

miscia. Fr. chemise, 
t Caimlear, eir, s. m. A bent stick used by butchers. — 

Shaw. N. pi. caimlearan. 
t Caimneach, a. {Ir. id.) Chaste.— S/(ati-. 
Caimpeau, ir, s.m. (fear-caimp.) A champion; a warrior. 

N. pi. caimfcaran. 
t Caix, a. Chaste ; beloved. — /;■. id. 
CAiN,*./". Tribute, tax; rent; a fine ; also slander. Nach 

ioc iad càhi? will they not pay tribute? — G. B. 
Cain, r. a. {Ir. id.) Slander; revile; scold; dispraise 
Pret. a. chain ; fut. ajf'. a. càinidh, shall slander ; fut. pass. 
t Caindeal, eil, s.f A candle. Now written coinneal ; 

which see. 
Caineab, eib and cainbe, s. f. {from ca.xi. white.) A canvas; 
also hemp. Is fearr crathadh na cainbe no crathadh na 
cirbe, the shaking of a canvas sheet is better than the dusting 
of a bag. — G. P. 

Or. xana^i?. Lat. cannabis. Anglo-Sax. hoenep. 
Arm. canab. Du. kennip. Teut. kenneb. Pers. cannab. 
Caineab-aodacii, aich, s. m. Canvas. 
CAIN each,, a. {from càin.) Tributary; like a tribute or 

fine ; prone to slander. 
Caineaciid, ò'.y. Taxation, taxing; the habit of slander. 
Caìneadu, idh, s. m. {Ir. id.) A reviling, a traducing; 
slander. An càineadh, their reiiling. — Stew. Is. Fear 
càinidh, a traducer ; luchd-càinidh, traducers. 
t Caineag, eig, s.f. A mote; a farthing; barley, oats. 

JV. pi. caineagan. 
Caineal, eil, s.m. Cinnamon. IV. kanuylk. 5/xz/i. and 

Port, canela. 
Caingeal, eil, «. ?rt. A hurdle ; a reason. — Shaw. 
t Caingean, ein, s.m. A prayer; also an agreement or 

compact ; a rule ; a cause. 
CÀINICII, !'. a. {from cain.) Ir. id. Fine, amerce, tax. 

Pret. a. chàinich, taxed; fut.atf. a. càinichidh, shall fine. 
CAiNiDii,/«f. off. a. Shall traduce. 
Cainneal, eil, s.f. A channel, a canal. — Macd. 
Cainneal, s. /. A candle. More frequently written 

coinneal; which see. 
Cainnt, càinute, s.f. {fr. id.) Language, speech; discourse, 
conversation ; a language or tongue. Cainnt bhallsgach, 
burlcsf/uc. Clia robh cainnt ann, he had not the power of 
speech. — Stew. K. N. pi. caiuntean. 
Cainnteach, {from cainnt.) Talkative; peevish, cross, 
malicious. Gu cainnteach, peevishly. Com. and sup. cainn- 
tiche, more or most talkative. 
Cainnteachd, s.f. Pronunciation ; talkativeness; peevish- 
Cainnteag, eig, s.f. A peevish cross young female; a 

canticle. — Ir. id. 
t Cainnteal, eil,*. m. A press; a lump. — Shaxc. 
Cainntean, ein, s. in. A peevish person, a cross person. 
Cainnti-.aii, eir, s. m. An orator, a linguist; a babbler. 

Ir. caiuntcoir. 
CÀIU, v.yi {Ir. id.) A gum. See Cairean. 
CAiK, t. (/. Dig; raise; prepare; gird on ; bury; repair, 
nieiul; lay up; send away; assert; persuade, make to 
holiove. Pret. a. chair ; fit. aJf. a. cairidh, shall dig. 
Caireadh iad m' uaigh, let them raise my tomb. — Oss. Gaul. 
(";iiribh misc le m' ghaol, bury mc with ?ny beloved. — 
Oss. Derm. Caireadh gach aon a lann, let every one gird 
on his sword. — Ull. Cairidh mi a balla, I will repair her 

C A I 

C A I 

walls. — Smifh. Chàireadh e orm, he xcould assert to me, 
he would make me belkxe. 

Cairb, s.y. A fusee ; a chariot; a ship ; a plank. 

Cairbean, ein, s. m. A species of basking shark, by sailors 
called a sailfish. It is found on the western coasts of the 
northern seas ; according to LinntEus, in the Arctic circle. 
Tliey have been caught, however, among the Orkneys and 
Hebrides, in Ballishannon Bav in Ireland, and in Wales. 
They measure in length from thirty-six to forty feet. Pen- 
nant mentions one which he saw caught in Arran. * 

Cairbeil, «./. 'A large eel. 

Cairbh, r. a. Man a fleet; shake, quiver. Pre^ a. cairbh ; 
fut. aff. a. cairbhidh. 

Cairbue, s.f. A dead body; a carcass ; a corpse. 
cairbhean ; d. pi. cairbhibh. Air na cairbhibh, on the car- 
casses. — Stew. G. B. 

W. cwrv, a corpse. Heb. careb, a dead body embalmed. 

Cairbhean, n.^/. of cairbh. Carcasses; corpses. 

Cairbhinn, i.y. (£«ff. carrion.) A carcass, a corpse ; lean 
meat ; carrion. N. pi. cairbhinnean ; d. pi. cairbhinnibh. 
Cairbhinnean an righrean, the carcasses of their kings. — 
Stew. Ezek. Cha 'n eil crioch air an cairbhinnibh, there is 
no end to their corpses. — Stew. Na/i. 

Cairbiiinneacm, (7. Full of carcasses; of, or pertainine to, 
a corpse or carcass; like a corpse or carcass; cadaverous. 

C.iiRBniNNEACHD, s. f. A slaughtering, a massacring; 

Cairbixn", s.f. A carabine. N. pi. cairbinnean. 

Cairbinneach, ich, s. m. A toothless person; also, urf- 
jectixeli/, toothless. 

t Cairc, cairce, i.y. Hair; fur; eagerness. 

+ Cairceach, a. Hairy; eager. Gu cairceach, eager/;/. 

Caircheas, ais, s. m. A little vessel ; a twist. 

Caird, cairde, ^./. (Ir. id. Corn. \\exA, affection.) Friend- 
ship ; a bosom friend ; delay, respite, rest ; scruple. Fas- 
gadh is caird, shelter and rest. — Fingalian Poem. Gun 
chaird, incessantly ; without scruple. 

Cairde, n. pi. {Ir. id.) Friends; relations. Asp. form, 
chairde. Mo chairde san fhrith, my friends in the forest.— 
Oss. Fing. Cairde gaoil, kinsfolk. 

Cairdeacii, a. (from caird.) {IF. caredig. /;■. cairdeoch, 
related. Corn, caradow.) Related ; connected by birth or 
by marriage ; friendly. Do na h-uaislean tha thu cairdeach, 
thou art related to the gentry. — Old Song. Com. and sup. 

Cairdealachd, s.f. (caird-amhuileachd.) Friendliness. 

Cairdealas, ais, s. m. Friendliness. 

Cairdeax, «. pi. of caird, (or contracted for caraidean.) 
Friends, relations, cousins. Cha bu cheo mo chairdean, 
my friends were not as mist. — Oss. Manos. Cairdean, 
nigheanan an da bhràthar, cousins, the daughters of two 
brothers; cairdean, mic an da bhràthar, cousins, the sons 
of two brothers ; cairdean, mic an da pheathar, cousins, the 
sons of two sisters ; cairdean, nigheanan an da pheathar, 
cousins, the daughters of two sisters. — Macd. 

Cairdeas, eis, s. m. Relationship, friendship, fellowship. 
Cairdeas no comunn, nor friendship nor fellowship; cairdeas 
tola, blood relationship ; cairdeas marraiste, affiniti/ ; comhal- 
tas gu ceud, is cairdeas gu fichead, the relation of fostering 
connects by hundreds, the relation of blood unbi bu twenties. — 

Cairdeil, a. (caird-amhuil.) Friendly; /i/tra/Zj/, friendlike. 

Cair-diiearg, s.f. A blush. — Shaw. 

Caireachan, ain, s. m. A big-mouthed person. 

Caireag, eig, s.f. A prating young girl. N. pi. caireagan. 

CAiREAGACH,a. Prating; applied toagarrulousyoungfemale. 

CXirean, ein, s. m. The gum of the mouth ; a palate ; the 

taste of the mouth ; a grin ; a beloved person ; a darling. 
K. pi. càireanan and càirein. Do m'chairein, to mi/ [gums] 
taste. — Stew. Song Sol. ref. Do chairean, thi/ palate. — 
Stew. O.T. 

CAiREAN.iCii, o. Having gums; of gums. 

Cair-fhiadh, -fheidh, s. m. A hart, a stag. iV. ;;/. caiv- 
fheidh. — /;•. id. Arm. kavo. 

Cairich, r. a. (//•. cairrigh.) Repair, mend ; inter, bury ; 
raise a monumental mound ; accuse, lay to one's charge. 
Pret. a. chàirich, mended; fut. aff. a. càirichidh. Chàinch 
e 'n altair, he repaired the altar. - Stew. K. Na cairich am 
peacadh oirnne, lay not the sin [to our charge] on us. — 
Stew. N^umb. r 

Caihid, i'. m. ; provincial for caraid ; which see. 

Cairinn, ò\ c. A darling, in/, car-us, rfc«/-. 

t Cairleum, r. a. and n. Tumble about; beat or toss 
about. — Shaw. 

CairiMeal, eil, i. m. Wild pease, heath pease; the crobiis 
tuberosus of Linnseus. 

The ancient Caledonians are said to have made much use of 
this root as an article of food. The llebridians. according to 
Pennant, chew this root like tobacco, and also make a fermented 
hquor from it. They say that it is a ijood medicine; that it promotes 
expectoration, and is very serviceable in pulmonary complaints. It 
grows in heaths and birchwoods to thesi/e of a filbert: sometimes 
four or five roots are joined by fibres. The stalk of it is green, and 
bears a red tlower. When the root is pounded and infused, with 
yeast superadded, as is done by many of the llebrideans, a palat- 
able and w holesome liquor is produced. .Some have supposed that 
this is the cliara which the soldiers of Valerius found, as is men- 
tioned by Ccesar de Bella Civ. hb. iii. 

Cairn, gen. sing, of cam. Of a cairn. 

Cairneach, ich, s. m. A kingsfisher, an osprey ; also, in 
allusion to his dwelling-place, a druid. 

Cairneach, a. {from cam.) Rocky, stony, shelvy. lasgair 
cairneach, a king-^/isher, an osprey. 

Cairnean, e\n,s. m. An egg-shell. Caimean uibh, an 

Cairreall, eill, s. m. A noise; the sound of distant 
music ; harmony, melody, caroling. 

Cairreallacii, a. Harmonious, caroling. 

CAiRT, s.f {Luf. q\iart-us.) A quarter of a yard ; a fourth 
part of a yard. Slat agus càirt, a yard and a quarter. 
Leth-chrun an càirt, half-a-crown a quarter. 

Cairt, cartach, s. f. A cart; bark of a tree or rhind; a 
card ; a chart, a charter ; a deed or bond ; rarehi a stone, 
a rock. X. pi. cairlean. Cairt nomha, a new curt. — Stew. 
Sam. Fuidh 'n chairt, under the bark. — Macint. A cluich' 
air chairtean, playing at cards ; cuidhle na cartach, the 

Span, carreta, a cart. Ir. cairt. W. cart. Lat. charta, 
paper, and corte.x, bark. Swed. kort, a coi-d. 

Cairt, v. a. {[r. id.) Cleanse, as a stable; strip off the 
bark; tan as leather. Pret. a. chairt, cleansed ; fut. aff. a. 
cairtidh, shall cleanse. 

Cairt-cheap, -chip, s. The name of a cart-wheel. - Ir. id. 

Cairteag, eig, s.f {dim. of cairt.) A little cart; a tumbrel. 
N. pi. cairteagan. 

Cairteal, eil, «. OT. {Span. ca.Tt(i\.) A quarter of any thing, 
a gill ; a lodging ; a chartuiary ; a challenge ; an edict. 
N. pi. cairtealan. 

Cairtealan, n. pi. of cairteal. Quarters, lodgings; also 
a chartuiary, a ciiallenge. Air chairtealan, on quarters ; 
quartered, lodged. — Old Song. Nan cairtealaibh geamh- 
raidh, in their winter quarters. — Macdon. 

Cairtear, eir, s. in. A carter, a carman, a waggoner, 
Ir. cairteoir. 

Cairt-iùil, s.f. A mariner's compass. — Macint. Also a 
sea-chart. Air cairt-iùil air falbh uainn, our sea-chart away 
from us. — Old Song. 

C A I 

CAiaxLAN, ain, s. m. A chartulary. N. pi. cartlain. 

t Cais, a. Spruce, trim. — SAaw. 

t Cais, s. f. Regard, love, esteem; also hatred. Ir. cais. 
If. cas. 

Cais-iìiieaut, ,v. .Shoes and stockings ; greaves. Written 
more frequently coisbheart. 

Cais-ciiiabu, i. ;«. A curl or ringlet. JV. p/. cais-chiabhan, 

Cais-chiabiiach, a. Curly; having ringlets or tresses. 

Caisd, Ì. n. Listen, hearken, be quiet; silence! P/r^chaisd, 
became quiet ; fiit. aff. caisdidh, shall become quiet ; chaisd 
i ri caithream na seilg, she listened to the noise of the chase. 
— Oss.Gaul. Nacli caisd thu ? uiiVi thou not he quiet? caisd 
a sin thu, be quiet. 

Caisdeacud, «./. (//-. coisteachd.) A listening: a silencing. 
With a it forms the pres. part, of caisd. Ceòl air t\iinn is 
ròin a caisdeachd, ?nusic on the ■waters and seals listening. — 
Oss. Derm. Cluas ri caisteachd, a personage in Highland 

Caisdeal, eil, s. m. A castle ; a fort, a garrison ; a turretted 
house. Caisdeal Bhealaich, Taj/muuth Castle; Caisdeal 
lonniliar-lòchaidh, Fnrt-ìì'illiam, in the West Highlands; 
caisdeal a chuirp, the trunk. 

Lat. castellum. JF. castell. Arm. castel. Du. kasteal. 

Caisdealacii, a. Castelled, turretted ; fidl of forts, castles, 
or garrisons ; of, or pertaining to, a fort or castle ; like a 
fort or castle. Carraig chaisdealach, a castled rock. 

CÀISE, s. f. Cheese. Mulachag chaise, a cheese ; càise 
cruidh, cows-milk cheese. — Slew. Sam. 

Lai. caseus. It. caccia. JF. caws. Ir. càise. Du. caas 
Corn, kcz and cans. Arm. caus. Tcut. kaese and kase. 
Germ. caes. Span, queso. 

Caise, com. and sup. of cas. More or most steep. 

Caise, s. f. A wrinkle; a fold; passion; steepness; a 
stream ; rarely a mushroom, discord. Aghaidh gun sgraing 
gun, a face without frown or -crinkle. — Old Sung. 

Caiseach, (7. Wrinkled; passionate; impetuous. 

CÀISEACH, a. Abounding in cheese ; like cheese ; of, or 
belonging to, cheese. Aranach caiseach, abounding in 
bread and cheese. — Macd. 

Caisead, eid, s. »». Steepness; suddenness; rapidity; im- 
petuosity. — Macint. Increase in steepness, or in rapidity. 
A dol an caisead, growing more and more steep. 

Caiieag, eig, s.f The stem of a weed.— S/faro. 

+ Caiseal, eil, s. m. A bulwark, a wall; a castle, a gar- 
rison. N. pi. caisealan. 

Caisealacii, a. Having bulwarks ; walled; castelled; like 
a bulwark, wall, or garrison. 

CXtsear, ir, .9. OT. (càis-fhear.) A cheesemonger. JF. cawswr. 

CAisEAKACiiD, s.f. The business of a cheesemonger; chcese- 

Caisearbiian, ain, .v. m. A dandelion. 

Cais-eiiioxn, a. White-footed; also a name given to a 
white-legged cow. 

CAiSG,.!./. {Ir. id.) The passover ; Easter. Di-dòmhnuich 
càisg, Easter Sundai/. Karrach fad an deigh Chàisg, 
Spring long after F.uster is a bad sign of the season.^-G. I'. 
Perhaps eaisg should have been paisg, agreeably to the 
analogy of other languages. (>';•. vaax'^. Lat. pascha. 
H<l). jiasadh, pass oxer ; the angel having passed over the 
Israelitic habitations which had their doors sprinkled with 
the blood of the lamb. 

Caisg, I. a. and n. Restrain, check, stop, still, calm, quell, 
suliside, put an end to. I'ret.a. chaisg ; fut. aff. a. caisgidh, 
shall or will restrain, Caisgidh mi an sruth, / will stop the 
stream. — Oss. Tern. Caisgidh mi shiubhal, / will check his 
progress. — Id. Chaisg au onfha, the storm subsided. — 

C A I 

Oss. Trath. A chaisgeas fuaimneach mara is tuinn, who 
stills the roar of sea and surge. — Sm. Fut. pass, caisgear. 

Caisgear, fut. pass, of caisg. Shall be checked or quelled. 

Caisgidh, fut. aff. a. Shall restrain, check, or stop. 

t Caisil-chro, *. y. Abler. An caisil-chro tlia 'n laoch, 
the hero is on his bier. — Oss. Conn. 

This bier was made of wicker, and used hy the ancient Gael. 
The Roman bier, orferetrum, was seemingly of the same structure, 
according to Ruaius, in JEn. vi. 221. " Ferctrum e ligno et vimine 
conPextum," a bier made of deal and jcuven tivigs." 

Caisleach, ich, s.f. A ford ; a footpath , a smooth place, 
a smooth path. Caisleach spuinc, touchwood. 

Caisieacii-spuing, s.f. Touchwood, spunk. 

t Caislear, ir, s. m. A projector. N. pi. caislearan. 

Caislichte, a. Polished, smoothed, burnished. 

Caismeachd, s. f. (i. e. cas-imeachd, hurried movement.) 
An alarm ; a warning ; a hint ; a Highland march, a war- 
song. Caismeachd na maduinn, the warning of morn. — Oss. 
Caismeachd nan sonn, the alarm of heroes. — Oss. Lodin. 

Caismeaciidacii, a. Warning; giving an alarm or warning ; 

Caismeart, eirt, s. m. (cas-iomairt.) The heat of battle; 
armour ; a band of combatants. 

Caisreabiiachd, s.f. Legerdemain, juggling. — Ir. id. 

Caisreabhaiciie, s. Vi. A juggler, a conjurer. 

Caisueag, eig, s.f. A wrinkle; a curl ; a ringlet. N. pi. 
caisreagan ; caisreag ; asp. form, chaisreag, yu/^ of 
ringlets, tressy. — Macint. 

Caisreagacii, a. {from caisreag.) Curled ; bushy, as hair; 
wrinkled. A chiabha caisreagach, his bushy locks. — Stew. 
Song Sol. Com. and sup. caisreagaiche, inore or most curled. 

Caisteal, eil, s. m. A castle, a fort, a garrison ; a turretted 
mansion. Bu chaisteal diiomh thu, thou wert a garrison to 
me. — Sm. Caisteal a chuirp, the trunk of the bodi/. 

Lat. castellum. JF. castell. Arm, castel and gastell. 
Du. kasteal. 

C'ait, adv. (cia ilit.) /;■. id. Where, in what place ; whither. 
C'ait as, whence. C'ait tha thu dol ? whither art thou going Ì 
— Stew. Gen. C'ait am bheil e ? where is he? 

Caiteacii, ich, s.f. Chafl"; husks, as of seed; also, ad- 
Jectiiely, full of chaff, full of husks. 

Caiteacii, a. Extravagant. More correctly caithtcach. 

Caiteaciias, ais, i. »?. Extravagance. See Caitiiteaciias. 

Caiteag, eig, s.f. A pot, a butter-pot. Ir. caiteog. N. pi. 

Caitean, ein, s. m. The knap of cloth, shag; rough hairy 
surface ; what is rubbed from ofi'a soft surface ; the blossom 
of osier. Caitean brucaeh nan craobii, the shaggy speckled 
7noss of trees. — Macdon. Ir. caitin. 

+ Caitean, ein, «. m. A chain. Lai. catena. 7't'u^ keten. 

Caitean ACii, a. Rough, shaggy ; knajipy, as cloth ; rough- 
skinned ; curled: a\io, substantively, a hairdresser; a cloth- 

Caiteas, eis, *. wi. Caddis; the scrapings of linen. 

Caitii, r. a. Spend, waste, squander, jiass, consume, ex- 
haust, wear. Fret. a. chaith, spent ; fut. aff. a. CMÙààh, 
shall spend. Na caith do lochrain, waste not thy Jlamea. — 
Oss. Gaul. C>,iitheadhmaid an oidhche, let us pass [spend\ 
the night. — Ull. Caitiiidh an t-amadan, the fool will squan- 
der. — Slew. Pro. Caitii do shaothair, bestow thi/ labour in 
rain. Gu 'm meall is gun caith thu e, ?«ny you enjoy and 
wear it. — Old .Saying. 

I Caitii, a. Chaste, mild. — Ir. id. 

Caith' aimsir, s. m. Pastime ; a waste of time. 

Caitu-beatha, s. m. Behaviour, conduct, conversation. 
Air caith-beatha roimh so, our conversation [conduct^ in 
former times. — Stew. Eph. 

C A L 

C A L 

Caitheacii, ich, s. m. A spendthrift ; also, adjecthelt/, pro- 
fuse, extravagant. 

Caitheadh, idh, s. m. A spending; extravagance. More 
frequently written caitheamh. 

Caitheamh, eimh, s. m. and/! The act of spending, the 
act of consuming ; a wearing, a decaying ; extravagance, 
waste; consumption, decay. Gu caitheamh ullamh, readi/ 
to consume. — Sin. Caitheamh agus fiabhrus, dccai/ and 
fever. — Id. Caitheamh-aimsir, pastime. Bithidh sonas an 
lorg na caitheimh, happiness follows the generous. — G. P. 
Tinneas caitheimh, a consumption. 

Caithear, fit. pass, of caith. Shall be spent or consumed. 

Caithleacii, s. {from cath.) Husks of corn; seeds; chaflT. 
Diasan arbhair nan càithleach, ears of corn in their husks. — 
—Steu: K., ein, 5. m. (from càth.) A h\isk, as of corn. 
D. pi. caithleinibh. Le 'n càithleinibh, uith their husks. — 
Steio. K. ref. 

Caithleanach, a. Husky as corn, seedy. 

Caithream, eim, s. m. {Ir. id. Gr. ^cc^i^a, mirth.) A shout 
of triumph or of joy ; a loud shout ; symphony; triumph; 
information ; notice. Do 'n chaithream aoibhinn, to the 
Joyful shout. — Smith. Mar chaithream chlàr, like the 
symphony of harps. — Oss. Derm. 

Caithream seems to be made up of cath, battle, and f reim, 
power ; or perhaps it is cath-thuirm. 

Caithreamacii, a. Triumphant, victorious; making a 
loud shout. /;•. cathreiraach. 

Caitiiris, s. f A watching; circumspection, attention ; a 
watch by night. — Macd. 

Caithriseach, a. Watchful, attentive, circumspect. Gu 
caithriseach, u-atchfilli/. Com. and sup. caithrisiche. 

Caithriseachd, s. f Continued or frequent watching, 
watchfulness, atteutiveness, circumspection. 

Caithte, p. part, of caith. Spent, wasted, squandered. 

Caithteach, (7. (/ro;« caith.) Lavish ; consuming, wasting, 
wearing. Tinneas caithteach, a wasting disease. Com. and 
sup. caithtiche. 

Caithteachas, ais, s. m. (from caith.) Lavishness, pro- 
fusion, a wasting. 

Caithtiche, «. m. {from caith.) A spendthrift, a waster. 

\ Cal, cail, s. m. Sleep. — Ir. id. 

CÀL, cail, s. m. Kail, colewort; a name for all sorts of 
cabbage ; Scotch broth, of which kail is a principal ingre- 
dient; a dinner ; rnre/y, a joke. Cal cearslach, caiioo-e; 
càl-gruidheam, cauliflower ; cal colag, cauli/lower. — Macd. 
An d' fhuair do chàl ? have you got your [dinner'] kail? 
Garadh c:il, a kitchen-garden. 

Gc. Kai?.o;. La^ cauiis. Teut. koole. Belg. koo]e. Germ. 
koh\. Swed. kol. Sax. ca.w]. £ho^. cole a/irf kail. Arm. càuìen. 
W. and Corn. cowl. Ir. cal. 

Cal, Caladii, aidh, s. m. Condition of body; grief, de- 
spondency ; darkness. Is math a dial, he is in good con- 
dition of body ; mu 'm fas air d-inntinn cal, before grief falls 
on thy soul. — Smith. 

t Cal, v. n. Enter a port or harbour. — Ir. id. Sha\r. 

CÀLA, ai, CÀLADH, aidh, s.m. A harbour, a port ; a shore; 
a ferry. Fhuair sinn an càla, we gained the harbour. — Orr. 
An càladh ait, the joyful shore. — Smith. 

Lat. t cala. It. cala, a Ice-shore, a bay. Fr. cale. Span. 
cala, bay. Teut. kille and kielle. 

From cala come the names of all sea-port towns and of countries 
noted tor good harbours, endini; in cal, gal, or cala; as Burdicala, 
or Burdigula, on the Garonne ; P0rtuc.1l, or Portugal. Hence also 
Cala-is (Caletum), a sea-port in France. 

Calaich, r. a. {from cala.) Bring into harbour; harbour; 
reside; continue. Pret. a. chalaich, resided ; fut. aff. a. 

(■ Calaiu, i. 7«, A crier. 

t Calaireachd, .?./. Proclamation; shouting; burying. 

t Calaiseacud, i.y. A juggler. 

t Calaist, s.f. A college. — /;•. id. 

Calaman, ain, .s. A dove. Provincial for co\nm^\\. 

Calba, .y. 77i. A leg ; the brown of the leg. More frequently 
written calpa ; which see. 

t Calbh, a. Bald. 

Ir. calbh. Lut. calvus. Chald. chalaph, strip of bark. 
Heb. chalal, smooth. 

t Calbiiach, a. Causing baldness. 

Calbiiachd, s.f Baldness. 

Calc, v. a. {Lat. calco, to tramp.) Caulk, drive, beat, ram, 
cram ; push violently forward ; beat a bullet into a gun 
with a ramrod. Pret. «. chalc, crammed; fut. a.ff. a. calcaidh. 

t Calc, cailc, s. /". Chalk, lime. 

Lat. calx. ÌV. calch. Swcd. kalk. Du. kalk. Teut. calk. 

Calcadii, aidh, s. m. The act of caulking, beating, or driving 
by percussion; driving with a rammer; oakum. Luchd- 
calcaidh, caulkers. — Stew. Ezek. Air a chalcadh, crammed. 
— Macint. 

Calcadh, (a), pr. part, of calc. Caulking, driving by per- 
cussion, ramming, cramming. 

Calcaich, r. a. Cram, caulk; harden by tramping ; grow 
obdurate. Pret. a. chalcaich, hardened. 

Calcaichte, ;;. part, of calcaich. Caulked, hardened; 

Calcaidh, fut. aff. a. Shall or will caulk or cram. 

Calcair, s. m. A caulker, a rammer. N. pi. calcairean. 

Calcaireachd, «./. A caulking, a ramming ; the business 
of a caulker. 

Caldach, aich, s. in. Loss; mischief. Written also calldach. 

Caldrait, s. Callender, in Stirlingshire ; perhaps the 
KoXana of Ptolemy. 

C.\LG, cuilg, s. {Ir. calg.) Awn; a prickle, a spear, a sword ; 
any sharp-pointed thing ; wrath ; ardour ; hair, as of a 
quadruped ; the grain. Calg an tuirc, the boar's bristle. — 
Oss. Derm. An aghaidh a chuilg, against the bristle. — Id. 
An aghaidh a chuWg, against the grain, invitd Minerva ; an 
cluaran a call a chalg, the thistle losing its prickle. — Oss. 
lomairt nan calg, the contest of spears. — Fingalian Poem. 

Calgach, a. {from calg.) Ir. id. Bristly, prickly, sharp- 
pointed, piercing; sprightly; passionate; ardent; having 
awn, as ears of barley; shaggy, as a quadruped. Le 
slataibh calgach, with piercing lashes. — Stew. K. Armach, 
calgach, ullamh, armed, ardent, and ready. — Old Song. 

Calg-dhìreach, o. Direct, contrary ; against, against the 
grain. Calg-dhireach am aghaidh, directly against me. 

Call, s. m. {Corn. Jr. Arm. coll. Ir. caill. Hcb. achoU, to 
lose.) Loss, damage, detriment, calamity ; privation, desti- 
tution. Call ùine, loss of time. — Stew. Exod. Cha bu 
shuarach an call e, it was no small loss. — Macfar. Air 
chall, lost, amis-sing, wanting. — Stew. 2 K. Call an aimsir, 
losing time. Arm. coll an amser. 

Call, (a), pr. part, of caill. Losing, dropping. 

Callaid, s.f. A fence, a partition, a hedge; a lurking 
place ; a cap, a leather cap ; a wig ; a wrangling noise ; 
a funeral cry ; an elegy. N. pi. callaidean. A callaid 
bhriseadh leat, thou hast broken down her fences, — Sm. 
Callaid dhroighinn, a hedge of thorns. — Stew. Pro. ref. 
Chlisg eilde o 'n challaid chòsaich, a deer started from its 
lurking place. 

Callaideach, a. Fenced, hedged, partitioned; like a 
fence, hedge, or partition ; of, or belonging to, a fence, 
hedge, or partition. 

t Callaidh, a. Active, nimble, agile, clever. — Shaw. 

t Callaidheachd, s. f Activity, nimbleness, agility, 

C A ]\I 

C AT^' 

Call-ai.msiu, 4.«/. Loss of time. Jr. una Arm. coW-Simset. 
■f C.vLLAiu, s. m. (Ir. id. W. calwT.) A crier. N. pi. call- 

Callais, s.f. Bufl'oonery. — S/io-aV. 
t Callas, ain, .v. tn. Noise, clamour, shouting. — Siura-. 
Cali.dach, aich, v. m. {/rum call.) Loss, detriment, damage, 
calauiity ; a succession of losses. Ni e suas an calldach, 
he uill make up the loss. — Slew. Exod. 
Calldaixn', Callduinx, .s.y. (Co/-/;, colwiden.) Hazle ; 
a hazle copse. Slatan do 'n challdainn, /lazle rods. — Stew. 
Gen. Preas challdainn, a hazle hiiuli ; cno challdainn, a 
hazle nut ; nathair challdainn, a species of snake. 
Calm, Calma, a. (Ir. id.) Stout, strong ; personable; also 
a stout man, a champion. An anama calma, their stout 
souls. — Oss. Catkli'iio. Luchd a cliridhe chalm, t/ie stout- 
hearted. — Sm. Do radh an calma, the champion replied. 
— Fingalian I'uem. 
Calmaciid, .s.y. {from Calm.) Stoutness, strength, person- 

ableness, bravery. 
Calmadas, ais, *. m. {from calm.) Stoutness, strength, 

Cal.iiai, .v. /;/. Heroes, champions; stout-hearted men. 
D. pi. calmaibh. Fionn le chalmaibh, Fingal with his 
heroes. — Fingalian Poem. 
Calman, ain, «. m. A dove. Provincial for coivLman. 
Calm-la N-N, -lainn, s. m. A dovecot. 
Calpa,*. »i. A leg; the brawn of the leg. JV. p/. calpan 
and calpanna. Garbh chalpan an righ, the hrawny legs of 
the king. — Oss. Fing. 

Teut. kalf, a stout man. Hence also Galba, the name of 
a Roman emperor, so called from his corpulence. 
CAl-piilf.adiiag, aig, s. m. A gardener's dibble. — Macd. 
Calunn, uinn, s. m. Callosity. 

Cam, a. Crooked, bent, distorted, awry ; curved ; deceitful ; 
blind of an eye. A bhile cam a crith, his distorted lips 
quivering. — Oss. Tem. An ni ata cam, that which is crooked. 
— Stcu\ Ecc. Duine cam, a man blind of an ei/e. 

Gr. xa.i^ir-Tu,toliend. Pers. cumu, bending. C7/nW. kamar, 

to 7nake a vaulted roof. Barbarous Lat. camus and camurus. 

Teut. cam, bent. OldEng.kam. !r. Corn. Arm. and Ir. 

Cam, v. a. Bend, distort, curve. Pret. a. cham; fut. aff. a. 

camaidh, shall bend. 
Camacac, aig, s.f. (cam-bhacag.) A trip, a sudden tripping 
of the heels. Lcig e mi le camacag, he tripped him down ; 
cuir camacag, trip. N. pi. camacagan. 
Camauii, aidh, s. m. A bending, a distorting, a curving. 
Cama(;, aig, s.f. {from cam.) A curl, a ringlet, a crook, 
a clasp ; the side of the head, the temple ; a quibble, 
a quirk; a small bay. y/.v/;. yùrm, chamag. Lan chamag, 
fullof curls, tressi/. — Macint. Dochamaga am meadhon do 
chiabh, the temples in the midst of thy locks. — Stew. Song Sol. 
Camaoach, a. {from camag.) Curled, as hair; having 
ringlets; winding; crooked. Do chùl donn camagach, 
thi/ broxcn curled hair. — Macfar. 
Caman, ain, .V. m. {from cam.) ÌF. camen, a bend. A club, 
a hurling club. K. pi. camain, clubs. A cluich air a 
chaman, playing at shinty, playing at golf. 
Camanachd, *./. {from camaii.) A game at shinty, a game 

at golf. 
Camas, ais, s. m. A bay, a creek, a harbour; a crooked 
rivulet ; the perineum. An camas dh' aitich an long, the 
vessel anchored in the bay. — Oss. Tem. 
Camasach, a. Abounding in bays ; of, or pertaining to, a bay. 
Ca,m-iuieulacii, a. Wry-mouthed. 
Cam-bhileach, a. Wry-lipped. 

Cam-iiiiuidh, a. Yellow-waving; yellow-curled. D' fhalt 
cam-bhuidh, they curled yellow hair. — Old Song. 

Cam-chosach, a. Bow-legg«d. IF. kamgoes. Span, can- 

Cam-diian, -dhàin, s. m. Iambic verse. 
Ca MEun, (yò/' cia meud.) How many? 
Cam-ghlas, ais, *. m. The bird called a red-shank.- -Macd. 

and Shaw. 
Camii, caimh, v. Power, might ; also a cave. — Macint. 
Camiial, ail, s. {Jr. camal.) A camel. Uisge airson do 
chamhal, water for thy camels. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. camhail. 
Deich camhail, ten camels. — Id. 
Camiian, ain, *'. tn. {dim. of camh.) A little cave; a cove. 
N. pi. canihanan. Feadh nan liib 's nan camhanan, among 
the bays and coves. — <Jld Song. 
Camiianaich, s.f The dawn of day, early morn. 'Sa 

chamhanaich ag eiridh, rising at dawn. — Macfar. 
Camh-fhAir, ■*./. Dawn or daybreak. Ir. camhaoir. 
Cam-loug, luirg, s. f. A crooked staft'; a crooked or 
meandering path ; a circuitous road. Am fear nach gabh 
comhairle, gabhaidh e cam-lorg, he who takes not advice 
will go astray. — 6. P. 
Cam-luiiigneach, a. Bow-legged. Ir. camloirgneach. 
Cam-miiuineal, eil, s. m. A wryneck; the bird called 

Cam-miiuinealach, a. Wry-necked. 

C-iMP, caimp, s. m. A camp. N. pi. campan. — Slew. Numb. 
Ir. campa. Am meadhon a chaimp, in the middle of the 
camp.— Stew. 0. T. 
Campachadii, aidh, i. 7«. An encamping; an encampment. 
Campaich, I'. 7i. Encamp. P/ri". a. champaich ; /»f .<//)''. a, 
campaichidh, shall encamp. Champaich iad, they encamped. 
— Stew. Exod. 
Campar, air, j. m. Anger, grief, vexation, fret ; also camphire. 
Na biodh campar ort, do not fret. — Stew. Pro. Fu cham- 
par, grieved. — Macfar. 
CAMPAnACii, a. Angry, vexed; fretting; vexatious, trouble- 
some, troubled. 
Cam-siihonacii, a. Hook-nosed; crook-nosed. 
Cam-siiuileach, a. Squint-eyed. Cailleach chrosda cham- 

shuileach, a cross-grained squinted beldame. — Old Song. 
Camus, uis, s. m. A bay, a creek, a harbour; the perineum. 
Thug iad aire do chamus, they observed a bay. — Stew. Acts. 
Written also camas. 
Camusacii, a. Abounding in bays, creeks, or harbours; 

like a bay or creek; of, or belonging to, a bay or creek, 
t Can, a. White. 

This word is now obsolete ; but we see it in canaib or 
caintab, canvas, and canach, moss-cotton. Chin, can, a 
bright object. 'Fonq. ciinh, white. Mogul and Calmuc Tar- 
tars, zagan, whih. Lat. canus, grey, and candidus, 
white. Corn. IV. Ir. and Arm. can, white. 
Can, T). 71. (//«<. can-o. //r«(. cana a«d kan. //'. kan. Corn. 
kana.) Sing, rehearse, say, name, call. Pret. a. chàn; 
fut. ajf. a. cànaidh, shall sing. Can oran, sing a ,wng. — 
Slew. Jud. Fut. pass, canar. Prionnsa na siothchaint 
cànar ris, he shall be named the prince. — Smith. 
CÀNACii, aich, s. Cotton; mountain-down or moss-cotton; 
standing water ; a cat's tail ; deceit. Bu ghile na 'n canach 
a cruth, whiter was her form than mountain-down. — Oss. Lod. 
Canach, a. Soft, kind, mild, pretty. Written also cownacA. 
CAnacii, aich, s.f. A tribute, impost; also a porpoise; 

bombast. — Shaw. 
Can ACiiD, .s.y. (/rom càin.) Taxing. Fu chanachd, under 

tribute, taxed. 
Canaib, s.f. Canvas, white cloth; hemp. .trm.wadW, 

canab. Lat. cannabis. 
CÀNAicnTE, part. Taxed. 

C A O 

C A O 

CXsAimi,fut. aff. a. of can. Shall or will sing. 

CÀNA1X, s.f. See Canmhaix. 

Canal, ail, s.»!. (y!r/n. canel.) Cinnamon. Canal cubhraidh, 

$weet cinnamon. — Stew. Exod. 
Cauamhuink, s.f. See Canmhaix. 
Càxar,/m<. -pass, of can. Shall be sung. 
Cak-fiionx, -fhuinn, s. m. (IF. canon.) A song; a pre- 
cept ; aho, a canon ; for, in the times of bardism, all 
maxims, whether political, moral, or religious, were de- 
livered and promulgated in verse. 
Caxjihaix, Caxmiiuix, s.f. Language, tongue; pro- 
nunciation, accent. 

Lat. i canmen, old form of carmen. IF. cynan. Arm. 
kanaven, a song. 
Caxmhaixiche, s. )7!. A linguist. 
t Caxx, cainn, s. m. A reservoir; a vessel. 

Syr. canir, vase. Gr. xavSajoj. Hung, kanna. Germ. kan. 

Span. cana. Juvenal has canna, a can. 

Caxxacii, a. Pretty, comely, beautiful ; mild, soft. Gris- 

dhearg, cannach, ruddy and comely. — Macint. Com. and 

sup. cannaiche. 

Canxacu, aich, s. ;n. Sweet willow ; myrtle; any fragrant 

Caxxuax, CÀXUAX, ain, s. wi. Contention; a grumbling, 
a murmuring, a muttering ; a grumble, a murmur, a mut- 
ter; a purring; a cackling; a chattering, as a bird. Luchd 
cànrain, mutterers. — Stew. Jud. Rinn mi cànran, / chat- 
tered. — Stew. Is. 
Caxxuaxacii, CÀXRAXACH, a. Grumbling, murmuring, 
muttering. Mar ghaoth channranach, like the inurmuring 
wind. — Fingalian Poem. Com. and sup. canranaiche. 
Caxxraxaicii, CÀNUAXA1CII, S.f. A Continued grumbling 

or murmuring, 
t Caxtacii, a. Dirty, puddly, miry. Com. and sup. cann- 

t Caxtaig. s.f. {Lat. cantic-ura.) A canticle, a song. 

iV. pi. cantaigean. 
CAxTAiR, s. m. A singer. N. pi. cantairean. 

Lat. cantor. W. cantur. Span, cantor. 
CÀXTAIREACHD, S.f. (Ir. id.) Singing, singing by note ; 
vocal music; warbling; melodiousness — (Macint.); song- 
singing, merriment. Rinn iad cantaireachd, they made 
merry. — Steiv. Jud. 
CÀXTAL, ail, s. TO. Grief, weeping. 

CÀXTUIXX, s. y". The act of singing ; singing, speaking. 
CÀNTUIXX, (a), pr. part, of can. .Singing. 
CÀXUIX, s.f. (/or canmhuin.) Language; pronunciation; 
accent. A', pi. canuinean ; d. pi. canuinibh. Uile chà- 
nuinean nan cinneach, all the languages of the nations. — 
Stexu. Zech. Written also canmhuin. 
Caob, r. a. Clod ; strike with clods. Pret. a. chaoh, clodded ; 

fut. aff. a. caobaidh, shall clod. 
Caob, s./. (Ir. id.) A clod, a sod, a piece of turf. Caob- 

shneachdaidh, a snowball. 
Caobach, a. Like a clod or sod ; full of clods. 
t Caobhax, ain, s. m. A prison. — Shaw. 
t Caoch, a. {Ir. id. Lat. cbecus, blind.) Blind; empty; 

Caoch-xax-ceauc, s. Henbane. 

Caoch AG, aig, s.f. A nut without a kernel; a turned shell; 
a mushroom; a puff-ball; blind-man's-buff. caoch- 
agan. Na caochagan eutrom, the light hollow 7iuts. — 
Caoch AG ACH, a. Full of nuts without kernels ; full of turned 
shells ; full of mushrooms or of puff-balls ; like a hollow 
nut, like a turned shell, like a mushroom or a puff-ball. 

Caochail, I', a. and «. Change; alter; pass away ; travel ; 

expire. Pret. a. chaoehail, changed ; fut. aff. a. caochlaidh, 

shall change. Caochlaidh a ghlòir, his glory shall cliange. 

— Sm. Chaoehail e, he expired. — Stew. Gen. 

Caochailear, fat. pass, of caochail. Shall be changed. 

Caochailear e, he shall be changed. 
Caoch AX, ain, s. m. A rivulet; whisky in its first process 
of distillation ; an eddy of air ; an eddy on the surface of 
any fluid; a mole; the fundament. Caochan nan sliabh, 
tlie mountain rivulet. — Ull. 
Caochla, Caochladh, aidh, s. vi. {Ir. caochladh.) A 
change, an alteration; death; dying; passing awav. 
Caochladh an t-soluis, the change of the moon ; caochladh 
na beatha 's na bliadhna, the changes of life and of time. 
— Oss. Air chaochladh dreach, in a different form. — Oss. 
Derm. Bu ghrad do chaochladh, sudden w'as thy death. 
— Fingalian Poem. 
Caochlaideach, «. Changeable, variable, inconstant, fickle. 

Caraid caochlaideach, a fickle friend. 
Caochlaideachd, 5. f Changeableness, inconstancy, 

Caochlaidh, /«^ aff. a. of caochail. Shall change. 
Caochlax, ain, s. m. A rivulet. N. pi. caochlain. 
t Caod, s. m. St. John's wort. Caod Choluim-chill, St. 

John's wort. 
t Caodh, caoidh, s. m. {Ir. id.) Good order, good con- 
dition ; a tear. 
t Caodhax, ain, s. m. A person in good condition. — Shaw. 
Caog, v. a. and «. Wink; connive; take aim by shutting 
the eye. Pret. a. chaog, winked; Jut. aff. a. caogaidh, 
shall wink. Caogaidh e le shùil, he tvinks with his eye.—- 
Steiv. Pro. Ge b' e ball air an caog iad, at ivhatever they 
shut their eye, or aim at. — Old Song. Caog ris, xcink at him. 
Caogach, a. Winking; squint-eyed; blinking; twinkling. 
Caogad, a. Fifty. Caogad claidhe;mih, fj'fy sicords. — 
Oss. Truth. Phill iad nan caogadaibh, they returned in 
fifties. — Fingalian Poem. 
CAOciADH, aidh, s. m. A winking, a conniving; a wink, a 

connivance. Caogadh sùl, a winking of the eye. — Sm. 
Caogadh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of caog. Caogadh e, let 

him wink ; caogadh iad, let them wink. 
Caogadh, (a), pr. part, of caogh ; which see. 
Caog-shuil, -shùl, s. y. An eye that winks ; asquint-eye. 
Caog-shuileach, a. Squint-eyed; winking, blinking, 
f CaoicHjO. { Zaf. csecus.) Blindof an eye. — Macd. 
t Cagiche, s.f. {Ir. id.) Blindness. 
Caoidh, v. Lament, mourn, moan; w-eep, wail. Pret. a. 
chaoidh, lamented; fut. aff. a. caoidhidh, shall or will la- 
ment. Cha chaoidh am priosunach, the prisoner shall not 
mourn. — Sm. 
Caoidh, s. f {Ir. caoi.) Lamentation, wailing, weeping, 
mourning; a lament, a wail, a moan. Mo chaoidh cha do 
sguir, my moan did not cease. — Ull. Ri caoidh, weeping, 
Caoidheadii, idh, s. m. A lamenting, a wailing, a weeping, 

a deploring. 
Caoidheadii, (a), pr. part, of caoidh. Weeping, bewailing. 
Turlach a caoidheadh a chlainne, Turlach weeping for his 
children. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
Caoidh-chòradh, aidh, s. m. A wailing voice; mournful 
expressions. Dh' fliailnich a caoidh-chòradh, her wailing 
voice ceased. — Ull. 
Caoidh-ghuth, s. in. A plaintive voice. — Oss. Fin. and Lor. 
Caoidhreax, ein, s. 7n. A wailing; a mournful voice; a 
low murmuring sound, as of a brook. Written also 


C A O 

C A O 

C.voiL, gen. siny. of caol ; which see. 

Caoile. «./. (/;■. caoil.) Leanness ; smallness ; attenuation ; 
narrowness, as of a stream; trouble; destruction; the 
waist ; a tlisteraper among sheep and goats. Caoile air m' 
anam, trouble on my soul, — Stew. Ps. 

Caoilf., com. and sup. of caol. More or most lean. 

Caoilead, eid, s. >«. Leanness; smallness; progression in 
leanness. A dol an caoilead, growing more and more lean. 

Caoiltean, ÌÌ. pi. of caol. Straits. 

Caoimii, gen. sing, of caomh; which see. 

Caoimii, a. (/)■. caoinih.) Gentle, kind, affable, affectionate; 
beloved; hospitable. See Caomh. 

Caoimii E, com. and sup. of caomh. More or most gentle. 

Caoimiieacii, ich, s. m. (/r. caoimhtheach.) A stranger; 
a bedfellow. N. pi. caoimhich. 

CAOiMiiEACiiAN',ain,s.»(. (/Vom caoimh.) An entertainer; an 
hospitable person ; a beloved person. A', pi. caoimheachain. 

Caoimiieacii AS, ais, s. m. Society; social love; hospitality. 

Caoimiixe, «. /. {from caomh.) Kindness, gentleness, affa- 
bility. Caoimhne ort, be gentle, be affable. 

Caoimiisealaciid, s.f. Kindness, gentleness, affability. 

Caoimiixealas, ais, s. ?n. Kindness, gentleness, affableness. 

Caoimiin'eas, eis, s. w. Kindness, mildness, affability. Dean 
caoimhncas domh, shew kindness tu me. — Stew. Gen. 

C.voiMiiNEiL, a. (caoimhne-amhuil.) Kind, mild, affable; 
lenient; genial; of pleasing manners. — Stew. N. T. rcf. 
An samhradh caoimhneil, tlie genial summer. — Old Song. 
Gu caoinihneil, kindly. 

Caoix, v. n. and a. Weep, wail, lament, deplore. Pret. a. 
chaòin, wailed ;fut. aff. a. caoinidh, shall wail. Cha chaoin 
oigh, virgins shall iwt weep. — Oss. Lodin. 

Ir. caoin. Germ, quinen, mourn. Corn, cwyna. 

Caoix, a. {[r. id.) Kind, mild, pleasant, gentle; dry; 
smooth ; soft, niellov/ ; smoothly polished ; lowly. Asp. 
form, chaoin. Mar aisling chaoin, like a pleasant dream. 
— Oss. Dargo. Og-bhean chaoin, thou gentle bride. — Ull. 
A lamh caoin, her soft hand. — Oss. Caoin mar bhalbh- 
dhriiichd, 7nild as the silent dew. — Oss. Fing. A chaòin- 
^hdoith, thou gentle ivind. — Oss. Com. Ataghadh achlocha 
caoin, picking smooth stones. — Id. Sa chaoin-fhuaim, in 
the mellow sound. — Id. Caoiu-chnaimh, a polished bone ; 
caoin-shian, a gentle shower ; caoin-shuarach, indifferent. 

Caoixe, com. and sup. of caoin. 

+ Caoixeach, ich, s. m. Stubble; moss. — Shaw. 

CAoiNEACiiAnii, aidh, s. m. A drying, as of hay; an ex- 
posing to the sun's heat for the purpose of drying. 

Caoixeaciiadii, (a), pr. part, of caoinich. Drying. A 
caoineachadh na saidh, drying the hay. 

Caoixeadii, idh, s. OT. (/r. caoine. IF. kuyn.) Weeping; 
wailing; howling; Irish lamentation over the dead. 

+ Caoinkasgah, air, s. m. A garrison. 

Caoix-giieai,, a. AVhitc and soft. Do chanach caoin-gheal, 
thy soft, white mountain-down. — Old Song. 

Caoinich, v. Di-y; expose any thing to dry. Pret. a. 
chaoinich, dried ; fut. v^ff. caoinichidh, shall dry. 

Caoix-siiuaracii, a. Indifferent, careless. — Shaw. 

Caoixteacii, a. Sad, sorrowful; mournful, plaintive, 
whining. Caointcach fad na h-oidhche, mournful the whole 
of the night. — Orr. Com. and sup. caointiche. 

Caoixteaciiax, ain, s. m. A person who mourns or whines. 

Caoiu, s. pi. Sparks; gleams; flames; flashes. D. pi. 
caoiribh. .'\ choille na caoiribh, the wood in fames. — Oss. 
Caoir dhealan, gleams of lightning. — Oss. Fing. Caoir- 
theine, a firc-hrnnd ; caoir-lasair, a flaming coal. 

Caoi 11-1)11 UEAS, -dhris, «. ?n. A tiiicket, a bush of thorns; 
brambles. — Stew. Gen. ref. 

Caoireacii, a. (from caoir.) Sparkling, gleaming, flashing, 
flaming ; fiery ; impetuous. 

Caoireag, eig, s.f. A small dry peat; a small piece of 
coal ; a small peat, or coal on fire. A^. pi. caoireagan. 
Cha tuit caoireag a cliabh falarah, nothing will fall from 
an empty basket. — G. P. 

Caoireagacii, a. Full of small dry peats; crumbled like 
peat or coal. 

Caòirean, ein, s. m. A plaintive song; a murmur; a moan; 
the cooing of a dove; a plaintive sound ; a purling sound. 
Caoirean na coille, the murmur of the woods. — Ull. Ni e 
caoirean, he will mourn. — Steiv. Ezek. Ri sior-chaoirean, 
making a continued plaintive sound ; wailing. — Stew. Is. 

Caoire axach, a. Moaning, murmuring; gurgling, purling. 

Caoiueaxachd, s.f Frequent or continued moaningj a 
continued murmur ; a purling noise. 

Caoir-gheal, a. Red hot; heated to incandescence. 

Caoiribh, d. pi. of caoir; which see. 

Caoiricii, n. pZ. of caor. Sheep. 

CA0iR-LASAiR,-lasrach,5./. Aflamingcoal; a sparkling flame. 

t Caoirle, s. /. (Jr. id.) A club. 

+ Caoirleaciid, s.f. A tossing or driving with clubs. 

Caoir-sholvs, uis, s. m. A gleaming light; effulgence. 

Caoirtiieacii, a. Fiery; sparkling, gleaming ; impetuous. 
Sruth caoirtheach, an impetuous stream. — Oss. Fing. 

t Caois, s.f. A furrow; a young pig. 

t CAOisEACiiAX,ain, s. m. A swine-herd. MpZ. caoiseachain. 

Caol, caoil, s. m. A frith, a strait; the harrow part of a 
river. Caol na droma, the small of the back ; caol an dùirn, 
the wrist ; caol a chalpa, the small of the leg. 

Caol, a. Small, thin, lean, slender, attenuated; narrow; 
shrill, high-toned. Caol nam feoil, lean in their flesh. — 
Stew. Gen. Toinntean caol, an attenuated thread; da 
chaol-chù, tìvo slenderfooted dogs. — Oss. Com. Ceòl 
cao\, shrill, high-toned music. — Oss. Tcm. Caol direach, 
straight, straight on. 

Caol ri caol. A rule observed by the most approved 
writers in Gaelic or Irish. It prescribes that two vowels 
contributing to form two different syllables should both be 
of the class of small vowels; as, buailteach, liable, not 
buailtach ; oillteil, shocking ; not oilltail. Leathan ri le- 
athan is caol ri caol, leughar na sgriobhir gach focal san 
t-saoghal, broad to broad, and small (vov.el) to small, you 
may read or write every word in the world. — G. P. 

t Caolach, aich, s. m. The plant fairy-flax. — Shaw. 

Caolachadii, aidh, s. m. A making small, thin, or slendei\ 

Caolaich, v. a. and n. Make small or slender; grow small 
or slender. Pret. a. chaolaich, grow slender ; fut. aff. a. 
caolaichidh, shall grow slender. Caolaichidh tu a chasan, 
thou wilt make his legs slender. — Old Song. 

Caolaichte, p. part, of caolaich. Made slender. 

Caol-amhaixn, s.f. A narrow river; hence Cullen, the 
name of a place in the north of Scotland ; probably the 
xsXvtoii TTOTa/xoS ix/9oXai of Ptolemy. 

Caolax, ain, s. m. A small gut; a tripe. A'', pi. caolain, 
guts. Caolan cait, cat-gut. 

Caolaxach, a. Like guts; of, or belonging to, a gut; 
made of guts. 

Caolas, ais, s. 7«. A frith ; a strait; a ferry. Snamhaiche 
a chaolais, the swimmer of the frith. — Old Song. N. pi. 

Caol-chasach, a. Having small legs, slender-legged, slim- 

Caol-chomiisuidh, s. m. A narrow bed, a narrow abodei 
a grave. A chaol-chomhnuidh, his grave. — Fingalian 
Poem. Written also caol-chonuidh. 

C A O 


CAOL-cnÒNUiDn,s.m. A narrow bed, a narrow abode, a grave. 
Caol-chosach, a. Having small legs, slender-legged ; 

slim-footed ; slianky. Each caol-chosach, a slender-legged 

horse. — Old Poem. 
Caol-chrojia, ai, s. m. A narrow curve. Caol-chroma na 

gealaich, the narrow curve of the moon. — Oss. Cathula. 
Caol-fairge, s. TO. A strait; a frith. 
Caol-giiealach, aich, s. f. The new moon. A chaol- 

ghealach tro' neul, the new moon [seen] through a cloud. — 

Oss. Gaul. 
Caoi.-ghleann, -ghlinn, s. m. A narrow valley, a glen. 

Air astar an caol-ghleann, travelling in the narrow valley. 

— Oss. Lodin. 
Caol-giiloracii, a. Shrill. 
Caol-giiruagach, a. Having a thin mane. Each caol- 

ghruagach, a thin-maned horse. — Fingalian Poem. 
Caol-giiuth, s. m. A shrill voice. 
Caol-ghuthacii, a. Having a shrill voice. 
Caol-mhalach, a. Having narrow eyebrows. 
Caol-mhaladh, aidh, s. m. A narrow eyebrow ; also the 

name of one of Ossian's Poems. 
CAOL-MiiiosACiiAy, ain, s. m. Purging flax. — Shaw. 
Caol-siirath, s. TO. A narrow strath ; a narrow valley. Caol- 

shrath nan alld, the tiarrow valley of streams. — Oss. Temo. 
Cao:mii, v. a. Protect, spare. Pret. chaomh, spared ; fut. 

aff. caomhaidh, shall spare. 
Caomii, a. Gentle, mild, tender; also, substantively, a 

friend, a beloved object ; rarely, a feast. Is caomh thu, 

a thannais! mild art thou, ghost! — Oss. Duthona. A 

chaoimh mo ghaoil-sa! thou gentle object of my love. — 

Oss. Conn. Gun chaomh am fogus, without a friend at 

hand. — Oss. Cathluno. Com. and sup. caoinih. 
Caomhach, aich, s. to. A friend, a bosom friend; a com- 
panion, a chum. Gun mhac gun chaomhach, ivithout son 

or friend. — Old Poem. N. pi. caomhaich. 
Caomiiag, aig, s. f A mildly-tempered female; an affec- 
tionate girl. N. pi. caomhagan. 
Caomhail, a. (caomh-amhuil.) Gentle, mild, kind, affec- 
tionate ; favourable. Caomhail ri 'n cairdean, kind to their 

friends. — Old Poem. 
Caomiiaix, v. a. Spare, save, reserve, economize. Pret. a. 

chaomhain, spared; fut. aff. a. caomhnaidh, shall spare. 

Caomhain do sholus, spare thy light. — Oss. Gaul. Cha 

chaomhain e smugaid thilg orm, he will not spare to spit 

on me. — Stew. Job. 
Caomualacii, a. Kindly, disposed to be mild. Gu caomh- 

alach, kindly. Com. and sup. caomhalàiche. 
Caomhalaciid, s.y. Kindness ; affability. Lagh na caomh- 

alachd, the law of kindness. — Stew. Pro. ref. 
Caomhax, ain, s. TO. A noble person ; an affable person — 

{Shatv) ; a beloved person. A chaomhain ! my dear sir ! 
Caomhantacii, a. Frugal, fond of saving, economical; 

Caomhantaciid, s.f Frugality, economy. 
Caomii-chridhf,, a. A tender or compassionate heart, an 

affectionate heart. N. pi. caomh-chridheachan. 
Caomii-ciiridheacii, a. Tender-hearted, kind. Athair 

chaomh-chridhich ! thou tender-hearted father ! — MacLach. 
Caomii-ciirutii, s. to. a slender form or person, as of a 

Caomii-giiradii, -ghraidh, s. m. Tender mercy; tender 

love. — Stew. Hos. 
Caomh-leus, Caomii-loise, s.f. A pleasant blaze. 
Caomhnach, aich, s. m. A friend; a feeder. — Shaw. 
Cao.miixach, a. Sparing; frugal, economical. 
Caomhxadh, aidh, s. vi. A sa\-ing, sparing, an economizing ; 

economy; rarely, protection. Dean caomhnadh, spare. 

Caomhnadh, (a), pc. par<. of caomhain. .Sparing, saving, 

t Caon, caoin, s. m. A resemblance. — Shaw. 

t Caonarax, ain, s. to. A solitary person, a recluse. 
N. pi. caonarain. 

Caoxxag, aig, s. f. A fight, a skirmish, fray, squabble; 
a boxing-match ; a nest of wild bees. iV. pi. caonnagan ; 
d. pi. caonnagaibh. Daoine nach do rinn caonnag, m£ii 
who fought not. — Macint. Dheanadh tu caonnag ri do dha 
lurgainn, you would quarrel with your own shins. — G. P. 

Caoxnagach, a. Fond of fighting or boxing; riotous, 

Caoxxtacii, a. {for caomhantach.) Saving, frugal, econo- 
mical. Com. and sup. caonntaiche. 

Caoxntaciid, s.f. (for caomhantachd.) A saving disposi- 
tion ; frugality, economy. 

t Caonta, a. Private. — Shaw. 

Caor, caoir, s. f. A berry ; a firebrand ; a thunderbolt. 
N. pi. caoran, berries ; wild ash-berries. 

Caor, caoir or caorach, s.f. A sheep; in derision, a sheep- 
ish person. O chrò nan caorach, yeoOT the sheepfold. — Sm. 
N. pi. caoraich, sheep. 

In Grelman's collection of gipsey words buukero means a sheep. 
On the west coast of Africa lliere are several languages in wliicli 
buukero has the same signification. 

Caorachd, s. /. {from caor.) A stock of sheep; sheep; 
cattle; sheepishness. 

Caoraich, n. pi. of caor; which see. 

Caorag, aig, s. /. A small dry peat; a dry clod or turf. 
N. pi. caoragan. 

Caouax, s. jjI. The berries of the mountain-ash or service; 
the wood of the mountain-ash. Bu deirge a ghruaigh na 
caoran, ruddier ivas his cheek than the wild ashberry. — 
Oss. Derm. 

Caoran, ain, s. m. A small dry peat. 

Caor-bheirteach, a. Producing berries; bacciferous. 

Caor-dromain, s. m. The alder-berry. 

Caor-gheal, a. Incandescent; red hot; emitting sparks. 

Caor-lann, -lainn, s. to. {Corn, corlan.) A sheepfold. 

Caor-teinxtidh, s. VI. A thunderbolt.- — Shaw. 

Caor-theixe, s. to. a firebrand. 

Cap, capa, s. m. A cup; rarely, an old person; a cart; a 

t Capat, ait, s. m. (Ir. id. Lat. caput.) A head. 

t Cap-fhlath, -fhlaith, s. m. {Ir. id.) A commander-in- 

Capull, uill, s.f. A mare. N. pi. capuill. 

Gr. xulS^xXXrif, a work-horse. Lat. caballus, a horse. 
It. cavalla. Fr. cavale, a mare. Pol. kobela. Boh. kobyla. 
Hung, kabalalo. 

Capull-coille, s. /. A capercailzie; a mountain-cock ; a 
kind of moor-fowl, once very abundant in the Highlands. 
The species is now nearly extinct. The capercailzie is 
considerably larger than the black-cock, and is seen only 
on remote and unfrequented mountains. 

Car, cuir, s. m. A twist, a bend, a turn, a winding, as of a 
stream ; a trick ; way, course ; a bar of music ; care. 
Lubar nan car, winding Lubar.—Oss. Duthona. Cuir car 
dhiot, be clever. Thoir car mu 'n cuairt, take a turn round. 
Car oidhche, during one iiight. — Stew. Jer. Car bliadhna, 
for a year. Thoir an car as, cheat him. Car air char, 
tumbling. — Stew. Jud. Theid sinn an car so, we shall go 
this way. An car a bhios san t-sean mhaide, is duilich a 
thoirt as, the bend of the old tree cannot be removed ; what 
is bred in the bone is ill to take out of the flesh. — G. P. 
Car neamhuinn, a string of pearls. — Shaw. 

Cau, prep. {W. car.) During; for; near about, in reference 
to time. Cat uair, near an hour ; car ùot<i, for a moment ; 



car greis, for a while. — Macdon. Car tamuil bhig, for a 
short time. — Steic. N. T. ref 

CÀII, (I. (Ir. id. id/, cams.) Related; also contracted for 
cairdeach ; which see. 

Car, n. Bending, twisting, tortuous, winding, undulating. 

CAr, s. w. (Old Swed. kaerre, a cart. Chald. carron, a 
chariot.) Scab, mange, itch ; a chariot. Written also c(}rr. 

C.vR.v', Cauadii, aidh, s. m. A way, a direction, a course; 
a turn, a winding, a twist. Aom nan cara', bend in their 
icny [towards their course.] — Oss. Conn. An caradh a 
bhrocluinn, in the direction of its den. — Id. 

Càba'. See Càra.mii. 

Cara', Cauadii, aidh, s. m. A friend, relation, kinsman; 
an ally. Gun cluinn mi mo chara, that I may hear iny 
fiend. — Oss. Tern. Bi d' chara dha 'n righ, he an ally to 
the king. — Oss. Fing. 

Chald. and Arab, karis, parent. Dii. kaar, friend. 
Sp. car >. Teut. kare. Corn. W. and Arm. car. 

Cauacii, a. (from car.) Deceitful; whirling, circling, wind- 
ing, turning ; scabbed ; changeable, unstable. Saoghal 
carach, a deceitful icorld. Measg osna charach, amid the 
circling breezes. — Fingalian Poem. 


Carach A nil, aidh, s. m. A moving, a stirring. Carachadh 
ceille, insanity. 

Carachadii, (a), pr. part, of caraich. Moving, stirring. 
Oiteag a carach' an duillich, a breeze stirring the leaves. 

Carachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of burying. 

Carachd, s.f. A motion, a movement. 

Carachdach, a. Athletic, wrestling. 

Carachdaich, s.f Wrestling. — Shaw. 

CAradh, (a), pr. part, of càir; which see. 

Caraiceach, a. Hairy; eager; keen. Com. and S!(p. ca- 

C araiceag, eig, s. /. A sort of pancake. N. pi. caraiceagan. 

Caraich, v. a. and n. Remove, move, stir, turn. Pret. a. 
charaich ; fit. aff. a. caraichidh. Mar charaicheas iolar a 
nead, as an eagle stirreth up her nest. — Stew. Deut. Nach 
caraich thu ? ivilt thou not move ? Cha charaich e ceum, 
he will not move a step. 

Caraiciie, s. ;n. A wrestler ; a pugilist. A^. p/. caraichean. 

Caraichte, p. part, of caraich. Moved, stirred, turned. 

Caraid, s.f. {Ir. id.) A pair, a couple, a brace, twins, 
twain; a/so, defence. Caraid-rann, a couplet; caraid na 
maoislich, rocs that are twins. — Stew. Song. Sol. N. pi. 
caraidean ; d. pi. caraidibh. Nan caraidibh, two by two. — 
Stew. G. B. 

Caraid, s. w. and /. (Arm. caret.) A friend, a relation. 
Caraid chisnihaor, tite friend of publicans. — Steiv. Mat. 
Mo dheash charaid, my good friend ; caraid, mac peathar 
athar, a cousin, the son of a father's sister ; caraid nigheau 
peathar athar, a cousin, the daughter of a father's sister ; 
caraid, mac brathar mathar, a cousin, the son of a mother's 
brother ; caraid mac brathar athar, a cousin, the son of a 
father's sister. — Macdon. 

Cahaideacii, n. In pairs, in couples or braces., il, s. m. A guardian angel. N. pi. carain- 

Carainneav, s. pi. The refuse of threshed barley. 

Caraiste, s.f. A carrying, a conveying; carriage, con- 
veyance ; a beating, a thrashing. Fiiuair a dheadh cha- 
raiste, he gut a proper thrashing. 
Caraisteacii, ich, s. m. A carrier. 
Caramasg, aisg, s.f. A contest, a confusion., aimh, s. m. A repairing, a mending; treatment; 
abuse. Fear càramh a bheum, repairer of the breach. — 

Stew. G. B. Is duileach leam an caramh, / regret the 
abuse. — Macint. Fhuair e a droch caramh, he was mal- 

t Caran, ain, s. m. (W. caran. Lat. corona, fr. caran.) 
The crown of the head. 

Caran-cueiof., s. m. A sea-eel; a conger-eel. 

Caramacii, a. (from caradh.) Kind, charitable, affec- 
tionate. Com. and sup. carantaiche. Written also car- 

Carantachd, s.f (from caradh.) Kindness, friendliness, 
friendship, charity. Bias is carantachd, warmth and friend- 
liness. — Old Song. Written also carthannachd. 

Cauantas, ais, s. ?». Kimlness, friendliness; friendship, 
charity. Carantas fuar, cold friendship. — Old Song. 

+ Caras, ais, s. m. A first-rate ship. — Shaw. 

\ Carb, cairb, s. m. {Lat. corbis.) A basket; a chariot; 
a plank ; a ship. N. pi. carban. 

Carbad, aid, s. m. (Box. Lex. cerbvd.) A chariot, a war- 
chariot ; a waggon ; a coach ; a litter ; a l>ier ; any pleasure 
vehicle ; a jaw. Carbad do ghaothaibh, a chariot of the 
winds. — Sm. Carbad cogaidh, a war-chariot. — /rf. Fiacal 
carbad, a jaw-tooth, a cheek-tooth.— Stew. Joel. Buail am 
balaoch air a charbad, is buail am balgair air an t-sròin, 
strike the clown on the ear, and the dog on the nose. — G. P. 

Carbadair, s. m. A charioteer, a coachman, a driver. 
N. pi. carbadairean. 

Caubadaireaciid, s. f. The business of a charioteer or 

Carbal, ail, s. m. The roof of the mouth. 

Caubax, ain, s. m. An unlucky person. N. pi. caibain. 

t Carbh, cairbh, s.f. A ship. 

Carbiiaidii, s.f. (Sp. carvi.) Carraway. 

Carbhaireachd, s.f. Mangling; massacring. 

Carbiian, ain, s. TO. (dim. of carbh.) A little ship; a carp. 
N. pi. carbhain. 

Carbiianacii, aich, s. 7n. (from carbh.) A ship-master; a 
carp. N. pi. carbhanaich. 

Carbiianacii uisge, s. m. A carp. 

Car-biiodacii, aich, s. m. A clown; a sailor. — Shaw. 
N. pi. car-bhodaich. 

Ciiarbiias, ais, s. w. Intemjierancc ; also. Lent; quadra- 
gesimal. Ann an deircadh a charlihais, at the end of Lent. 
— Macvuirich. 

Carc, cairc, s. m. (W. carch. Eng. f cark.) Care, anxiety- 

Caucar, air, s. tn. A prison. 

Lat. career. W. carchar. Teut. karcher. Germ, kirker. 
Ir. carcar. Corn, carchar. Arm. carchar. 

t Carciiaill, v. a. Destroy, abuse. — Shaw. Pret. a. char- 
chaill ; fut. aff. a. carchailiidh, shall destroy. 

Card, caird, s. m. (Span, carda.) A card for teazing wool. 
N. pi. cardan. 

Card, v. a. Card or comb wool. Pret. a. chard ; fut. aff. a. 
cardaidh, shall or will comb. 

Cardadii, aidh, 

Carda III, s. 7«. 

Cardaireaciii), s.f The cmplovmonl of a wool-comber; 
the trade of wool-combing. Ris a chardaireaciid, at the 
wool-combing trade. 

Car-kiiocal, ail, s.m. A quibble, a prevarication, a double- 
entendre ; antiphrasis ; a pun. A^. pi. car-fhocail. 

Car-fhoclacii, a. Quibbling, prevaricating; antiphrastic ; 
disposed to quibble, prevaricate, or pun. 

Cau-fhoclaiche, s. m. A quibbler, a prevaricator; a 

s. m. The process of carding wool ; a 
(Sp. cardador.) .\ comber or teazer of 



Carghas, ais, s. m. {Ir. carghios.) Lent. 

t Carla, ai, s. m. A wool-card. N. pi. carlan. 

t Carlach, aich, s. m. A cart-load. 

t C.\RL.iciiAS, ain, s. m. A carder or comber of wool. 
N. pi. carlachain. 

Carlag, aig-, s.f. A tuft of wool. .V. pi. carlagan. 

Carlagach, a. Like a tuft of wool ; full of tufts of wool. 

t Carlair.s. »(. A carder of wool. — Shaw. A''.p/. carlairean. 

Carmiiasach, aich, s. m. A carp. N. pi. carmhanaich. 
See also Carbhanach. Carmhanach uisge, a carp. 

Car-mhogal, ail, s. m. A carbuncle. — Shaw. 

+ Cars, cairn, s. A quern or handmill for grinding corn. 
Germ, quern. Goth, quairn. Sued, quarn. Isl. kuern. 
Pezrons Glossary, quirn. Anglo-Sax. cweorn and cwyrn. 

t C.Ì.RN, carna, s. m. (Laf. caro ; gen. carnis. Ir. earn.) 
Flesh ; a booty. 

Carx, cairn, cuirn, s. m. (Corn. W. and /;•. cam.) A 
heap of stones loosely thrown together ; a cairn ; a monu- 
mental heap of stones ; a barrow ; a rock ; a sledge ; a 
province. N. pi. cuirn. O iomall nan cam, from the edge 
of the rocks. — Oss. Carn-cuimhne, a monument; carn- 
aolaich, a dunghill. 

Cairns or barrou-x are very numerous in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, in Ireland, and in Wales. They are also to be seen in 
Sweden, in Norway, and in other parts of the Continent, as also 
in America. They were intended for monuments ; and the proba- 
bility- IS, that they were used as such from the earliest ages by every 
people who could associate their ideas of duration with tlie proper- 
ties of stone and rock. 

These cairns often measure tliree hundred feet in circumference 
at tlie base, and twenty feet in height. They consist of stone, and 
the whole pile is shaped like a cone. Several opinions have been 
formed concerning the intention of them. In several instances thev 
have been explored, and found to contain sepulchral urns ; a circum- 
stance whicli seems to be decisive in favour of the opinion that thev 
are monuments of the dead. Many of these piles consist wholly of 
earth ; and this gave rise to an opinion that the coped heaps of stone 
were intended for malefactors, and those of eartli for the virtuous 
and the brave. I never could ascertain to what extent this distinc- 

\ tion was observed. From ancient autliors we learn that malefactors 
were buried under heaps of stone, and we know that it was a com- 
mon practice among the Druids to erect cairns on the spot where a 
criminal had been burnt. Hence fear air charn means an outlaw 
among the Gael. Tha e air a charn, he is an outlaw. 'Is oil leam 
nach robh do luath fo cham', / wis/i x/our ashes xeere under a cairn. 
'B' fliearr leam bhi fo charn chlach', I would rather he under a 
cairn, i. e. punished as un outline. Though the ceremony o{ cairn- 
raising be still prevalent in the Highlands, the meaning of it is 
changed : for on whatever spot a person is found dead, a few stones 
are immediately huddled together, and every passenger pays his 
tribute of a stone ; the larger it is, the greater is the respect shewn 
to the deceased : hence a common saying among the Gael, — 'Cuiridh 
mi claeh ad charn, / wilt ndJ to thi/ cairn, betokens a friendly in- 
tention, and means, I will keep the remembrance of thee alive. The 
ghost of the deceased is supposed to haunt his cairn ; and there arc 
few Highlanders who would pass the spot for the first time without 
adding to the heap, and thus keepins on good terms with the spectre. 
At no remote time the comjriler of this work used to discharge this 
debt with devout punctuality, and, if alone and in the dark, would 
take the best aim in his power, and fling his contribution from a 
prudent distance. 

Carx,!). a. Heap, pile, accumulate, throw together. Pret.a. 
charn ; fut off', a. carnaidh. Carnaibh connadh, heap on 
wood. — Stew. Ezeh. Ged charn e airgiod, though he accu- 
mulate silver. — Stetv. Job. 

Carxach, a. Rocky; abounding in cairns; like a cairn; 
substantiveli/, a heathenish priest. 

Carx ADH, aidh, s. m. A heaping or piling ; an accumulating ; 
a riddance. — Shaic. 

Carxadii, (a), pr. part, of earn. Heaping, piling, accumu- 

Carxaid, s.f. Carnation or fiesh colour. 

Carxal. ail, s. m. A small heap of stones. — Shaw. 

CvRx.tx, ain, s. m. [dim. of earn. TF. carnen.) A little 
cairn ; a little heap. 

Carx'axaicii, s. pi. Scotch Highlanders; the Ka^vovaxai 
of Ptolemy. 

Carx-cuimhxe, s. wi. A monument. 

C.\R-KEAMHXuiD, s. TO. A String of peail. — Shatv. 

Carnta, Carxte, p. part, of earn. Heaped or piled up, 

Càrr, s. m. A rock. O chair monaidh, from a mountain- 
rock. — Oss. Duthona. 

Arab, càrr, rock. Armen. carr, stone. Dan. and 0. Sax. 
carr, rock. Pers. char, a stone. Turk, caria, marble. 

Carr is seen in the following names of rocks and rocky places : — 
Car-pathus, mountains in Hungary ; I-car-ia, the isle of rocks in 
the Egean sea ; Icarus, in Attica ; Carina, a mountain in Crete ; 
Corusius, near Antioch ; Corasia, rocks in the Egean sea. 

CÀRR, càirr, s. m. (Tent, karr, chariot. Corn, and Arm. carr.) 
A bog, a fen or morass ; moss ; a dray ; a waggon ; a spear. 
Mar chanach càirr, like the moss cotton. — Old Song. 

Carr, carra, s. f. (Old Swed. kaerre.) Scab, mange, itch ; 
scurvy; a scall or dry leprosy; a crust; a chariot; bran. 
Carr thioram, a dry scald. — Steiv. Lev. Plaigh na carra, 
the plague of the scall. — Id. Duine aig am bheil carr, a 
man who has the \itch'\ scurvy. — Id. 

Carrach, a. (from carr.) Scabbed, itched, mangy, scor- 
butic ; rocky ; having an uneven surface ; having a cross 
temper. Am fear a bhios carrach sa bhaile so, bithidh e 
carrach 's a bhaile ud thall, he who is mangy here will be 
?nangy every where ; the manners which a man has at home, 
he carries abroad. — G. P. Com. and sup. carraiche. 

Cauradh, aidh, s.f. A rock; a pillar; an erect stone; a 
monument. Carradh nan tonn, the rock of the ocean. — 
Oss. Fing. Carradh salainn, a pillar of salt. — Stew. G. B. 
N. pi. carraidhean. Written also carragh. 

Carragh, aigh, s, f A rock, a pillar, an erect stone, a 
monument. Thannais nan carragh geur, spectre of the 
flinty rocks. — Oss. Fing. Far an d' ung thu an carragh, 
where thou didst anoint the pillar. — Stew. Gen. N. pi. 

Carraid, s.f Conflict; distress, vexation, trouble. Carraid 
nan sian, the conflict of winds, tvhirlwinds. — Oss. Fing. 
Le carraid gheir, with sharp trouble. — Sm. 

Carraideach, a. Distressed, vexed; causing trouble or 
vexation ; grievous ; conflicting. Com. and sup. carraidiche. 

Carraig, s. f (dim. of carr.) A rock, a cliflT; a pinnacle. 
Carraig mo neart, the rock of my strength. — Sm. Asp. 
form, charraig. Mar thuinn mu charraig, like waves round 
a rock. — Oss. Duthona. 

Corn, and W. careg. Arm. carric. Scotch, craig. 

Carraigeach, a. (from carraig.) Rocky, like a rock; of, 

or belonging to, a rock ; rugged. 
Carraigeag, eig, s.f A sort of pancake. 
Carraighix, s. The thick part of butter-milk. 
Carran, ain, s. m. A weed growing amidst corn ; a shrimp, 

a prawn — (Macd.); rarely, a sickle. 
Carrax-creig, s. m. A conger eel; a shrimp, a prawn. — 

C ARRASAX, ain, s. m. Hoarseness ; a wheezing of the throat ; 

catarrh. Casd is carrasan, a cough and hoarseness. 
Carrasanach, a. Hoarse; wheezing. 
Caurasanaich, s.f. A continued wheezing of the throat; 

a catarrh. 
Carr-fiitadh, -fheidh, s. »!. A hart. A^. ;;/. carr-fheidh. 
CARit-FnioDH, s. m. A knot in timber. — Shaiv. 
Carroid, s.f. See Carraid. 



CARuncii, J'. a. (/r. corruigh.) Remove, move, stir; turn. 
Prrt. a. charruich, moved; fut. aff. a. carruichidh, shall or 
will move. Carruich do chos, remove thy foot. — Stew. Pro. 
Written also carraich. 

Cars, s.f. This word, meaning a level fertile tract of country, 
is used in many districts of the Southern Highlands, into 
which it seems to have straggled from the speech of the 
Lowland Scots. There is, however, in the Arnioric dialect 
of the Celtic, a word ceirs or ceyrs, which has the same 
meaning with cars. 

C'arsox, arff. (co airson.) "Why? for what? Carson so? 
tvhy so ? 

Cau-siiùil, -shùl, s.f. A rolling eye. N. pi. car-shuilean. 

Car-siiuilf.acii, a. Having rolling eyes. 

Cart, càirt, s. f A fourth ; a quart; a quarter of a yard. 

Cart.\cii, (jen. sing, of cairt; which see. 

C.vRTADir, aidh, s. m. The act of cleansing any place of 
mire, as a stable or stie ; tanning of leather ; strippin<^ 
tree of its bark. Cartadh ari daraich, stripping the oak of 
its bark. 

Cartiiax, ain, s. m. Charity, friendship, affection. Luchd 
carthain, charitable people. 

Cartiiaxxacii, a. {Ir. id.) Charitable, friendly, affec- 
tionate, loving. Do ghràs carthannach, thy loving grace. 
— Sm. Com. and sup. carthannaiche. 

Caiitiiaxnachd, s.f. (Ir. id.) Charity, friendship, kind- 
ness ; the practice of charity. 

Car-tiivixnicii, v. a. Separate, part, put asunder. Piet. a. 
charthuinnich ; fut. aff. a. carthuinnichidh, shall separate. 

Cart-iCiil, s. in. A mariner's compass. 

Car-tual, s. m. (car-tuath-iùil.) Unprosperous or fatal 
course ; a moving contrary to the sun's course. 

This term has its origin in a Druidieal superstition. The Druids, 
on certain occasions, mo\ed tliree times round their stony circles 
or temples. In performing this ceremony (cur-dcisc) they kept the 
circle on the right, and consequently moved from east to west. This 
was called tlie prosperous course ; hut the cw-luiil, or moving with 
tlie circle on the left, wa.s deemed fatal or unprosperous, as being 
contrary to the course of tlie sun. See Dr.isiuii,. 

('aruciiadii, aidh, s. m. See Caraciiadii. 

Cauuill, u. n. (W. carawl. Corn, karol, a cAoi'r.) Carol, 
sing, warble. Pret. a. charuill, caroled ; fut. aff. caruillidh, 
shall carol. 

C.vs, V. a. Gape; gnash; brandish; turn against; be angry 
with; wreathe; twist; bend; curl; climb. Pret. a. chas; 
fut. aff. a. casaidh. ('has iad am beid, they gaped with 
their moutli. — Stew. Job. Chas e fhiaclan, he gnashed 
with his teeth. — Id. Chas e a shleagh, he braridished his 
spear.— Oss. Tein. 

Cas, a. (Ir. id.) Steep; abrupt; headlong; hastv, pas- 
sionate; eager, quick, forward; twisted, curled, wreathed. 
Sruthan cas, headlong streams. — Oss. Lodin. Cas gu 
comhrag, eager fur battle. — Oss. Gu cas, quickly. — Sm. 
Caireal cas, passionate Carril. — Old Poem. Cas-fhalt, 
curled locks. — Old Song. 

CAs, s. m. (Fr. cas, incident. Lat. casus.) A difficulty, 
emergency, anxiety, distress; plague; case; respect; 
rarely, fear; pity. Anns gach cas, in every etnergency. — 
Sm. An cas, eager; an cas air, eager for him or it. 
Asp. form, chas. Sa chas so, in this case. — Stew. Cor. 
Tha e na chas, he is eager for it. 

Cas, coisc, s. /. (W. coes.) A fool; a leg; a shaft; the 
handle of any bladed instrument; money; a wrinkle. 
A'', pi. casan ; d. pi. casaibh. Fo chasaibh nan an-laoch, 
under the feel of ruthless warriors. — Oss. Tnith. Cas 
sgeine, the handle of a hnifr ; cas tuaidh, the handle of a 
hatchet; casan corrach, stilts. Written also cos. 

Casacii, a. (IF. coesawg.) Footed, many-footed; of, or 
belonging to, feet. Gu casach lamhach, exerting legs and 

Casaciidaicii, s./. Coughing; continued coughing. 

Casadii, aidh, s. m. A climbing; gnashing; a gaping; a 
brandishing; turning against; a wreathing, a twisting, a 
curling ; a wrinkle. Le casadh an gruaige, with curling 
[broidering] their hair. — Stew. Tim. Lan chasadh, full 
of wrinkles. — Stetv. Job. ref. 

Casadii, (a), pr. part, of cas. Gnashing; gaping; climbing; 
brandishing; turning against; wreathing, twisting, curling. 
An tore a casadh ri Diarmad, the boar turning impetuously 
on Dermid. — Oss. Derm. Sleagh a casadh na laimh, a 
spear brandishing in his hand. — Oss. Tern. 

Casao, aig, s. f. A long coat; opposite in meaning to a 

short coat or jacket. N. pi. casagan. 
Casagacii, a. Long-coated; wearing a long coat; like a 

long coat. — Macdon. 
Casagaiciie, s. m. A man with a long or skirted coat. 
Casaid, s.f. (Ir. id.) A complaint, an accusation. Dean 

casaid, complain ; make a complaint. Na gabh casaid, 

receive not an accusation. — Steiv. Tim. N. pi. casaidean. 
Casaideacii, a. Complaining, accusing; prone to complain 

or to accuse ; like a complaint or accusation. 
Casaideachd, s. f. A complaining; readiness to make a 

Casaidiciie, s. m. A complainer, a complainant, an ac- 
Casaix-uciid, s. m. A bit cut off a sheep from the lip 

along the belly to the tail, three inches broad. — Shaw. 

Also, a bosom. 
Casair, s. f A faint phosphoric light proceeding from old 

wood in the dark. 
Casair, casrach, s. f. A thorn; a buckle; a clasp; a 

shower ; hail ; massacre, slaughter. 
Casax, ain, s. m. A foot-path ; also a name given to the 

parallel roads of Glenroy. N. pi. casain. 
Casaxacii, a. Having foot-paths ; like a foot-path. 
Cas-aodaixneacii, a. Having a wrinkled face. A shene 

chas-aodainneach, wrinklefaccd age. — Old Song. 
Cas AH, air, s. m. A little hammer; a foot-path, 
t Casaunacii, aich, s. m. Lightning. 
Casbaxach, a. Parallel, side by side. 
Cas-biiairxeach, ich, s. m. A limpet, a cunncr. — Shaw. 
Cas-bhard, -bhaird, s. m. A satirist. 
Cas-riiardaciid, s.y. Satire; lampooning; invective. 
Cas-bhardaii„ a. (cas-bhardamhuil.) Satirical. 
CAS-niiEAUT, eirt, s.f. (cas and beairt.) Shoes and stockings. 

armour for the legs. 
Cas-iiiiuiatiiah, air, s. m. A hasty expression; intemperate 

Cas-biiriathracii, a. Hasty or intemperate in speech. 
Cas-biiuidii, a. Yellow and curled, as hair. Cuach fhalt 

cas-bhuidh, curled yellow hair. — Macint. 
t Cascar, air, s. m. A cup. — Shaw. 
Cas-ciieum, s. m. A foot-path; a stride; a long pace; a 

steep or diflicult way. Cas-cheum nach gann, a great 

stride. — Old Poem. 
Cas-ciieumacii, o. Steep; difficult to pace; striding; 

having a foot-path. 
Cas-ciiiai!ii, a. A curled lock, a ringlet. A'^. pi. cas- 

Cas-ciiiabiiacii, a. Tressy; having ringlets or curled hair. 
Cas-ciireag, s. /. A steep rock. A'', p/. cas-chreagan. 
Cas-ciiueagach, o. Full of steep rocks. 



C.vs-CROM, s.f. A little spade, crooked at the lower end, 
formed in such a way as to turn over the soil in furrows. 

This primitive kind of plough is still used in the Hebrides. It 
is, of course, verj' unexpeditious, eight men being necessary to dig 
as much in one day as a horse would plough in the same time. 
Where traces are wanting, the harrow is tied to tlie horse's tail ; but 
in wet grounds the glebe is broken by means of a hea\T-toothed 
instrument, called i-àcan, which men, women, and children, drag 
along the surface of the ground. Tlie following minute description 
of the ids-crom is taken from Sinclair's Statistics, Edchi-ruc/ii/lis : 
— " This instrument, chiefly used for tillage, consists of a crooked 
piece of wood; tlie lower end somewhat tliick, about two feet and 
a half in lengdi, pretty straight, and armed at the end with iron, 
made thin and square, to cut the earth. The upper end of this in- 
strument is called the shaft; whereas the lower is termed tlie head. 
The shaft above tlie crook is pretty straight, being six feet long", and 
tapering upwards to the end, which is slender. Just below the 
crook or angle, which is an obtuse one, there must be a hole, 
wherein a strong peg must be fixed for the workman's right foot, in 
order to push the instrument into tlie earth ; while in the meantime 
standing on his left foot, and holding the shaft firm with botli hands, 
when he has in this manner driven the head far enough into the 
earth, with one bend of his body, he raises the clod by the iron- 
headed part of his instrument, making use of the heel or hind part 
of the head as a fulcrum ; in so doing, he turns it over always 
towards the left hand, and then proceeds to push for another clod in 
the same form. To see six or eight men all at work with this in- 
strument, as is often to be seen, standing all upon one les, and 
pushing with the other, would be a pretty curious sight to a stranger. 

" With all its disadvantages, the cas-ci-om is, of all instruments, 
the fittest for turning up the groimd in the countr)' ; for among so 
many rocks a plough can do little or nothing ; and where no rocks 
are, the earth is commonly so marshy that cattle are not able to 
pass over it without sinking deep. Therefore it is of pretty general 
use in the Highlands, and is of great antiquity. One man can turn 
over more ground with it in a day than four are able to do with a 
common spade. For a single man to delve as much ground as 
will require two pecks of bear-seed in a day is nothing imcomraon; 
nay, some have sown four in a day's work. There are many in- 
stances of single men who, in good seasons, have reared as much 
corn as, wiUi the help of potatoes, has subsisted the families of six 
or seven persons plentifully by die cas-cnim." 

C.vs-ciiouu.\CH, aich, s. /. A stilt. K. pi. casan-corrach, 

Cas-cùirx, s.f. A draught-tree. — SIiau\ 
C.\SD, s. in. A cough. An triugh-chasd, the whooping cough. 
Casd, I', n. Make a cough ; cough. Pret. a. chasd, coughed ; 

fut. aff. a. casdaidh, shall or will cough. 
CAsn.^cii, «. (/rom casd.) Coughing; causing a cough or 

cold. Am mios casdach, the cough-producing month. — 

Casdadii, aidh, s. m. A coughing, the act of coughing ; a 

Casdaicii, s.f. A coughing, a continued coughing. Làn 

casdaich,/«W of coughing. — Macint. Asp. form, chasdaich. 

Ciod a chasdaich th'ort ? why do you cough so ? 
Casdaicii, (a), pr. part, of casd. Coughing. 
Cas-dirf.acii, s. a straight delving-spade, used in the 

Cas-fiiioxx, a. 'White-footed. Bha i cas-fhionn, she was 

whitefooted. — Macint. 
Casg, v. a. Restrain, stop, staunch, quell, curb, appease. 

Pret. a. chasg ; fut. aff. a. casgaidh. A casgadh a chreuchd- 

an, staunching his icounds. — Oss. Trnth. Written also cos'jf. 
Casg ACii, a. Apt to staunch ; apt to quell, curb, or appease ; 

apt to restraip ; having the quality of staunching. 
Casgadh, aidh, s. in. A quenching, stopping, staunching, 

curbing, appeasing, a restraining ; the act of quenching or 

of staunching. Cuir casg' air, staunch it. 
Cas(;adii, (a), pr. part, of casg. Quenching, stopping, 

staunching, appeasing. An fhuil a ruith gun luibh ga 

casgadh, the blood flowing vAthout herb to staunch it. — 

Oss. Derm. 

C ASG.\.iDii, fut. aff. a. of casg. Shall or will quench, staunch, 

or appease. 
Casgair, v. a. Kill, slaughter, massacre, mangle, butcher. 

Pret. a. chasgair ; fut. aff. a. casgraidh, shall inassacre : 

fut. pass, casgrar. An lanih le 'n casgrar e, the hand by 

which it shall be slaughtered. — Sm. Co chasgras an tore, 

who ivill slay the boar. — Oss. Derm. 
Casgairt, s.f. A slaughtering, a massacring, a butcher- 
ing ; a slaughter, a massacre. Written also cosgairt. 
Casgracii, a. Slaughtering, massacring; of, or belonging 

to, a slaughter or massacre ; like a slaughter ; mangling. 
Casgradh, aidh, s. ?n. A slaughter, a massacre, a mangling, 

a butchering. Mar uan thun a chasgraidh, like a larnb to 

the slaughter. — Stew. G. B. 
Casgradh, (a), pr. part, of casgair. Slaughtering, mangling, 
CisLACii, aich, s. m. Children ; a tube; a clan. 
Casladii, aidh, s. m. Frizzled wool. — Shaiv. 
Cas-lo.m, a. Barefoot, barefooted; barelegged. Cas-lom, 

ceann-lora, barefoot and bareheaded. 
Cas-jiaidiiiche, s.f. The herb haresfoot. — Shaic. 
Casxaid, s.y. Split wood, chips. 
Casracii, aich, s.f. A slaughter, massacre. — Shaw. 
Cas-ri^isgte, a. Barefoot, barefooted; barelegged. Loin- 

nochd agus cas-ruisgte, tiaked and barefoot. — Steiv. Is. 
t Cast, a. {Gr. xao-ro;, adorned. Lat. castas.) Pure, un- 

defiled, chaste. 
Castearbhax, ain, s. ?n. Succory. Castearbhan nam muc, 

dandelion. — Shaw. 
Castreaghaixx, s.f. Straw on which grain is laid during 

the process of kiln-drying. 
Cas-urla, s. VI. A curled lock, a ringlet. 
Ca9-urlach, a. Having curls, ringlets, or tresses. D' or 

chùl na shlamagan casurlach, thy yellow hair in curled 

tresses. — Moladh Mhoraig. 
Cat, cait, s. m. A cat. Cat fiadhaich, a ivild cat ; cat-luch, 

a mouse ; is tu an cat, yoy, are a cat. Faodaidh cat seal- 

tuinn air an righ, a cat may look at a king. — G. P. 

Barbarous Gr. xxtto;, kxtth;, and xaia. Lat. catus. 

Fr. chat. Arm. and /;-. cat. Isl. katt. Swed. katt. 

Da. kat. Anglo-Sax. cat. Germ, katze. W. and Corn. 

cat. It. gatta. Span. gato. Rtiss. kotte. Pol. kotka. 

Turk. keti. Teut. katt. Pers. kitt. Javanese, cota. 

Georgian, kata. 
t Cata, ai, s. ?n. A sheep-cote. 

CÀTAC1IADH, aidh, s.m. A taming, a soothing, a domesticating. 
CÀTADII, aidh, s. m. A taming, a soothing, a domesticating. 
CÀTAICH, V. a. Tame, soothe, domesticate; honour, re- 
verence. Pret. a. chàtaich, tamed; fut. aff. a. càtaichidh, 

shall tame ; p. part, càtaichte. 
t Cataidii, s.f Generosity, nobility; also, generous, noble 
Cataxacii, a. Hairy, rough, shaggy, freezy; one of the 

clan Cattan. Com. and sup. catanaiche. 
Cat.\s, ais, s. m. Caddicc. 
C.^t-fiadhaicii, s. 7n. A wild cat; the catus silvestris of 

C.iTH, s. m. A battle, a skirmish, a contest, a struggle ; a 

company of soldiers. Cuir cath, engage, Chnir iad cath 

air, they strove against him. — Sm. iV. pi. cathan. 'G ar 

feitheamh le seachd cathan, waitiiig us with seven compa- 
nies. — Fingalian Poem. 

W. and Corn. cad. Germ. cat. Ir. cath ; hence cater^a, 

a fighting band. Bisc. c\\à?i, battle. Arab, cahad. Eth. 

Arab, cathal, to fight. Chald. katat. Gr. xx-cc, against. 
Cath, v. Fisjht, fight a battle ; carry on war; contend, strive. 

Pret. a. cfiath, fought ; fut. aff. a. cathaidh, shall fight. 
CÀTH, I', a. Fan, winnow. Pref. chath; /«^ a^. cathaidh. 


C E A 

CÀTII, s. Seeds; husks of corn; pollards. Càth làgain, 
corn seeds, of tlie juice of which the Scotch Gael make 
exquisite flummery'. Cath-bhruich, a kmd of flummery . 

Cath.acm, aich, s. m. (from cath.) A warrior, a fighting; 
man, a champion. N. pi. cathaich. Seachd cathaich 
diongmhalta, seven able-bodied warriors. — Old Poem. 

C.*TJiACiiADn,aidh, s. m. Astriving; afighting; abattling; 
a struggling; a tempting; a provoking strife; struggle; 
temptation; provocation. A chur cathachaidh, to provoke. 
— Steiv. Is. 

C ATH.\cii.\r)ii, (ai),pr. part, of cathaich. Striving, struggling, 
fighting, battling; trying; tempting. 

Cathadii, aidh, s. m. Adrift. Thig ioma-chath, a luAir/insr 
drift shnll come. — Macfar. Cathadh mara, spoondrift ; 
cathadh n\\v,fallirtij snow. 

Catiia(;, aig, s. /. A daw, a jackdaw ; a jay; the corvits 
mojiedula of Linneeus. N. pi. cathagan. 

CATiiAGACir, a. Abounding in jackdaws; like a jackdaw; 
of jackdaws. 

Cathaich, (from cath.) Fight, contend; fight a battle; 
engage; carry on war; try, tempt. Pret. a. chathaich, 
fought ; fut. aff. a. cathaichidh, shall fight. Cathaich nan 
aghaidh,_/t'(//i< against them. 

Catiiaik, cathrach, s. /. A town, a city, a fortified city; 
a chair, a seat, a bench ; a bed of any garden-stuff; a 
stock ofcolewort or of cabbage; a plot; a marsh, a bog; 
a sentinel. N. pi. cathraichean. Do 'n chathair dhaingean, 
to the fortified city. — Sm. Gu gleann cathair, to a marshy 
vale. — Oss. Lod. Air cathair, on a seat. — Stetv. Pro. An 
creamh na chathraichean, gentian in beds or plots. — Macint. 
Pars, car, town. Phen. kartha. Pun. karta, cartha, 
and cirtha, a town. Chin, cara, dwell. Jap. kar, o house. 
Syr. karac, enclosure, and kerac, a fortress. Chald. and 
Syr. kartha, toivn. Arab, carac, a fortress. Bisc. caria. 
IF. and Corn, cadair and caer. Arm. cador and codoer, 
a chair ; kaer, a city. 

Usherus, bisliop of Armagh, in liis book on the Origin of British 
Churches, has tlie following observations on the word cathair, 
chap. V. p. e.'J. " Johannes Caius ex (Jervasio Tilberiense cair 
hnguil Trojand civitatem addit, et Cambris murum sigiiilicat, ut 
quemadnioduni Hebrai I'p (Kyr) murum, et nnp (Kyria) urbem 
vocant. Ita Hritannis vox non absimilis cair, et mcenia et urbem 
moenibus cinctam denotat. Sed et apud Scytlia.s car est urbs." 

Catiiaiu-bkinn-tiiouraiciif., s. /. Caerlavrock. The 
xa^/javTOfiyoy of Ptolemy. 

CATHAiii-Bur.ATiiEA.MiiSAis, s. /. A judgment-seat. Air 
a chathair bhreatheandinais, on the judgment-seat. — Stew. 

Catuaiuicih,, s. m. A citizen. N. pi. cathairichean. 

Catiiaiu-iuoii, s. /. A throne. Chi gach sùil a chathair 
righ, every eye shall see his throne. — Sm. 

Cathaiii-kio(ìiiail, s.f. A throne. 

Catjiaiu-thalmhainn, s.f. Milfoil or yarrow. — Macd. 

Catiiaiskacii, a. Brave, stout, warlike ; (juick. Gu cuth- 

aiseach, bravely. Com. and sup. cathaisiche. 
Cathamii, s. The drift of snow. Tha cur is cathandi ann, 
it snows and drifts ; cathandi fairge, spoon-drift ; dorus 
cathamh, the middle door of a kitchen-passage. 
Catiiamhacii, a. (/iom cathamh.) Drifty ; like drift; of, 

or belonging to, drift. 
Cathan, ttin, s. m. A species of wild goose with a black 

bill. — Shaw. Cathan aodaicli, a web. 
Cathan, n. ;>/. (/row cath.) Warriors, champions. Còdhail 

nan cathan, the meeting of warriors. — Oss. Dargo. 
Cathan aodaich, s. m. A v/eh.-^Shaw. 
Cathau, air, s. /«. Soft, boggy ground ; a marsh. O chathar 
'b o chruaich, yVoOT marsh and from mountain. — Oss. Fing. 

CÀTHAR,a. (cath-mhor.) Husky,seedy; full of seeds or husks. 

Cath-bhArr, s. m. A helmet, a headpiece. Bhris e an 
cath-bharr, he broke the helmet.— Death of Oscar. 

CÀTH-BHRiiCH, s./. Flummery; sowens. 

Cath-fhear, -fhir, s. m. A warrior, a hero, a champion. 
iV. pi. cath-fhir. 

Cath-labhkadh, aidh, s. m. The speech of a general be- 
fore or after battle. 

Cathli'x, uin, s. in. A corn. — Shaw. 

Cath-mhilidh, s. 7h. a commander, a colonel, a chief 
officer ; a field oflScer. 

Cathuaichean, n. pi. of cathair; dat. pi. cathrairhibh. 
Cities, towns. See Cathair. 

Cat-luibh, s.f. Cudwort. — Shaiv. 

a, s. (Gr. yi\. Ir. ce.) The earth, the world ; night; a 
spouse ; also, a pier. — Macd. An cruinne ce, the globe of 
the earth, orbis terrarum. 

C È, (co è.) Who is he? who is it ? what is he ? what is it '. 
where is he ? where is it? C è tha dorch air an t-sliabh, 
who is he that is dark on the hill f — Oss. Fing. 

t Ceach, a. Each, every one. More frequently wTÌtten 
gach ; which see. 

Ceachail, v. a. Dig; hackle; destroy. Pret. a. cheachail, 
dug ; fut. aff. a. ceachlaidh, shall dig. 

Ceachair, ceachrach, s.y. Dirt, filth ; penury. 

t Ceachdlach, aich, s. m. Coal-black. 

Ceachrach, a. Dirty, filthy ; penurious, stingy. Ccwi. and 
sup. ceachraiche. 

Ceachrachd, s. f. Dirtiness, filthiness; pcnuriousness, 

Cead, s. m. Leave, permission, liberty, license; farewell, 
adieu. Thoir cead dhomh, give me leave; gabhaidh mi 
mo chead dhiot, / icill take my leave of thee. — Old Sony. 
Cead buan, a long adieu ; leig cead duit ! enough of thee ! 

Cead, a. Hundred. See Ceud. 

Ceadach, a. Talkative; cloth. 

Ceadachadh, aidh, s.m. A granting, a permitting; a per- 
mission; liberty; a dismissing. 

Ceadachadh, (a), pr. part, of ceadaich. Granting, per- 

Ceadachail, a. Lawful, allowable, permissible. 

Ceadaich, v. (from cead.) Permit, sufl'er, let, allow. This 
verb has the prep, do, simple or compounded, construed 
with it. Pret. a. cheadaich, permitted ; fit. aff. a. cead- 
aichidh, shall permit. Ceadaich do t-oglach, permit thy 
servant. — Sm. Fut. pass, ceadaichear. 
Ceadaich is sometimes written ceadaich. 

Ceadaichidh, /W<. aff. a. of ceadaich ; which see. 

Ceadak iirE, p. part, of ceadaich. Permitted; sutt'ercd ; 
lawful. Bheil e ceadaichte ? is it lawful f — Stew. Mat. 
Sometimes written ceaduichtc ? 

fCKADAi,, ail, s. m. A story; a narrative; a malicious 

Ceadai.ach, a. Mahcious, as a story. 

Ceadai.aichf,, s. m. lie who raises malicious stories. 

Cf.adhal, ail, a. Blistered; full of sores. 

Ceaird, gen. sing, and n. pi. of ceard. 

Ceairde, ceirde, s.f. A trade; an occupation. Ciod is 
ceairde duibh ^ what is your occupation f — Stew. Gen. 
Cha 'n uailse duinc no 'cheirde, a man is not higher than 
his trade. — G. P. Fear-ceirdc, a tradesman ; luchd-ceirde, 

t Ceal, s. (Lat. cadum. /;•. ceal. Fr. ciel.) Heaven. 

+ Ceal, ceala, s. «i. A joint; forgctfulness ; stupidity ; fine 

C E A 

C E A 

Ceai-, -.. a. Eat. Pret. a. cheal, ate ; Jut. aff. a. cealaidli, 
shall eat. 

Cealachadh, aidh, The act of concealing; a con- 
cealing, hiding ; concealment ; eating. 

Cealachadh, (a), pr.part. ofcealaich. 

Cealadii, aidh, s. m. Eating. 

Cealaich, r. (7. Conceal, hide ; deny ; eat. P)■f^ «. cheal- 
aich ; fiit. nfF. a. cealaichidh, shall conceal. .\ chealaich m' 
aran, uho ate nu/ bread. — Smith. Cha chealaicii mi ort e, 
I wilt not conceal it from i/ou. 

Ceal.\ichte, /). par?, of cealaich. Eaten; concealed. 

Ceal-chobhair, s. f. A sanctuary, a place of safe con- 

Ceal-fhuath, -fhuaith, .5. m. A private grudge. 

Cealg, ceilg, s. (Ir. cealg. Jl'. celc.) Deceit, wile, 
treachery ; hypocrisy ; malice. Spiorad ceilg, the spirit of 
deceit. — Stexc. Mic. Ulluichidh iad cealg, they shall pre- 
pare treacheri/. — Stca-. Job. 

Cealg, r. a. Beguile, deceive. Prct. a. chealg; fiif. aff. a. 

Cealgach, u. {from cealg.) Crafty, deceitful, wily, hypo- 
critical ; malicious ; false. Tha 'n cridhe cealgach, the heart 
is deceitful. — Steic. Jer. Fianiiis cealgach, a false rcitness. 
— Steiv. Pro. Com. and sup. cealgaiche. 

CealctAIR, s. m. {IF. celgawr, apt to hide.) A deceitful man, 
a hypocrite, a traitor. N. pi. cealgairean. 

Cealg AiREACiiD, s.f Deceitfulness, hypocrisy, treachery. 
— Smith. Ri cealgaireachd, practising deceit. 

Cealg-chordadii, aidh, s. m. Collusion; private under- 

t Ceall, cealla, s. »1. A cell ; a church. La^ cella. Hence 
ceall-shlad, sacrilege. 

Ceallach, aich, s.f. A peat cart; a r;/n£»- cart, employed 
in carrying peats from the moss ; also a tret/, formed like a 
cone, with the base upwards, placed upon a sledge, and 
used to carry out manure. In the Southern Highlands 
tliese creels have given place to more convenient vehicles. 

Cealladh, aidh, s. m. Custody. 

Ceallair, s. m. The superior of a monastery. 

Ceall-ghoid, 4. .Sacrilege. 

Ceall-shlad, -shloid, s.f. Sacrilege. 

Ceall-stòl, -stoil, s. m, A close stooL 

t Cealt, s. m. Apparel, clothes, garments, dress. — /;•. id. 

Cealtach, aich, s. m. A Celt, a Gaul. 

t Cealltair, s. m. A spear ; a cause ; a castle. — Ir. id. 

Cean, s. m. Love, favour, fondness; desire; elegance; a 
fault, a crime. Tha mo cheau air an og mhnaoi, my luxe is 
on the virgin. — Old Song. 

Ceanail, a. (cean-amhuil.) Kind, mild, loving; fond; ele- 
gant ; faulty. Thuit Carruill ceanail, the elegant Carril 
fell.— Death of Carril. 

Ceaxail, s. f. Kindness, mildness, fondness. Beul a 
cheunail, the mouth of mildness. — Old Song. 

Ceaxalta.o. Handsome ; clean ; seemly ; mild, kind. Gille 
ceanalta, a handsome lad ; oigh cheanalta, a handsome maid. 

Ceavaltachd, v. /". Handsomeness, cleanness, seemhness; 
mildness, kindness. — Macint. 

Ceaxaltas, ais, s.7n. Handsomeness, cleanness, seemliness, 
mildness, kindness. 

Ceanan, a. A corruption of ccann-fhionn ; which see. 

Ceaxgail, r. a. Tie, bind, fasten, fetter; tighten ; oblige ; 
compel ; restrain. Pret. a. cheangail ; fitt. aff. a. ceanglaidh, 
shall bind. Ceanglaibh le cordaibh, bind icith ropes. — Sm. 
Ceangail teann, is faigh tearuinte, /aif bind, fast find. — Old 
Proierb. Am fear a cheanglas 's e shiubhaileas, he v)ho 
ties his bundle fast uatks on uithout stop. — G. P. 

Ceaxgailte, p. part, of ceangail. Bound, tied, fastened; 
obliged ; restrained ; compelled ; under obligation. 

Ceangal, ail, s. m. {Ir. ceangail. Lot. cingul-um.) A tie, 
a bond, a restraint, a fetter or chain ; an obligation ; a 
ligature ; a knot, a fastening, a bandage. K. pi. cean- 
glaichean. Ceanglaichean posaidh, marriage-bonds. — Steu: 
Cien. Ceangal iail a sgeith, the knot of the thongs of his 
shield. — Oss. Fing. Ceangal nam raionn, the obligation of 
the oaths. — Mac Lach. Ceangal posaidh, betrothment ; ni 
thu ciangal posaidh, thou shall betroth a uifc. — Steic. Deut. 

Ceaxgalach, a. Binding; obliging; obligatory. 

Ceanglachan, ain, «. wi. A truss; a bundle. Ceanglachan 
airgid, a bundle of silver. — Stew. Gen. X. pi. ceanglachain. 

Ce AXGLADI1, aidh, s. m. A binding, a tying, a fastening ; 
a betrothing ; a tie, a fetter, a fastening ; a betrothment. 

Ceaxgladii, (a), pr. part, of ceangail. Binding, tying, 
fastening; betrothing; obliging. 

Ceaxglaiche, Ceanglaichean, «. p/. of ceangal. Ties, 
bonds, obligations; ligatures, bandages; fetters, chains, 
fastenings ; knots. 

Ceaxglaidh, _/"«?. aff. a. of ceangail. 

Ceaxglar,/)//. of ceangail. Shall be bound or fastened; 
shall be restrained ; shall be obliged. 

Ceaxx", cinn, i. m. (7r. ceann. If', cwn and cyn. Corn.kvn.) 
Ahead; apoint; ahilt; atop; an end; achief, acomniander; 
a high headland, a promontory. K. pi. cinn. Thog tuinn an 
cinn, waves reared their heads. — Ull. Dh' fhill i a ceann 
an ceo, she xcrapped her htad \top^ in mist. — Oss. Cathluno. 
Ceann gach lainn, the hilt of every suord. — Oss. Lod. Sleagh 
is geire ceanii, a spear of the sharpest point. — Oss. Croma. 
Ceann nan laoch, the chief of heroes. — Mac Lach. Ceann 
deireadh, the hinder end, the latter end ; ceann toiseach, the 
beginning. A ciiuir ceann air strl, to put an end to the strife. 
— Oss. Lod. An ceann lai araidh, at the end of certain days, 
in process of time. — Stexc. Gen. Mu cheannaibh nan crann, 
about the tops of the trees. — Oss. Tem. Eadar so 's ceann 
bliadhna, before a year expire ; an ceann a chèile, assembled 
together ; o cheann gu ceann. from end to end. — Steiv. 2 K. 
.4ir ar ceann, on our part. — Old Poem. Am a tharruingeas 
ar n-amhghar gu ceann, a time that shall draw our troubles 
to a close. — Mac Lach. An ceann ghrathuinn, in a xvhile ; 
o cheann ghrathuinn, a while ago ; an ceann tacain, in a little 
while; o cheann tacain, a while ago; cinn agus cinn-bheairt, 
heads and helmets. — Orr. Ceann na ciche, a nipple. — Macd. 
Fear togalach mo chinn, the uplifter of my [spirits] head ; 
o cheann fada, long ago, long since. — Stew. 1 Chron. 

It is observable that ceann, promontory, is seen in the ancient 
names ot' many capes and promontories throughout Europe ; as 
Ceneum, a cape on the north-west of Euha'a ; Cenchrea:, a cape 
on the Isihmus ofCorijiih; Cauastrteum, a cape in Macedonia ; 
Cnndiiria, a cape in Cos ; and many others. 

Ceaxxach, aich, i. ;«. Hire; price; wages; a purchase; 
a reward ; a covenant. — Stew. Deut. ref N. pi. ceann- 
aichean. Bu cheannach leam t-ubh air do ghloc, dear- 
bought egg with so much cackling. — G. P. 

Ceaxxachachd,.s. /'. Buying, bartering, commerce, trucking. 

Ceaxxachadh, aidh, s. m. A buying ; the act of buying; 
a purchase. 

Ceaxnachadh, (a), pr.part. of ceannaich. Buying; pur- 

Ceaxxachd, s.f {Ir. ceannaidheachd.) Buying; mer- 
chandise ; a purchase. Is fearr a ceannachd, Aer merchan- 
dise is better. — Stew. Pro. 

Ceaxxachdrach, aich, s. m. The upper part of the throat. 
— Shaw. 

Ceann-adhakt, airt, i. m. A pillow; a bed-head. Ceann- 
adhairt na leapach, the bed's head. — Stew. Gen. 

Ceaxn-aghaibii, i. CT. A forehead. 

C E A 

C E A 

Ceanmaicii, aiche, s.f. Strife ; contention for supremacy 

or superiority. 
Ceakxaich, I. «. (ir. ceaunaigh.) Buy, purchase. Fret. a. 
cheannaich, bought; fut.ajf'.a. ceannaicUidh, shall buy; 
fut.pass. ceannaichear. CeannaÌLli le duals, buii with a 
price. Ceaunuich mar d' flieum is creic mar d' aiigliios, 
buy as you need, and sell whai you please. — G. P. 

Ceannaich, aiche, J. ?H. (ir. ceannaidlie.) A buyer, a pur- 
chaser; a shopkeeper; a merchant. Ars' an ceannaich, 
said the buyer. — Stexi. Pro. Written also ccannuieh. N. pi. 

Ceaksaicjitk, p. part, of ceannaichte. Bought. 

t Ceanxaide, s. III. A shopkeeper; a merchant. N. pi. 

Ceann-aimsir, .v. f. A date, an epoch, an era. N. pi. 
cinn-aimsir, dates. 

Ceannaiu, s. til. A driver, a goadsnian. X. pi. ceannairean. 

Ceannairc, 1^. 1Ì. Rebel, mutiny. Pret. cheannairc, re- 
belled; fut. aft', a. ceannaircidh, shall rebel. 

Ceannairc, s.f. (from ceann.) Rebellion, insurrection, 
mutiny, conspiracy ; perverseness ; insubordination. Làn 
ceannahc, full of relieltiun. — Smith. Dean ceannairn, re- 
bel; rinn iad ceannairc, they rebelled. — Stew. Gen. Luchd 
ceannairc, rebellious people. 

Ceannairceach, a. (from ceannairc.) Rebellious, muti- 
nous ; perverse, insubordinate. Daoine dall is ceannair- 
ceach, blind and rebellious men. — Smith. Com. and *///). 
ceannairciche, more or most mutinous. 

Ceannairceas, eis, s. m. A proneness to rebel ; insubor- 

Ceannaird, f^en. sing, of ceaniiard. 

Ceann-aobhau, air, s. m. A prime cause, a first cause. 
Ceann aobhair ar bròn, the first cause of our icoe. — Mac Lack. 

Ceannaud, aird, s. m. (ceann-ard.) A chief, a chieftain ; a 
commander; a commander-in-chief. Ceannard nam frith 
's nan gleann, the chieftain afforests and glens. — Oss.Fing. 

Ceannardach, a. Arrogant, proud, ambitious. Com. and 
sup. ceannardaiche. 

Ceannardaciid, s.f. Arrogance, pride, ambition. 

Ceann as, ais, s. m. {from ceann.) Superiority; chieftainry; 
ambition ; the u])per hand. Is ami doibh a ghcilleadh gach 
ceannas, to them uvuld all superiority yield.-^Old Song. 

Ceannasach, (I. (Ir. id.) Superior; ambitious, aspiring, 
commanding ; haughty, headstrong. Com. and sup. ceann- 

Ceann asachd, s. f. A wishing to be superior; superiority ; 
ambition ; haughtiness. 

t Ceannasg, aisg, s.f. A forehead. — Shaw. 

Ceann-biiàrk, -bhàirr, s. m. A hat, a bonnet; any male 

Ceann-biieaht, -bheairt, s. m. A helmet, a headpiece. 
N. pi. cinnbheairt. Ir. ceinliheart. 

Ceann-hiieautach, a. Wearing a helmet or headpiece. 

Ceann-bhrat, -bhrait, s. m. A canopy. 

Ceann-biiriathar, s. m. An adverb. 

Ceann-biorach, aich, s. m. The bow of a ship. — Shaiv. 

Ceann-caol, -caoil, s. m. The bow of a ship. — Shaw. 

Ceann-chlaon, a. Steep; headlong. — Shau\ 

Ceann-cinnidii, «. m. A chief, a chieftain ; the head of a 
clan, the chief of a tribe ; as, Ceann-cinnidh nan Dònullach, 

Ceann-dìn, a. Pertinacious, stubborn, headstrong. 

Ceann-danadas, s. m. Pertinacity, stubbornness. 

Ceann-dearo, -deirg, s. m. The redstart ; called also 
ceann-deargan ; which see. 

Ceann-dearoan, ain, s. m. The bird called a redstart. — 
Maed. The motacilla pheenicurus of Linnoous. Nead a 
chinn-deargain, the redstart's nest. — Old Song. 

Ceann-eideadh, idh, j. m. A head-dress; a mitre; a 
turban. Le ceann-eideadh daithte, xeith a dyed head-dress, 
— Stew. Ezek. 

Ceann-eudacii, aich, s. m. A head-dress; a mitre; a 
turban. Ceann-eudach, a mitre. — -Steie. Zech. 

Ceann-feadhna, s. m. A chief, a chieftain; a leader, a 
commander. Tra chunn e gun deo cheann-feadhna, when 
he saw his chieftain breathless. — Ull. N. pi. cinnfeadhna. 

CEANN-i'EAriiN ais, *. itt. A chieftain, a leader. — Oss.Conn. 

Ceann-feodiina, s. m. See Ceann-feadiina. 

Ceann-fiiionn, a. White-headed, as a cow or sheep. — 
Macint. and Macdon. Also a name given to a white- 
headed or a white-faced cow. 

Ceann-fhocal, ail, s. in. An adverb. 

Ceann-fineadh, *. in. (Ir. cean-fine.) The head of a 
tribe or clan ; a chieftain ; a chief. Chaill iad ceann- 
fineadh no dhà, they lost a chieftain or /uo. — Uld Song. 

Ceann-fineaciia, .5. m. The head of a clan or tribe; the 
head of a nation. — Oss. Temo. 

Ceann-fiodiia, s. m. The end of a ship-timber. 

Ceann-ghalar, air, s.f. Dandrirt'; scales in the head; 
a headach. 

Ceann-ghalarach, (7. Subject to dandriff"; like a disease 
in tlie head ; of, or pertaining to, a disease in the head. 

Ckann-giuumiiasaich, s. m. Kingussie, in Scotland; 
literally, the head of the fir-wood. 

Ceann-ghrabii, aibh, s. m. A motto; a superscription; 
a title. 

Ceann-iùil, s. m. .\ leader; a guide; a chieftain ; a leader 
of the way. N. pi. cinn-iùil. Ciun-iùil nan dall, leaders 
of the blind. — Stew. Mat. 

CEANN-LAiniR, a. Headstrong, stubborn; opinionative. 
Tha i ceann-laidir, she is stubborn. — Stew. Pro. 

Ceann-laidiueaciid, s.f. Stubbornness; stiffness; ob- 
stinacy ; opinionativeness. 

Ceann-liatii, a. Grey-headed. Tha mi aosmhor ceann- 
liath, I am aged and grey-headed. — Stew. Sum. 

Ceann-lom, a. Bareheaded. Mo nighean mhiog-shuileach 
cheann-lom, my smirking bareheaded maid. — Old Song. 

Ceann-maide, s. m. A block ; a blockhead. 

Ct.ann-miior, -mhoir, s. in. {properly ceann-mor.) Kenmore, 
{literally, a high promontory,) a village roniaiilically situated 
on the eastern shore of Loch Tay, in Scotland. 

Ceann-piiurgaid,*./". a gargle. 2\r. ;;/. cinn-phurgaidean. 

Ceann-pluic, *. OT. A block ; a blockhead. 

Ceann-puist, s. m. A chapiter. — Stew. O. T. 

Ceannracii, aich, s. m. (from ceann.) A halter; a horse- 
collar ; a tether. — Macd. 

Ceann-uuadii, -ruaidh, s. m. Celendine. 

Ceannsa, Ceannsacii, n. Continent, temperate ; bashful, 
mild, gentle ; subordinate ; under authority. Com. and 
sup. ccannsaichc, vwre or most continent. 

Ceannsaciia 1)11, aidh, ,s. OT. A subduing; a commanding, 
a keeping under authority ; a subjugation, a reducing. 

Ceannsaciiadii, (a), pr. part, of ceannsaich. Subduing, 
commanding, keeping under authority. 

Ceannsachi), 5. /". Authority; the condition of being kept 
under; government; subordination; continence, docility, 
meekness. Le ccannsachd, with meekness. — Stew. Jam. 

Ceannsaich, iJ. «. (//o/H ceann.) Subdue, conquer; tame, 
bring under, suppress ; train ; discipline ; keep under. 
Pret. a. cheannsaich ; fut. aff. a. ccannsaichidh. A cheann- 

C E A 

C E A 

saich rioghachdan, -aho subdued kingdoms. — Stew. Hcb. 
Fut. pass, ceannsaichear, s/ial/ be subdued. 

Ceannsaichear, /»/./)««*. of ceannsaich. Shall be subdued. 

CEANNSAicniDn.yù?. off". a. of ceaunsaich. Shall subdue or 
tame. See Ceann.saich. 

Ceannsaichte, p. part, of ceannsaich. Subdued, con- 
quered, tamed, trained. Asp. form, cheannsaichte. 

Ceannsal, ail, s. m. Rule, authority, government, sway. 
Do m' cheannsal geillibh, yield to mij authoritij. — Smith. 
Fo cheannsal, subjected. 

Ceannsalach, a. Authoritative, supreme; prone to lord 
or govern ; swaying. Com. and sup. ceannsalaiche. 

Ceajjnsalachd, 4-.y. Rule, government ; supremacy; au- 
thoritativeness ; tyranny. 

Ceannsalaiche, i. 7?(. A subduer, a conqueror; an over- 
bearing man. 

Ceann-sgal, ail, s. m. Command, authority, sway. Ri 
ceannsgal, commanding. Ri ceannsgal o shlogh gu slogh, 
commanding from host to host. — il/ac Laeh. 

Ceasnsgalacii, a. Commanding, swaying; imperious, 
authoritative ; active. — Macdon. Ceannard ceannsgalach, 
a commanding chief. — Old Song. Com. and sup. ceannsga- 

Ceannsgalach, aich, s. m. An active leader, a commander. 
An ceannsgalach mileanta, the brave commander. — jSlac- 

Ceannsgriobh, s. m. A title, a motto. X. pi. ceann- 

Ceanxsgur, i. m. A full stop, a full pause in reading, 
a period. — Macd. 

Ceann-simid, s. m. A tadpole. 

Ce^ann-stuaigh, s. m. An arch. — Sha'a:. 

Ceannsuich, r. a. See Ceaxxsaich. 

Ceann-tail, s. Cintail, a parish in Scotland; more cor- 
rectly, ceann an t-siiil, the boundary of the sea. 

Ceanx-tala, s. m. (Lat. cantela.) A bard. — Oss. Tern. 

Ceanxtighe, s. m. The head of a branch of a family; the 
master of a house or household. N. pi. cinntighe. — Stew. 
1 Citron. 

Ceanx-tire, s. m. (Ir. cean-tire.) A peninsula, a promon- 
tory, a headland ; land's end ; also Kyntire, in Argyllshire. 

Ceann-tobair, s. m. A well-cover; a mother-spring. 

Ceaxntkom, a. Heavy-headed; dull, drowsy. — Ir. id. 

Ceaxx-uidhe, Ceaxx-uighe, i. «i. A stage ; a journey's 
end ; a dwelling-place ; a chieftain. Ceann-uidhe na baigh, 
the dxceiling-ptace of mercy. — Old Poem. Ceann-uighe na 
feile, the chief of the generous. — Oss. Fing. A\ pi. cinn- 

Ceap, cip, s. f. {Ir. id.) A block; a shoemaker's last; 
stocks ; a cap ; {Box. Lex. cap, a bonnet) ; the top, as of 
a hill ; a head ; a stock ; a sign set up in time of battle. 
Peanas a chip, the punishment of the itocks.—Stezc. Pro. 
Ceap nam mor chruach, the tops of the loft i/ hills. — Mac far. 
Ceap-tuislidh, a stumbling-block ; ceap-cartach, the nave of 
a cart-iihccl. 

Ceap, v. a. Catch, hold, stop, keep, intercept. Pret. a. 
cheap ; fut. ajf. a. ceapaidh, shall or will catch. 

Ceapach, aich, s. f. A decayed wood; also a place in 

Ceapadh, aidh, s. m. A catching, a holding, a stopping, 

Ceapadh, (a), pr. part, of ceap. Catching, holding, stopping. 

A ceapadh chuileag, catching flies. — Macdon. 

Ceapaixx, v. a. Catch, snatch, hold, intercept. Pret. a. 
cheapainn ; fut. off. ceapainnidh. 

Ceapaire, s. m. A piece of bread with butter spread on it. 
— Macint. K. pi. ceapairean. 

Ceapax, ain, s. w. A stump ; a pin. X. pi. ceapain. 

Ceapaxta, a. Niggardly, stiff. — Shaw. Gu ceapanta, in 
a niggardli/ manner. 

Ceap-sgaoil, v. a. Propagate.— S^nu'. 

Ceap-tuislidh, s. m. A stumbling-block. Ceap-tuislidh 
roimh an dall, a stumbling-block before the blind.— Stew. Lei. 

t Cear, s. m. {Ir. id.) Progeny, race. — Shaw. 

t Cear, s. m. Blood. — Ir. id. ÌV. guyar. Fng. gore. 

t Cearachadh, aidh, s. m. A wandering, a straying. 

t Cearachar, air, 4. )/i. {Ir. id.) A grave. 

Cearb, cirb, s.f. {Ir. id.) A rag, a tatter ; a lappet; a piece 
of cloth ; a skirt ; rarely, money. Cearb nan nial, the skirt 
of the clouds. — Oss. Tcm. Faigh cearb, cavil, rail, slander ; 
a fagliail cearb orra, railing at them. — Old Song, 

Cearbach, fl. {Jr. id.) Ragged ; untidy ; awkward in dress. 
Com. and sup. cearbaiche. 

Cearban FEÒIR, «. ?«. A healing herb. 

t Cearbhal, ail, s. m. A massacre, a carnage. — Shaw. 

Cearc, circe, s.f. {Gr. xi^vo?, a kind of hawk. 7r. cearc, hen.) 
A hen. X. pi. cearcan, hens. Ceann circe, a witless head. 
— Macint. Cearc-fhraoich, a moor-hen; cearc-fhrangacli. 
turkey hen ; cearc-thomain, a partridge ; cearc-Innseanach, 
an Indian hen ; cearc-ghlopach, a ken whose head is covered 
with down ; cearc-thopach, a tupped hen ; cearc-choille, a 
partridge. Cridhe circe an gob ua h-airc, a hen's heart in 
the mouth of poverty. — G. P. 

Ce.\rcach, a. Full of hens ; like a hen ; of, or belonging to, 
a hen. 

Cearcall, aill, *. m. {Ir. id. Lat. circulus. Swed. cirkel. 
Span, cerco, a hoop, and circulo, a circle.) A hoop, a circle, 
a circumference ; a ring. Asp. form, chearcall. Mar 
chearcall fuileach re 's i Ian, like the bloody circumference of 
the full moon. — Oss. Tern. 

Cearcallach, a. (//wh cearcall.) Circular, orbicular; like 
a hoop, rounded. A braighe cearcallach ban, her rounded 
fair neck. — Oss. Taura. 

t Cearchall, aill, s. m. A pillow, a bolster. — Ir. id. 

Cearc-choille, s.f. A partridge. — Stew. Sam. 

Cearc-laxjj, -lainn, s. m. A poultry yard; a hen court. 

Cearc- lobhta, ì. m. A henroost. 

Ceaik-miiaxrach, aich, s. m. A hencoop. — Shaw. 

CtARc-Tiio.MAix, S.f. A partridge ; the tetrao perdrix of 

Ceard, ceaird, s, m. {Gr. x^ìo(, gain. Ir. ceard. Corn. 
ceard and keard, artificer.) A tinker ; a smith ; a trades- 
man. Ceard is seldom used in the last sense except in 
composition; as, fear-ceaird, a tradesman. X. pi. cenkd. 
ciùird, tinkers. Ceard airgiod, a silxcrsmith ; ceard òir, a 
goldsmith ; ceard staoin, a tinsmith ; ceard uraha, a copper- 

Ceardachd, i.y' The business of a tinker ; forging. 

Ceardaich, aiche, s.f. A forge, a smithy, a smith's shop. 
O'n clieardaiche, from the smithy. — Macint. X. pi. ceard- 

Cfardail, a. (ceard-amliuil.) Like a tinker; artificial; 

Ceardalachd, i.y. Artificialness ; handicraft, ingenuity. 

t Cearla, ai, s. m. A clew. X. pi. cearlan. 

t CearlacHjO. {from cearla.) Round, globular; like a clew. 

Cearmaxta, a. Tidy, spruce, trim ; succinct. 

Cear.maxtas, ais, «. zH. Tidiness, trimness; succinctness. 

f Cearx, .s. A victory; a man. — Ir. id. Cearn duals, a?//- 
letic laurel. — Shaw. 

C E A 

Cearn, s. m. {Ir. id.) A corner; a quarter; a kitchen. 
K. pi. cearuan ; d. pi. cearuaibh. Anns ua cearnaibh iom- 
allach, in the utmost corners.— Utexe. .Jer. Sluagh o gach 
cearn, people from evert/ quarter. — ■Sleiv. Gen. 
Cearn ABHAN, ain, s. m. A corner ; a hornet. N. pi. cearn- 
abhaJD. Cuiridh mi cearnabhuin, / xiill send /wnicls. — 
Steu: Exod. 
+ Cearnach, a. {from f cearn.) Victorious. — Shaxi:. Per- 
haps ceatharnach. 
Cearnach, a. ( from cearn.) Angular, rectangular, square; 
of, or belonging to, a kitchen. Ccitlnr-chearnach, qua- 
drangular. — Stew. E.riid. 
Cearxadii, aidh, .v. m. A kitchen, a quarter. 
Cearkag, aig, .»./". A little square; a little kitchen. Cearnag 

ghloine, a square of glass. 
Cearn-luacii, s. m. A prize. 

Cearr, a. Wrong; awkward; left; left-handed. Tha so 
cearr, this is xcrong ; an lanih cliearr, the left hand ; deilg 
nan w-naillibh chearr, pins in their left shoulders. — Old Sung. 
A bheirt sin nach faighear acli cearr, is foighidinn is fear a 
dheanamh ris, nhat eiinnot he helped ought to be borne. — (i . I'. 
Cearkaiciie, «. »(. (//■. cearbhach.) A gamester or gambler ; 
a master of his profession or art. Cha cheilich cearraiche 
a dWstean, a gamester xiill nut conceal his dice. — G. P. 
Cearr-i.amhacii, n. Left-handed, awkward. Fcarr cearr- 

lamhaci), a left-handed man. — Stew. Jud. 
Chart, fl. (Ir. id.) Right; just; honest, upright ; proper; 
certain. Ceart anns gach gniorah, right in everi/ action. — 
Smith. Ceart mar sin, just so ; ceart mar nach tiigadh 
Dia fanear. just as if God did not observe. — Id. I.c dlighc 
cheairt, with Just right. — /(/. Is ceart gun cuiiuhnichc-ar 
thu, it is proper that thou shouldst be rcmembcrrd, — Oss. 
Carricth. Is ceart gun luit Sihic, it is certain that Silric 
shall fall. — /(/. Ceart cho maith riutsa, j'u.sV as good as i/ou, 
just as aell as yon ; is ceart cho maith leam so ri sin, 1 like 
this just as well as that. 
Ceart, ceairt, ceirt, y. m. Justice; righteousness ; redress; 
propriety. Biirigh ceirt, /o/'/w.s/a'f. — Smith. Coir is ceart, 
right and Justice.— Id. Ceart na cleir ri cheil, the redress 
that clergymen giie to each other. — G. P. 
Ceartacii, aich, .V. wi. An adjustment; a trimming; a set- 
ting in order ; a little domestic job. N. pi. ceartaichean. 
Ceartachadii, aidli, s. m. An adjusting; a mending; a 
trimming; a setting in order; an adjustment, an amend- 
ment ; a paring, a pruning, a dressing. 
Ceartachadh, (a), pr. part, of ccartaich. Adjusting, mend- 
ing, trimming; pruning, dressing. 
Ceartachail, a. (ceartacli-amliuil.) Rectifiable; ready to 

rectify, or to adjust. 
Ceartacii \iR, .?. ;h. An adjuster; a rectifier; a regulator. 
Cearlachair uaireadair, a watch regulator. N. pi. ceartach- 
(3EAKTAIC1I, f. a. Adjust; amend, set to rights, rectify; cut, 
prune, trim. I'rct. a. cheartaich; Jut. aff. a. ccarlaichidh, 
shall adjust. 
Ceart A 18, gen. sing, of ceartas. 

Ceartas, ais, .s. m. Equity, justice. Le ceartas riaghlaidh 
e, he will rule with Justice. — Smith. Asp. form, chcartas. 
Tha do cheartas ard, Ihi/ justice is lofti/. — Id. 
Cear r-]iiiRKATii AMU, cimh, s. m. A just judge. N. pi. 

ceart-bhreathamhna, ;ut/i(cj. 
Ceart-p.iireitii, 4-./. A just decision or judgment; a 

CEART-niiREiTiiEACii, o. Just in judging. 
Ceart-ciioimeas, eis, s. in. A just resemblance, a just 
comparison. Ccart-choimeas comhrag nam fear, a just 
comparison to the strife of heroes. — Ost. 

C E A 

Ceart-ciireidimh, «./; Orthodoxy; sound belief. 
Ceart-ciireiuimiucii, «. TO. An orthodox person ; one of 

sound faith. 
Ceart-chreidmiieach, (7. Orthodox; of sound faitli. 
Ceartla, s. /". A clew. iV. ;;/. ceartlan. 
Ceartlaicii, r. a. Conglomerate, conglobate, wind up as 

a clew. Pret. a. cheartlaich ; J'ut. aff. a. ceartlaichidh, shall 

wind up ; p. part, ceartlaichte. 
Ceartlaiciite, p. part, of ceartlaich. 
Ceart-lank, lainn, s. m. A house of correction. — Ir. id. 
Ceart-luigheaciid, «. f. A just recompense; a just 

reward. Ceart-luigheachd agus duais, just recompense and 

reward. — Smith. 
Ceart-sgriobiiadh, aidh, s. in. Orthography. 
Ceart-sgriobiiaiche, ^. m. An orthographer. 
Ceartuicii, f. a. See Ceartaich. 

t CEAS,ceasa,4. ;h. Obscurity, sadness ; irksomencss. — 
+ Ceasad, aid, «. w;. A grumbling, a complaining; a com- 
plaint ; an accusation. More frequently written casaid. 
Ceasadach, a. Inclined to grumble or complain ; like a 

complaint ; of, or belonging to, a complaint or accusation. 
Ceasadair, i. ?n. A grumbler ; a complainer ; a tormentor. 

N. pi. ceasadairean. 
Ceasauii, aidh, i. w. Vexation; punishment. — Shaw. 
Ceaslacii, aich, s. m. Fine wool; also coarse wool on the 

legs. — Shaw. 
Ceaslaid, S.J'. Sacrilege. — Shaw. 
Ceasnaciiadii, aidh, s. in. An examination; a scrutiny; 

a search ; a questioning, /r. ceistniughadh. 
Ceasnachadii, (a), pr. part, of ccasnaich. Examining; 

Ceasnaicii, v. a. Examine, catechize, question, search. 

Pret. a. cheasnaich ; fut. aff. a. ceasnaichidh. Written 

also ceasnuich. 
Ceasnaiciite, p. part, of ccasnaich. Examined, catechized, 

questioned, searched. 
Ceasnuich, v. a. Examine, catechize, question, search. 

Pret. a. cheasnaich ; fut. aff. a. ceasnuichidh, 4//«// examine. 

Ceasnuichibh sibh fein, examine yoursekes. — Stew. Cor. 
Ceasxuichte, ;;. part, of ceasnuich. Examined, catechized, 

t Ceast, s. in. (Arm. cest. Or. xsctto;. Jr. ceast.) A girdle. 
Ceatacii, a. See Ciatacii. 
Ceatain, s.f. See Cìituin. 

Ceatfadii, aidh, s. m. A conjecture, a guess ; judiciousness. 
Ceatii, ceatlia, s. m. A quay; cream; a shower; rarely, 

a sheep. — //•. id. 
Ceath, r. a. Skim, as milk. Pret. a. cheath, shimmed ; 

Jut. aff. ccathaidh, shall shim. 
Ceatiiacii, aich, s. in. {Ir. ciach.) Mist, fog, vapour. 
An ceathach a scòladh, the mist sailing.— U II. Asp. form, 

chcalhach. Mar chcathach air bheanntaibh, like mist un 
the mountains. — Oss. Duthona. 
Ceathachail, u. (ceathach-amhuil.) Misty, smoky, vapoury, 

Ceatiiairne, 7/. ;)/. of cealliarn. Bands of robber.^;. Ceath- 
airne c\w\\\e, J reebooters ; underhiding. 

Ceatharn, aim, s. m. {Box. Lex. cadarn, braxe.) A troop; 
a banditti ; a guard ; a fighting band ; a troop of Cale- 
donian freebooters. N. pi. ceathairne. Mar dli' f lieitheas 
ccathairne, as bands oj' robbers wait. — Slew. IIos. 

Tiiey were commonly armed with a seian or dirk. Hence 
the Kng. kern. Scotch, kaitrine. Lot. caterva. The xs^itit 
of Ptolemy {cearns) were iu the North Highlands, on the 
coast of Caithness. 

Ceatuarnacii, aich, «. m. One of a banditti; a freebooter; 


C E I 

a soldier; a guardsman; a hero ; a boor, a sturdy fellow. 
Is olc cuid a cheatharnaich a thasgadh, the freebooter s 
share ii ill laid vp. — G. P. K. pi. ceatharnaich. 

Ceatiiarnacud, «. /'. Valour, heroism ; freebooting; pea- 
santry, yeomanry. 

Ceatiiramh, eimh, i. TO. (//•. ceathramh.) A fourth part; 
a quarter ; a bushel ; a firlot; a stanza; a lodging; also, 
mljecliieli/, the fourth. Air a cheathramh la, u?i the fourth 
da)/. — Ull. Ceathramh eoma, a bushel [firlot] of barley. 

Ceatiuiamhax, ain, s. m. A cube; a quadrant. iV. pi. 

Ceathramhanach, a. Cubical; like a quadrant. 

Ceatiirar, a. (Ir. id.) Four persons ; four in number. 
Cealhrar ag eiridh mu' ramhan, four men riiing at his oars. 
— Oss. Trath. 

f Ceide, ò'.y'. A market, a fair; a green ; a hillock. 

Ceigeach, 0. Squat; shapeless; inactive. 

Ceigeax, ein, s. tn. A turd; in contempt, a diminutive 
person. — Macint. An affected person. 

Ceigeanacii, (I. Squat; diminutive in person; affected; 
like a turd. 

Ceigeanachd, J. Squatness ; diminutiveness ; affectation; 

Ceil, r. a. (Ir. ceil. /7^. eel. Heb. cili, one ivho conceals his 
goods.) Conceal, hide, shelter, screen, deny. Pret. a. 
cheil ; flit. aff. a. ceilidh ; ;;. part, ceilte, concealed. Ceilibh 
a cheuma, hide his steps. — Oss. Com. Cha cheil sinn e air 
ar cloinn, tie shall not conceal it from our children. — Sm. 
Ceil is commonly construed with the prep, air, either 
simple, as in the preceding example, or compounded, 
as in the following, Na ceil orm d' aitheanta, hide not from 
me thi/ la'iVS. — Sm. 

Ceile, s. c. (Ir. id.) A spouse ; a husband ; a wife ; a 
servant. Ceile a h-oige, the husband of her i/outh. — Stew. 
Joel. Athair ceile, a father-in-laio ; mathair ceile, a mother- 
in-laxv ; brathair ceile, a brother-in-law ; piuthar ceile, a 
sister-in-law. Asp. form, cheile. 

Ceileachadii, aidh, 4. ?H. A concealing, hiding; covering, 
sheltering, screening ; denying ; a concealment, a hiding- 
place ; a purloining. 

Ceileaciiadh, (a), pr. part, of ceilich. 

Ceilear, eir, s. m. A warbling, a chirping, as of birds; 
a sonnet ; melody. Cluinnidh GoU an ceilear, Gaul shall 
hear the warbling. — Oss. Gaul. 

Ceilear, ir, s. m. A concealer; a coverer, a screener, a 
shelterer. W. celawr. 

Ceilear, y«<. pass, of ceil. 

Ceilearacit, a. (yram ceilear.) Musical; warbling, melo- 
dious ; also warbling, melody. Bu lionmhor ceilearach 
coin, numerous and warbling were the birds. — Old Song. 

Ceileiriche, 4. jo/. Warblers; songsters. 

Ceilg, gen. sing, of cealg. 

Ceil-giieall, v. a. Betroth. — Shaw. 

Ceilich, t. a. Conceal, hide, screen; cover; deny; pur- 
loin. Pret. a. cheiiich, concealed; fut. a. ceilichidh, shall 
conceal. Ceilichidh seirc aineamh, charitti conceals faults. 
-G. P. " 

Ceilidh, s. f A gossiping, a visit. Air cheilidh, on a 
viiit, gossiping ; earrag cheilidh, the gossiping stroke ; — 
said of a person who is hurt at a visit. 

Ceilixn, 1 sing. flit. sub. of ceil. Would conceal. 

Ceilinn, s. m. A large codling. — Macd. 

CÈILL, ceille, s.f Sense, judgment, reason. See Ciall. 

CÈILLE, gen. sing, of ciall. 

Ceillidii, a. Prudent, sober, discreet, wise. B' fhearr 
dhuit chi ceillidh, it were better fur thee to be prudent. — 
Old Song. Gu ceillidh, soberly. 

C E I 

CiiLT, S.f. Concealment, secrecy; any thing concealed or 

hidden. An ceilt, concealed, hidden.— Stew. N. T. Ceilt- 

inntinn, equivocation. 
Ceilte, p. part, of ceil. Concealed, hidden, secret. .4 

ghaisgich ceilte, his heroes concealed. — Oss. Fing. 
Ceiltinx, s.f. A concealing, a hiding, a covering ; a con- 
Ceiltixn, (a), /)r. jjffc^ ofceil. Concealing, hiding, covering. 
Ceilt-inntixn, s.f. Equivocation. 
Ceim, gen. sing, of ceum. 

Ceimiileag, eig, i.y. A fillet. JV. ;;/. ceimhleagan. 
Ceimiileagach, fl. Like a fillet; abounding in fillets. 
Ceix,«. {Ir. id.) Far; foreign, distant, remote. Dùthaich 

chèin, a foreign country; an aimsir chein, bygone time, 

remote time. — Smith. 
Cein, (an), arft . Far off"; long since; faraway; afar; from 

afar. An cein tha madainn na h-uaigh, for off is the 

morning of the graie. — Oss. Derm. 
Cein-thir, s.f. A distant land. Tra tharlas dhoibh an 

cein-thir, when they meet in a distant land. — Ull. 
Ceir, s.f. Wax. CeiT hhe&ch, bces'-wax, honcycornb ; ceir 

cluaise, ear-xcax ; mar leaghar teine ceir, asfre melts wax. 

— Smith. Coinueal cheir, a wax candle; coinnlean ceir, 

wax candles. 

Lat. cera. Gr. kh^u?. JF. cwyr. Arm. Corn, coar, coir. 

Ir. ceir. Span. cera. 
Ceir, v. a. Cover with wax, seal with wax. Pret. a. cheir, 
Ceir-bheach, s.f Bees'- wax; honeycomb. Ceir-bheach 

na chnuachdaibh, honeycomb in heaps.- — Macint. 
t Ceirbiieadii, idh, s. m. A carving. 
Ceirde, s.f. A trade. See Ceairde. 
Ceirdeacii, a. Having a trade ; expert, dexterous, inge- 
nious. Is an-uasal mac an usail mar bi e ceirdeach, with- 
out parts the son of a noble is 7ncan. — G. P. 
CiiREACii, a. Waxen, waxy; like wax; of, or belonging 

to, wax. 
Ceire, s. f. A buttock ; a haunch ; a breech. Am broc 's a 

shròin na chèire, the badger smelling his buttocks. — Old Song. 
Ceirsleadii, eidh, s. m. A clew of yarn. Ir. ceirtle. 
Ceirtle, j.y. A clew or bottom of yarn. iV. /;/. ccirtlean. 
t Ceirt, s.f A rag. K. pi. ceirteau. 
Ceirt, gen. sing, of ceart; which see. 
Ceirte, a. {Lat. cerata.) Waxed ; covered with wax ; 

sealed with wax. Eudach ceirte, wax-cloth ; litir cheirte, 

a sealed letter. 
Ceirte, com. and sup. of ceart. More or most just or 

righteous. Ni bu cheirte na mise, more righteous than me. 

— Stew. Gen. 
t Ceirteach, a. Tawdry, ragged. Gu ceirteach, raggedly. 
t Ceirteachd, s.f. Tawdriness, raggedness. 
Ceirteag, eig, *.y. A tawdry girl. N. pi. ceirteagdin. 
Ceirtle, s.f. A clew of yarn. N. pi. ceirtean. 
Ceirtleacii, a. Like a clew. 
Ceirtlich, r. a. Form into a clew, wind up into a clew. 

Pret. cheirtlich; fit. aff. ceirtlichidh. 
ìCeis, s.f. A furrow ; a sow, a pig. — JV. /)/. ceisean. 
Ceis, s.f. A spear, a lance. See Gais. 
t Ceisd, a. Dear. Hence ccisdean, a sweetheart, and other 

Ceisd, s.f. (/;•. ceist.) A question; a problem ; a puzzle ; 

a dispute ; a controversy. iV. pi. ceisdean ; d. pi. ceisdibh. 

Cuir ceisd, ask a question, put a question ; aobhar do cheis- 

dibh, occasion to questions. — Slew. Tim, 
Ceisdeachadii, aidh, s. m. A questioning; an examination. 


C E U 

CElSDEALACnn, s.f. Fondness; flirting; gallantry. 
Ceisdeas, ain, s. m. {from ceisd.) A person secretly be- 
loved ; a sweetheart. 
Ceisdean, of ceisd. Questions. 
Ceisdeau, ir, i. 7«. A catechist. JV. ;;/. ceisdearan. 
Ceisdeil, (7. (ceisd-ambuil.) Questionable; doubtful; sus- 
picious; also fond. Ceisdeil air fiona, fond of nine. 
Ceisdicii, r. a. Question, interrogate, examine. Pre/, a. 
cbeisdich, questioned ; fut. off. a. ccisdichidh. Cruaidh- 
cheisdich, cross-examine. 
Ceisdiciite, p. part, of ceisdich. Questioned, examined. 
Ceisd-leabiiau, air, s. m. A question book, a catechism. 

N. pi. ceisd-leabhraichean. 
CEiSD-PHUira, s. m. A point of interrogation. 
Ceist, s.f. See Ceisd. 
Ceistean. See Ceisdean. 
Ceistich. See Ceisdich. 
CiiT, {poetical contraction for ceituin.) Spring. Madainn 

chubhraidh cheit, a fragrant spring morning. — Macdon. 
Ceithiu, a. {Ir. ceathair.) Four. Ceithir dhaoine, /owr 
wen ; ceithir bheathach mòr, four large beasts ; ceilhir- 
chosach, four-footed ; ceithir-ramhach, four-oared ; ceithir- 
fiWte, fourfold ; ceithir oismneSich, quadrangular ; ceithir- 
shliosnach, Jour-sided. 
Ceitihu-chosacii, a. Four-footed. Ceothach ceithir- 

chosach, a four-footed beast, 
Ceithiu-fillte, a. Fourfold, quadruple. 
Ceithir-ghoblanach, a. Four-pronged. 
Ceithir-oisinneacii, a. Quadrangular. 
Ceitjiir-ramiiacii, a. Four-oared. Bàt-ceithir ramhach, 

a quadriremc. 
Ceitiiìr-shliosnacii, a. Four-sided, quadrilateral. 
Ceitiiir-siiliosnag, aig, s.f. A quadrilateral figure. 
Ceithreamh. See Ceatiiramh. 
Ceitiireamjina, Ceithreamiixan, i. /(/. Quarters, or 

fourth parts ; quarters, lodgings. 
Ceitiireanna, Ceitiiiieannan, s. pi. Quarters, fourth 
parts ; quarters, lodgings. Tri cbeithreanna pinnte, three 
quarters of a pint. — Stew. Lex. rcf Clium a cheithrcanna, 
to his lodgings. — SVra>. ^Icts. 
Ceituik, .V. /! Spring, the early part of summer. May. Sa 
mhadainn bhoidhich cheituin, in the beauteous morning of 
spring. — Oss. Derm. 

The proper orthof^raphy seems to be ceuduin, i. e. the first season; 
the term hcing clearly founded on the same view of the seasons 
with the French prinlems, and the Italian primtivera. The Druiils 
higan their year in May ; which seems to be the reason why the 
Spring is called hy the tJael ceituin. 
Ct.o, s. 7n. (/ quca. /r. ceo.) Mist, vapour, fog; rarelj/ 
milk. Slciblite ceo air an lear, mountains of mist on the sea. 
— Lit. Ceo teas, vapour, steam; chaidh e na cheo, he 
becuiue bewildered ; ceo milteach, mildew. 
Ceo'ar, a. Sec Ceòmhor. 
Ceòuanach, aich, s. m. A drizzling rain; a moist mist; 

also, adjcctixelp, misty, moist, drizzly. 
Ceòiìanaciid, s.f. Frequent or continued drizzling. 
Ceobiiacii, aich, s. m. Drunkenness, tipsiness. 
CEO-niiRAON, -bhraoin, *. w. Drizzling rain ; dew. 
Ceo-iuiran, ain, i. »n. Dew. Contracted for (■(■o-/)//raon. 
CEO-EiniDii, s. m. A shroud of mist. 

Ceòl, ciùil, «. m. {Ir. id.) Music, melody; a song. Asp. 
form, clieòl. Mar cheòl uasal nau caoin diiàn, like the 
noble music of tender song. — Oss. Is c Dia mo clieòl, God 
is my song ; gal)h ccol, sing a song ; fear ciùil, a musician, 
a minstrel. — Slew. K. Ri ceòl nacaoidh, singing or wailing. 
— Old Song. LnchdciMfmusicians, minstrels, ir. luchtceòil. 


Ceoeax, ain, s. m. (from ceol.) Music; a tender air; a 
little bell. Taibhse le 'n ceolan, ghosts with their music. — 
Ull. I'hads a rinn an ceolan fuireach, as long as the tendtr 
air lasted. — Id. 
Ceòlar, a. See Ceolmiior. 
Ceòl-chuirm, s. m. A concert. 
Ceòlmhoire, com. and sup. of ceolmhor. 
Ceòlmiioireaciid, s. f. Melodiousness, tunefulness. — 

Ceòi.mhor, (7. (/;■. ceolmhar.) Musical; harmonious, melo- 
dious, tuneful. Com. and sup. ceolnihoire, more or most 
musical. Seinnidh mi gu ceolmhor, I will sing mclodiousli/. 
— Smith. 
Ceòlraidh, s. f. (sometimes a plural noun.) The muses; 
musicians ; a band of musicians. Sguir na ceolraidhean 
Greugach o 'n dan, the Grecian muses have ceased their 
strain. — Macfar. 
Ceòmhor, fli. {Ir. ceomhor.) Misty, foggy. Com. and sup. 

Ceo-milteach, ich, s. m. A mildew. 
CeòpaCH, a. Drizzling, misty ; also, substantiveh/, drizzling 

Ceoi'an, ain, s. m. Mist; vapour; a drizzling rain. — Oss. 

Dutk. Written also ceoluin. 
Ceòpauacii, a. See CEÒnAXACii. 
Ceòpanaciid, s.f. See Ceòbanaciid. 
t Ceor, ceoir, s. m. A mass, a budge, a lump. — /;■. id. 
Ceòs, ceòis, s. m. The hip; the posteriors. — Macint. 
Ceòsacii, a. The posteriors, the perineum. 
Ceosax, ain, s. m. Bur; the prickly head of the burdock. 
Mar cheosan air sgiath an fhirein, lihe bur clinging to the 
' eagle's wing. — Orr. 
Ceotiiacii, a. {from ceo.) Misty, foggy; of, or belonging 

to, mist. 
Ceo-theas, s. m. Steam, vapour. Ceo-theas a dol suas, 

vapour ascending. — Fingalian Poem. 
Ceothrax, ain, s. ni. A gentle shower; a drizzling rain; 

dew. Perhaps ceo-bhraon. 
Ceotiiraxach, a. Showery, drizzly, dewy. 
Ceothranaciid, s. f. Showeriness, drizzliness, dewiness, 
t Ceuchd, s.f {Ir. id.) A plough. — Shaw. 
Ceui), a. First; a liundred. jY. /;/. ceudan, hundreds; 
d. pi. ccudaibh. An ceud la, the Jirst day. — Stew. Gen. 
Ceud fàilte a righ nan sliabh ! a hundred welcomes, thou 
king of mountains ! Naimhde nan ceudaibh, enemies in 
hundreds. — I'ingalian Poem. 
Ceudacii, a. Centuple; in hundreds. 
Ceudan, «. pi. of ceud. Hundreds. 
Ceud-biiaixne, s. m. First milk alter calving; biestings. — 

CEun-r.illLEACli, A. 7n. 'I'lie centaury. 
Ceud-bhkeitii, «. w. Priority in birth; birthright. Coir 

a chcud-bhreithe, a birthright. — Stew. Ileb. 
Ceud-fiiàire, s. m. Dawn; first dawn. A toirt a sholus 

o 'n cheud f hàire, taking its light from earli/ dawn. — Ull. 
Ceud-fiiAs, i. ?n. First growth ; embryo. 
Ceud-giiin, .«. m. {Ir. ced-ghin.) A first-born; firstling. 
Gach ceud-ghin a bha ann, everii first-born that existed. — 
Smith. Ceud-ghin a threid, the firstlings of the Jiock. — 
Stew. Gen. 
Cei'd-mheas, s. m. First-fruit; chief respect, chief honour; 

first-fruit tax. — Shaw. 
Ceudna, a. (/r, ceuna.) Same, similar, ^.v/;. /"orm, cheudna. 
Air an doigh cheudna, in the same way ; mar an ceudna, also. 
Ckud-tiioiseach, .v. m. Rudiments, elements; commence- 
ment, first beginning. 

C H A 

C H A 

Ceud-thus, s. m. A first principle ; a first cause, origin, 

commencement; archetype. 
Ceuduix, s.f. Tiie spring; Jlay ; tiie early part of summer. 

See Ceituin. 
Ceum, ceuma, s. ni. (/;-. ceini.) A step; apace; astride; 
a degree ; a pedigree ; a path ; a step of a stair or ladder. 
K. pi. ceumanna. Ceum do theachd, the step of thine 
approach. — Ois. Truth. Thoir ceum, make a step or 
stride ; trid ceuma dorch air beatha, through the dark paths 
of our life. — Sni. Miillach nan ceum, the top of the 
[.steps] .stairs.— Sleic. 2 K. re/. Gabh do cheiira, go thi/ 
xi-aij. — Old Song. Thoir ceum mu 'n cuairt, take a step 
about ; ceum sràid, a short xialk. 
Ceu.m, f. a. Step, pace, stride ; strut; measure by pacing ; 
march ; move step by step. Fret. a. cheum ; fut. aff. a. 
ceumaidh. Cheum e e;u mor romh 'n fhonn, he viarched 
majesticuliy over the plain. — Mac Lach. 
Ceum.vdh, aidh, s. m. A stepping, a walking slowly, a 

pacing, a strutting. 
Ceumadh, (a.), pr. part, of ceum. Stepping, pacing, striding, 

Ceumail, a. (ceum-arahuil.) Stately in gait; strutting, 

stalking ; majestic. 
Ceumaxa, Ceu.manxa, «. ;;/. of ceum. Steps, paces, 

strides ; pedigrees ; paths. 
Cevmxacii, a. Gradatory, ambling, pacing, prancing. Each 
ceumuach, a pacing horse, a prancing horse.— Macint. Com. 
and sup. ceumnaiche. 
Ceumxaciiadii, aidh, A pacing, a striding, a strut- 
ting, a marching, a prancing. /;•. ceimniughadh. 
Ceumsaciiadh, (a), pr. part, of ceumnaich. 
Ceumxaich, t. a. (ir. ceimnigh.) Step, pace, stride, march, 
prance. Pret. a. cheumnaich, paced; fut. aff. a. ceum- 
naichidh, shall pace. 
Ceus, I. a. Crucify ; torture. Fret. a. cheus, crucified ; 
fut. aff. a. ceusaidh, shall crucify ; ceus e, crucifi) him ; 
air a cheusadh, [/je] crucified ; air a ceusadh, [she] crucified ; 
p. part, ceusta, crucijicd. 
Ceusach, a. Crucifying; torturing; crucificatory; like a 

cross ; of a cross. 
Ceusadair, s. m. (y/oin ceus.) A crucifix. X. pi. ceusa- 

Celsadaireaciid, s.f. The business of a crucifix. 
Ceusadax, ain, i. ?H. (y7o;« ceus.) A crucifix. A'. ;>/. ceu- 

Ceusadh, aidh, s. m. (Ir. ceusadh.) A crucifying, a cru- 
cifixion. Crann ceusadh, a cross ; an crann ceusaidh, the 
ho/i/ cross. 
Cevsta, p. part. o( ceus. Crucified; tortured. 
Ceut. See Ciat. 

Ceutacii, a. Elegant, graceful, engaging, comely; pleasant, 

pleasing, seemiv, kind; sensible, intelligent. Daonnachdach 

ceutach, hospitahle and engaging. — Old Song. A Charuill 

cheutaich! graceful Carril! — Death of Carril. Com. 

and iup. ceùtaiche. Written also ciatach. 

Ceutadh, aidh, s. m. Elegance, gracefulness, comeliness; 

pleasantness, seemliness, kindness. Ann an ceutadh 's an 

cliù, !/( comeliness and good fame. — Old Sung. 

Ceutaiciiead, id, s. m. Elegance, gracefulness, comeliness, 

seemliness ; improvement in elegance or in gracefulness. 

A dol an ceutaichead, gro'j:ing more and more seemly. This 

word, like many others in Gaelic, is often used as a kind 

of double comparative. Is ceutaichid i an culaidh sin, 

that dress renders her more engaging. 

Cu.\, particle. Not. Cha bhuail mi, I vill not strike ; cha 

dean thu e, thou shalt not do it. 
Ch At, asp. form o{cd.h. A mouth. See Cab. 

Chab, pref. a. of cab. Notched, indented. See Cab. 

Chabhag, aig, s.f; aip. form of cabhag. Hurry, haste. 
Ciod a chabhag a th'ort? -^hat is your hurry f ciod fàth do 
chabh.iig ? xihat is the reason ofvvur haste.' See Cabhao. 

Chabhlach, aich, s.m.; asp. form of cabhlach. A fleet; 
which see. 

CuAG.iixx, prtt. a. of cagainn. Chewed, champed. See 

CiiAGXADii, prct. suh. and pret. pans, of chagainn. Would 
chew or champ ; was chewed or champed. Chagnadh e 
sleaghan ruadh, he uuuld cheic a broun-shaftcd spear. — 
Oss. Derm. Chagnadh e, it uas cheiced. 

Chagxadh, (a), inf. of cagainn. To chew. 

CiiAiDii, ;«c^ of r. (/■;•. rach. Went, passed, gone. Chiar 
am a chaidh thall, the dark stream of time that has passed. 
—Oss. Com. Chaidh agam air, I got the better of him or it ; 
I prexailed oxtr him. — Sten. Fro. B'aun ortsa chaidh, 
thou it was icho icert i;:orsted ; chaidh e as, if has gone out 
as ajiamc; he escaped ; a bliadhna so a chaidh, the year that 
has gone, last year ; an seachduin so a chaidh, the last ueek, 
the iieek that has gone ; an deach e mach? Chaidh, has he 
gone out ? Yes. 

CiiAiLL, /)rf^. a. of caill. Lost. See Caill. 

Cn.Ux, flj;;). /orm of càin. Tax, tribute. See Cain. 

Chain, ;)rc/. a. of càin. Traduced, slandered. See CÀix. 

CnÀiNixx, 1 sing. pret. sub. a. of càin. I would traduce. 

CiiAixNT, asp. form of cainnt; which see. 

CiiÀiRicH, pret. a. of cairich. Mended, repaired. See 


CiiAiRT, asp. form of cairt; which see. 
Chairt, pret. a. of cairt. Strip of the bark. See Cairt. 
CnAisD,j3r('<.a.ofcaisd. Listened; became quiet. SeeCAisD. 
CnÀisG, asp. form of càisg. Achàisg, Easter-day, Easter-tide. 
Chaisg, ^re^ a. of caisg. Appeased. See Caisg. 
Chaith, pret. a. of caith. Spent, consumed, exhausted. 

See Caith. 
CHAITHEAs,/i/^ sub. of caith. A chaitheas anara na h-aoise, 

that shalt consume the soul of age. — Oss. Tern. 
CiiAiiPAR, a!.p. form of campar. Vexation. Fo champar, 

vexed. See Campar. 
Charxadh, pret. sub. a. and pret. pass, of cam. Would 

heap, was heaped. See Carx. 
C II ALL, asp. form of call. 

Chan, ^re^. a. of can. .Spoke; sung. See Can. 
Chaob, asp. form of caob. 
CHAOB,pre^. a. of caob. Clodded. 

CiiAOCiiAiL, pret. a. of caochail. Changed, altered; de- 
parted ; travelled ; died ; expired. Chaochail e, he is 

changed ; he expired. See Caochail. 
Chaoidii, asp. form of caoidh. Moan. Is truagh leam do 

chaoidh, / pity thy moan. — Old Foem. See Caoidh. 
Chaoidii, /)rf^ a. of caoidh; which see. 
Chaoidiirean, asp. form of caoidhrean. 
Chaoimhneas, eis, *. 7/Ì. Kindness. ..•/«;). /wm of caoimh- 

neas. Do chaoimhneas, thy kindness. 
Chaoix, asp. form of caoin ; which see. 
CHAOIN,p■c■^ a. of caoin. Wept, wailed. See Caoin. 
Chaoine, asp. form of caoine. Com. and sup. of caoin. 

Soften, softest ; milder, mildest. Te bu chaoine ràite, 

a female whose language was mild. — Old Song. See Caoin. 
CiiAO.Mii, asp. form of caomh; which see. 
CiiAOMHAiN, pret. a. of caomhain. Saved, spared. See 

Char, CuXka, asp. form of cara. Cum.&ndsup. of cairdeach. 

More or most related. 


C H L 

CiiXr, ChAra, asp. form of car or càradli. A friend. Mo 

char, my friend ; my rdatixc. 
Chau, asp. form of car. A turn, a twist. Car air char, raUiii>;. 
Charn, asp. form of cam; which see. 
Chark, /)re^. «. of cam. Heaped up. See Carx. 
Charraid, asp. form of carraid ; also vac. sing, of carraid; 

which see. 
CiiARRAiG, asp. form of carraig. A rock. Mo charraig, 7i!i/ 

rock ; also rtic. sing, of carraig. 
CiiAS, s.f. ; asp. form of cas, a foot. See Cas. 
CiiAS, pret. a. of cas. Gape; set the teeth. Chas iad am 

fiacal, t/icy set their teeth. — Stexe. 2 K. 
CiiASAiBH, (I. pi. asp. form of cas ; which see. 
CuATHAin, asp. form of cathair. A seat or chair; a city. 

Mo chathair, my seat ; also roc. sing, of cathair. 
CiiEAD, as-p./orwi of cead. Leave, liberty, permission. Their 

chead da, give him his leaxe ; leig chead da, let him alone ; 

let him go ; le do chead, with your Icaxc. 
CiiEADAicii, prf^. a. of ceadaich. Permitted, granted. See 

CiiEAXA, CiiEANADii, aclv. Already; before now. Is ard 

ar n-inbhe cheana, high is the rank ice already possess. — Sm. 

An do rinn thu cheanadh e ? have you done it already ? 
CiiEANGAiL, /)ref. a. of ceangail. Bound, fettered. 

CiiEANGLADii, prel . pass. zud pret . Sill), of ceangail. Was 
bound, would bind. Cheangladh e ri darraig, he -was bound 
to an oak. — Oss. Lod. 

Cheangladh, (a), inf. of ceangail. To bind, to fetter. See 

Cheann, asp. form of ceann ; which sec. 

CiiEANNACHADii, (a), inf. of ccannalch. To buy. See 

CnEANNAicii, |)rf/. a. of ceannaich. Bought. Sec Cean- 

CiiEANNSAiCH, pret. a. of ceannsaich. Subdued, tamed, 
managed. See Ceannsaich. 

CiiEANNSAicirEADH, ;»•«<. *«/'. of ccannsaicli. Would tame 
or subdue ; also pret. pass, was tamed. 

CiiEAiiB, asp. form of cearb. 

CiiEAUT, asp. form of ccart. Real, just, true, honest, right, 
upright. A chcart duine sin, that xery man ; a cheart la 
sin, that len/ day ; ro cheart, very right ; a cheart rireadh, 
in real earnest. 

Ch^il, pret. a. of ceil. Concealed, hid, denied. See CiiL. 

Chèile, a.prun. Each other, one another. Dlù ri cheile, 
close on each other ; close in succession. Beuma bciicach 
dlù ri cheile, /oud sounding blows in close succession. — 0.v.v. 
JmI. Thair cheile, in confusion; in disorder. Ri cheile, 
together, joined. Ra cheile, together, joined. Fanaibh re 
cheile, wait for one another. — Stew. 1 Cor. Le cheile, 
together ; tete-a-tete ; a reir a cheile, one with another ; at 
an average ; on good terms. 

Cn(^:iLE, (le), adv. Together, both together; tète-a-tète; 
solus cum sola. 

Cheile, (o), adv. Asunder, from cacl. other. 

Cn£iLE, «. c; ai;>.yòrm of ccile. A spouse. Mo cheile, >«y 
spouse. See Cèile. 

Chèin, asp. form of cein. Distant, foreign. Ann an tir 
chein, in a distant land ; o ch6in, from afar ; an cein, afar. 

Cuiiii, (o), adv. From afar ; of old. 

CiitiR, pret. a. of ccir. Waxed, covered with wax, sealed 
with wax. 

CliEiR, a.v;;.yòr7« of ceir ; which sec. 

Cheirte, a.s/)._/òr7n of ceirte; which see. 

Cheo, a.sp. /own of ceo. Mist. Chaidh e na cheò, //e ftfcamc 

bewildered ; it has gone to smoke. See Ceo. 
Cheum,s. »1. ; oj/). /o/m of ceum ; which see. 
CiiEUM, pret. a. of ceum. Marched, paced, strutted. See 

CHl,y"H<. a//", a. of r. nr. faic. Shall see; shall look; shall 

Chiaiui, s. m. ; asp. form of ciabh. A lock of liair, ariuglct; 

a side look. See Ciabh. 
CiiiABiiAO, aig, s.f; asp. firm of ciabhag. A ringlet. 

See CiABiiAG. 
CiiiALL, asp. form of ciall. Wit. A ciiiall, his wit. See 

Chianamh, adv. A little while ago. Thainig e chianamh, 

he came a little while ago. Am fear a mharbh a nihathair a 

chianamh, blieireadh e beo nios i, /ic who killed his mother a 

little ago would now bring her alive. — G. P. Said when 

fine weather succeeds a storm. 
CiiiAR, asp. form of ciar; which see. 
CiiiAR, pret. a. of ciar. Grow dusky. Nuair chiar am 

feasgair, when the evening grew dusky. — Old Song. 
CiiiNN, asp. form of cinn ; gen. sing, of ceann ; which see. 
Chinn, pret. a. of cinn. Grew, increased; become. See 

Chinnte, as;).yò;-m of cinnte. Sure, certain. A cheart co 

chinnte is am bks, Just as sure as death. — Old Song. 
CiiiNNTK, i. /". ; asp. form ofcinnte. Certainty. Air chinnte, 

certainly, to be sure. See Cinnte. 
Chinnteach, as/). /wr;/i ofcinnteach. Sure, certain; steady, 

secure. Ro chinnteach, very sure. 
Chioìì, (a), prep. Without; for want of. Achionn tearmuinn, 
•for want of protection. — Stew. Job. ref. 
CnioNN, CO?;/. {Goth. c\\a.n.) Because; as; for the reason 

that; since. Chionn nach do chreid iad, as they did not 

believe. — Sm. Chionn gu, because that. D'a ciiionn, thereby. 

Gheibh c bàs d'a chionn, he shall die therebi/. — Stexc. Kzek. 
CiiiONTA, asp. form of cionta ; which see. 
Chìr, prc^ <7. of ciar. See Cìr. ' 

CiiiR, asp. form of cir. 
Chìr, inflection of cair; which see. 
CiiiTE, CiiiTEADH, sub. poss. of I . irr. faic. Would or might 

be seen. 
Ciii-iEARjf ut. pass, of faic. Shall or will be seen. 
Chitheaw, (yòr chi me.) I shall see ; I do see. 
CiiiTHEAR, fut. pass. off. irr. faic. Shall be seen. Chithcar 

le sùilibh dliaoine, shall be seen by human eyes.—Sm. 
CniTHiNN, 1 4/«^. sub. act. of r. irr. faic. I might, could, 

or would see. 
CniùiN, asp. form of ciùin. 

Ciu.AuiiAiCH, ;«■(/. a. cladhaich. Dug, delved. 
ChlXr, ai/i.yiirzH of ciar ; which see. 
ChlAusach, asp. form of clarsach. A harp. 
Ch LEACH D, ;)/<7. a. ofcleachd. Accustomed, habituated. 
CiiLEinii, asp. form of cleibh ; gen. sing, ot'cliabh. 
CiiLiABH, asp. form of cliabh. 

Ciii.isci, /iif^. a. of clisg. Started; startled. See Clisg. 
Chusgeadh, (a), adv. Soon ; in a short while ; in a start; 

instantly. Thig e a chlisgeadh, he will come instantly, he 

will come soon. 
Cni.iù, asp. form of cWù. Fame, reputation, renown, cha- 
racter. Gun chliù, !/i/a;Ho(/s ; without fame ; obscure. 
CiiLocii, ;)rc/. a. of cloch ; which see. 
Chloch, B.y;)./o/vn of cloch. A stone. See Cloch. 
CiiLOGAiD, s.f.; asp. form of clogaid. 


C H O 

C H U 

Chluain, asp. form of cluain ; which see. 

CiiLUAS, asp. form of cluas. 

Chluinj-'ear, asp. form of chiinnear ; yi/^ pass, ofchiinn. 

Shall or will be heard ; might or would be heard. Cha 

chluinnear mo dhàn, mij song shall not be heard. — Oss. 

Chluixxeas, asp. form of cliiinn. Shall hear, shall have 

Chluixxinn, jjre^ sub. of cluinn. Would hear. 
CHLUiNNT',/or chluinnte. 
CuLUiNNTE, Chluinnteadh. Was heard; would be 

heard. Chluinnteadh guth briste, a tremulous voice teas 

heard. — Oss. Lodin. 
CiiLuixxTixx, (a), pr. inf. ofchiinn. To hear, to listen. 
CnxEAS, asp. form of cneas ; which see. 
CiioBiiAiR. See CoBiiAin. 
CiiÒDHAiL, asp. /orm of còdhail. Chaidh mi na chòdhail, 

I went to meet him. See Codhail. 
Chog, pret. a. of cog. Fought, strove, contended, warred. 

CnoiDii, CiioiDHCHE, adv. Ever, always, for ever, inces- 
santly. A so suas a choidhche, henceforward, for ever. 
Choigreacii, asp. form of coigreach. A stranger. See 


CiioiGii.L, pret. a. of coigill. Spared, pitied, showed 

mercy to. 
Choimeas, pret. a. of coimeas. Compared. 
CnoiMEAS, asp. /orm of coimeas ; which see. 
CiioiMiiEAD, pre<. a. of coimhead. Kept; looked, watched, 

CiiòiXEACH, asp. form of coineach ; which see. 
CiioiNxicii, pret. a. of coinnich. Met; opposed. See 

CiiòiR, s. ; asp. form of coir. Right, justice. Tha choir 

aige, he has the right. See Coir. 
Choir, (a), prep. To the presence ; near; implying motion. 
CiiòiR, a.; asp. form of coir. Good, kind; proper. Bu 

choir dhuit, you ought. Bu choir dhomh, dha, /, he ought. 
Choir, (do), prep. To the presence ; near; impli/ing motion. 
CnoisE, asp. form of coise; gen. sing, ofcas; which see. 
Chois, (a), prep. Near to, hard by. 
Choisixx, pre?, of coisinn. Gained, won; also fit. neg. of 

coisinn. Cha choisinn amadan oighreachd, a fool will not 

win a property. — G. P. 
Choirbte, osp.ybrM of coirbte; which see. 
Cho.mhla, (air or niu.) Together, in a body ; at the same 

time. Dh' f halbh iad mu chomhla, tliey ivent off together. 

Taoniadh an rann air chomhla, pouring their strains in 

a body. — Oss. Lodin. 

Chomhla is also written chomhlath. i. e. chomh-luath. 
CnoMHLATii, (mu or air.) Together, in a body ; at the same 

time. Da chiiraidh air chomhlath, two champions together. 

— Oss. Fing. 

Mu chomhlath, together, is properly mu chomh-luath. 
CnoMRAicii, asp. _/br)H of comraich. Protection. Mo chom- 

raich ort, / claim thy protection ; I throw myself on thy 

protection. See Comraich. 
t CiioxxAiRC, V. Saw, observed, beheld. Chonnairc mi 

'n lasadh ann ad ghruaigh, I saw the flush in thy cheek. — 

Old Song. 
Chop, asp. form of cop; which see. 
Chòpaxach, a.; asp. form of còpanach. 
CiioR, asp. ybrm of cor ; which see. 
Chorr, a. ; asp. _/orm of corr; which see. 
Ciios, s.f; asp. forin of cos; which see. 

Chòs, asp. form of cos. See Cos. 

CnosG,pref. a. of cosg. 

CuosGRADir, (a), inf. of cosgair. To slaughter, or massacre. 

A chosgradh mo naimh, to slaughter my enemies. 
Chosmiiuil, asp. form of cosmhuil; which see. 
Chrann, asp. form of crann; which see. 
CiiRAOBii, asp. form of craobh ; which see. 
CiiRAOS, s. ; asp. form of craos ; which see. 
Chraosxach, s. ; asp. form of craosnach. 
CiiRATii, pre?, a. of crath. Shook, trembled. See Crath. 
Cure, s. ; asp. form of ere ; which see. 
Chreach, pret. a. of creach. Plundered, robbed. See 

Chreach, asp. form of creach; which see. 
CiiREAG,s. ; asp. ybr»i of creag ; which see. 
Chreid, pre?, a. of creid. Believed. See Creid. 
Chreidijih, asp. form of creidimh. 
CiiREiDixx, 1 sing. perf. sub. of creid. I would believe. 

Nior chreidinn, / would not believe. In Bretagne they say, 

Ne 'r chredan, / do not believe. 
Chreidsixx, (a), pr. inf. of creid. To believe. 
Chriadh, asp. form of criadh ; which see. 
CiiRiDiiE, asp. form of cridhe. A heart. Mo chridhe, my 

heart ; ?ny dear ; mo chridhe geal, my dear love ; laoigh mo 

chridhe, jny darling ; a ghille mo chridhe, 7iiy dear fellow,. 
CnvA's, asp. form of crin, yrom crion ; which see. 
Chrios, asp. form of crios; which see. 
CiiRiTii, pre?, a. of crith. Shook, trembled. 
CiiRiTH, s. ; asp. /orm of crith ; which see. 
Chroch, pret. a. of croch. Hung, suspended. 
Chrochair, (a), v. s. of crochair. Thou scape-gallows. 
Chrom, pret. a. of crom. Bent, curved; stooped. 
CiiROM, asp. form of crom; which see. 
Chruaciiaxx, asp. form of cruachann; which see. 
CiiKUADAL, s.m.; asp. form of cruadal. Hardship. .See 

CiiRUADHAiCH, pre?, a. of cruadhaich. Hardened. 
Chruaidh, a.; asp. form of cruaidh; which see. 
Chruaidh-chàs, s. m. ; asp. form of cruaidh-chàs, Hardship. 

Troimh chruaidh-chàs, through hardship. 
CiiRuixx, asp./orwi of cruinn. Round. See Cruixx. 
Chruixxe, s.f; asp. form of cruinne; which see. 
CiiRuixxicii, pret. a. of cruinnich. Gathered, met, as- 
sembled. See Cruixxich. 
Chruit, asp. form of cruit. See Cruit. 
Chruth, asp. form of cruth; which see. 
Chuach. See Cuach. 
Chuaix. See Cu.iX. 
Chuairt, asp. form of cuairt. 

Chual, p?"e?. a. of cluinn. Heard. Chual mi, / Aearrf. 
Chualadii, pre?, pass, of cluinn. Was heard. SccCluix'x. 
CiiUALAM, (for chual mi.) I heard. Chualam guth am 

aisling fein, / heard a voice in my dream. — Oss. Croma. 
Chualas, pret. pass, of cluinn. Was heard. Chualas a 

chorahachag a creig, ?^e owl was heard from its rock. — Ull. 
CiiUAX', asp. of cuan. A sea. 
Chuaxta, Chuantan, asp. form of cuanta and cuantan. 

iV. pZ. of cuan. Seas. See Cuax. 
Chuca, comp. pro?j. To them. — Stew. Acts. Properly A-j^jra. 
Chugad, comp.